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2024 ◽  
Vol 55 (11) ◽  
pp. 973-979 ◽  
P Deurenberg ◽  
A Andreoli ◽  
P Borg ◽  
K Kukkonen-Harjula ◽  
A de Lorenzo ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 11
Andrew R. Jagim ◽  
Andrew T. Askow ◽  
Victoria Carvalho ◽  
Jason Murphy ◽  
Joel A. Luedke ◽  

Research quantifying the unique workload demands of starters and reserves in training and match settings throughout a season in collegiate soccer is limited. Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to compare accumulated workloads between starters and reserves in collegiate soccer. Methods: Twenty-two NCAA Division III female soccer athletes (height: 1.67 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 65.42 ± 6.33 kg; fat-free mass: 48.99 ± 3.81 kg; body fat %: 25.22 ± 4.78%) were equipped with wearable global positioning systems with on-board inertial sensors, which assessed a proprietary training load metric and distance covered for each practice and 22 matches throughout an entire season. Nine players were classified as starters (S), defined as those playing >50% of playing time throughout the entire season. The remaining 17 were reserves (R). Goalkeepers were excluded. A one-way ANOVA was used to determine the extent of differences in accumulated training load throughout the season by player status. Results: Accumulated training load and total distance covered for starters were greater than reserves ((S: 9431 ± 1471 vs. R: 6310 ± 2263 AU; p < 0.001) and (S: 401.7 ± 31.9 vs. R: 272.9 ± 51.4 km; p < 0.001), respectively) throughout the season. Conclusions: Starters covered a much greater distance throughout the season, resulting in almost double the training load compared to reserves. It is unknown if the high workloads experienced by starters or the low workloads of the reserves is more problematic. Managing player workloads in soccer may require attention to address potential imbalances that emerge between starters and reserves throughout a season.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-6
Reshma Shireesha ◽  
Obulesu Obulesu

Background: Aim: To assess the effect of exercise on body composition in obese and overweight. Methods: A total of seventy- two overweight subjects of either gender were enrolled for the study. Two groups were prepared. One group was experimental group (n=36) and the second group was control group (n=36). Parameter such as age, height and weight was recorded. On the basis of variables body mass Index and body fat percentage of every subject was determined. The experiment group were put on aerobic exercises spread over duration of four weeks. Results: The mean height in group I was 163.7 cm and 165.4 cm in group II. Weight was 65.2 kg and 63.5 kgs in group II, BMI (Kg/m2) was 29.4 and 29.1, body fat was 29.3% and 29.6% in group I and II respectively. A significant difference was observed (P< 0.05). The mean pre- test BMI was 29.6 and 38.5 and post- test value was 26.4 and 38.9 in group I and II respectively. A significant difference was observed (P< 0.05). Conclusions: Regular physical activity appears to confer a health benefit to the people. There was a positive relationship between aerobic exercises and overweight women in order to reduce the value of fat in the body.

2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
Aayush Visaria ◽  
David Lo ◽  
Pranay Maniar ◽  
Bhoomi Dave ◽  
Parag Joshi

Abstract Background We sought to determine the association between appendicular adiposity and hypertension, with the purpose of better understanding the role of body fat distribution on blood pressure (BP). Methods We included 7411 adults aged 20 to 59 who were not taking antihypertensives and without cardiovascular disease from the 2011 to 2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Leg & arm adiposity, determined via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, was defined as percent of total body fat present in legs/arms (leg/total%, arm/total%). Measures were categorized into sex-specific tertiles. We estimated change in BP and odds ratios (ORs) of hypertension (BP ≥ 130/80) and hypertension subtypes using multivariable, survey design-adjusted linear & logistic regression, respectively. Results Of the participants, 49% were female, the average (standard deviation) age was 37.4 (0.3) years, and 24% had hypertension. Those in the highest tertile (T3) of leg/total% had 30% decreased adjusted ORs (aOR) of hypertension compared to the lowest tertile (T1; aOR, 0.70; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.55–0.89). This association was not significant for arm/total% (0.89, 0.68–1.17). T3 of leg/total% was associated with 49% lower, 41% lower, and unchanged relative odds of isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH), systolic-diastolic hypertension (SDH), and isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) compared to T1 (IDH: 0.51, 0.37–0.70; SDH: 0.59, 0.43–0.80; ISH: 1.06, 0.70–1.59). For every 10% increase in leg/total%, diastolic BP decreased by an adjusted mean 3.5 mmHg (95% CI, − 4.8 to − 2.2) in males and 1.8 mmHg (95% CI, − 2.8 to − 0.8) in females (P < 0.001 for both). Conclusions A greater proportional distribution of fat around the legs is inversely, independently associated with hypertension, and more specifically, diastolic hypertension (IDH and SDH).

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 373
Davide Masi ◽  
Renata Risi ◽  
Filippo Biagi ◽  
Daniel Vasquez Barahona ◽  
Mikiko Watanabe ◽  

The key factors playing a role in the pathogenesis of metabolic alterations observed in many patients with obesity have not been fully characterized. Their identification is crucial, and it would represent a fundamental step towards better management of this urgent public health issue. This aim could be accomplished by exploiting the potential of machine learning (ML) technology. In a single-centre study (n = 2567), we used an ML analysis to cluster patients with metabolically healthy (MHO) or metabolically unhealthy (MUO) obesity, based on several clinical and biochemical variables. The first model provided by ML was able to predict the presence/absence of MHO with an accuracy of 66.67% and 72.15%, respectively, and included the following parameters: HOMA-IR, upper body fat/lower body fat, glycosylated haemoglobin, red blood cells, age, alanine aminotransferase, uric acid, white blood cells, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and gamma-glutamyl transferase. For each of these parameters, ML provided threshold values identifying either MUO or MHO. A second model including IGF-1 zSDS, a surrogate marker of IGF-1 normalized by age and sex, was even more accurate with a 71.84% and 72.3% precision, respectively. Our results demonstrated high IGF-1 levels in MHO patients, thus highlighting a possible role of IGF-1 as a novel metabolic health parameter to effectively predict the development of MUO using ML technology.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Weilan Wang ◽  
Jodi E. Nettleton ◽  
Michael G. Gänzle ◽  
Raylene A. Reimer

To identify possible mechanisms by which maternal consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners increases obesity risk in offspring, we reconstructed the major alterations in the cecal microbiome of 3-week-old offspring of obese dams consuming high fat/sucrose (HFS) diet with or without aspartame (5–7 mg/kg/day) or stevia (2–3 mg/kg/day) by shotgun metagenomic sequencing (n = 36). High throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing (n = 105) was performed for dams, 3- and 18-week-old offspring. Maternal consumption of sweeteners altered cecal microbial composition and metabolism of propionate/lactate in their offspring. Offspring daily body weight gain, liver weight and body fat were positively correlated to the relative abundance of key microbes and enzymes involved in succinate/propionate production while negatively correlated to that of lactose degradation and lactate production. The altered propionate/lactate production in the cecum of weanlings from aspartame and stevia consuming dams implicates an altered ratio of dietary carbohydrate digestion, mainly lactose, in the small intestine vs. microbial fermentation in the large intestine. The reconstructed microbiome alterations could explain increased offspring body weight and body fat. This study demonstrates that intense sweet tastants have a lasting and intergenerational effect on gut microbiota, microbial metabolites and host health.

Anitha Alapati ◽  
Sarjan Rao Kapa ◽  
Suresh Jeepalyam

Background: Body condition score (BCS) system is a subjective method to assess the body fat reserves particularly over the bony prominences like back and pelvic region. It is based on evaluation of the outer appearance of the animal that interacts with its body fat reserves and therefore is directly influenced by energy balance. Studies on the relationship between BCS and postpartum performance were meager in buffaloes. Hence, the present work was carried out to study the relationship between BCS at calving and postpartum performance in Murrah buffaloes. Methods: The effect of body condition score at calving (BCSc) on the postpartum performance was studied in 24 Murrah buffaloes grouped based on BCS, maintained at Buffalo Research Station during 2018-19. Result: The study showed that buffaloes of BCSc above 3.5 with significantly (P less than 0.01) higher body weights showed better reproductive performance compared to buffaloes of BCSc groups below 3.5 with less body weights. The prepartum and weekly postpartum changes in BCS studied showed that the buffaloes gained a BCS of 0.57 from 3 months prepartum to one week prepartum, lost 0.17 BCS due to calving, further showed a decline in BCS up to 9 weeks of postpartum and then started regaining BCS gradually until 18 weeks postpartum. The mean LBCS over the period of 18 weeks postpartum was comparatively higher (0.75±0.05) than BCS restored in the early lactation which was shown as GBCS (0.34±0.02). Buffaloes of BCSc group 3.5-3.99 showed the best reproduction performance among the four BCSc groups with less postpartum estrus period (46.66 days), service period (58.83 days), number of service per conception (1.50) and high rate of 1st service conception (66.66%).

2022 ◽  
optimalofficial not provided

Optimal Max Keto is a diet pill that supports weight loss, burns fat, and lowers your appetite. Even if you are on the keto diet or not, this product will help enhance performance for an easier time losing pounds of body fat while curbing cravings,

2022 ◽  
optimalmaxofficial not provided

Optimal Max Keto is a diet pill that supports weight loss, burns fat, and lowers your appetite. Even if you are on the keto diet or not, this product will help enhance performance for an easier time losing pounds of body fat while curbing cravings,

Metabolites ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 73
Renata Vargas Sinatora ◽  
Eduardo Federighi Baisi Chagas ◽  
Fernando Otavio Pires Mattera ◽  
Luciano Junqueira Mellem ◽  
Ana Rita de Oliveira dos Santos ◽  

The increased deposition of visceral fat in the postmenopause period increases the production of inflammatory cytokines and the release of tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and decrease in IL-10. This study investigated the relationship between inflammatory biomarkers and metabolic syndrome (MS) in postmenopausal women considering different diagnostic criteria. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study based on STROBE. Data were collected regarding the diagnostic criteria for MS (International Diabetes Federation; NCEP (International Diabetes Federation (IDF), National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP-III), and Harmonized criteria), body composition, comorbidities, time without menstruation, values of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α. ANOVA, Kruskal–Wallis, Levene tests, ROC, and odds ratio were performed to analyze the data. The results showed no significant difference between the methods and no interaction between the method and the presence of MS. However, for the values of WC, body fat percentage, TNF-α, and IL-10/TNF-α ratio, a significant effect of MS was observed. In subjects with MS, lower values of body fat percentage and TNF-α and higher values of the IL-10/TNF-α ratio were also observed. The higher IL-10/TNF-α ratio in the MS group is related to the greater anti-inflationary action of IL-10. The IL-10/TNF-α ratio showed significant accuracy to discriminate patients with MS according to the NCEP-ATP III criteria.

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