stable carbon
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Leila Chapron ◽  
Verena Schoepf ◽  
Stephen J. Levas ◽  
Matthew D. Aschaffenburg ◽  
Mark E. Warner ◽  

Coral reefs are among the most diverse and complex ecosystems in the world that provide important ecological and economical services. Increases in sea surface temperature linked to global climate change threatens these ecosystems by inducing coral bleaching. However, it is not fully known if natural intra- or inter-annual physiological variability is linked to bleaching resilience or recovery capacity of corals. Here, we monitored the coral physiology of three common Caribbean species (Porites divaricata, Porites astreoides, Orbicella faveolata) at six time points over 2 years by measuring the following traits: calcification, biomass, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, chlorophyll a, algal endosymbiont density, stable carbon isotopes of the host and endosymbiotic algae, and the stable carbon and oxygen isotopes of the skeleton. The overall physiological profile of all three species varied over time and that of P. divaricata was consistently different from the two other coral species. Porites divaricata had higher energy reserves coupled with higher contributions of heterotrophically derived carbon to host tissues than both P. astreoides and O. faveolata. Consistently higher overall energy reserves and heterotrophic contributions to tissues appear to buffer against environmental stress, including bleaching events. Thus, natural physiological variability among coral species appears to be a stronger predictor of coral bleaching resilience than intra- or inter-annual physiological variability within a coral species.

2022 ◽  
Yuntao Wu ◽  
Xiaodong Zhang ◽  
Zhaoliang Song ◽  
Changxun Yu ◽  
Man Liu ◽  

Abstract Aims The natural abundances of stable carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) are extensively used to indicate the C and N biogeochemical cycles at large spatial scales. However, the spatial patterns of δ13C and δ15N in plant-soil system of grasslands in northern China and their main driving factors are still not well understood.Methods We conducted sampling campaigns during 2016-2018 in grasslands of northern China and measured plant and soil δ13C and δ15N compositions to determine effects soil physicochemical properties and climatic factors on spatial distribution of δ13C and δ15N.Results Generally, plant and soil δ13C values increased with the decrease of mean annual precipitation (MAP). The interactions between mean annual temperature (MAT) and soil organic carbon have significant impact on soil δ13C. However, plant and soil δ15N decreased with the increase of MAT. Within all factors, the interactions between MAT and MAP on soil δ15N were significant.Conclusions Our results suggest that C cycling in grasslands of northern China is strongly mediated by plant community and MAT, because C4 species were more prevalent in arid regions. Meanwhile, N cycling is mainly directly regulated by MAT and plant community composition via its effect on the plant δ15N. All of these will provide scientific references for future research on the C and N biogeochemical cycles of temperate grassland ecosystems in northern China.

2022 ◽  
Vol 71 (2) ◽  
pp. 028101-028101
Zhong Ting-Ting ◽  
Zhang Chen ◽  
Shindume Lomboleni Hamukwaya ◽  
Xu Wang-Shu ◽  

Jue Lu ◽  
Wei Chen ◽  
Wen Zhang ◽  
Hong Liu ◽  
Antonio Simonetti ◽  

This study reports a method for in situ determination of stable carbon (δ13C ‰) isotope compositions for calcite, dolomite, magnesite and siderite by femtosecond laser ablation multi-collector inductively coupled plasma...

2021 ◽  
Vol 47 (3) ◽  
pp. 79-80
Mika Rizki Puspaningrum ◽  
Allan R. Chivas ◽  
Iwan Kurniawan ◽  
Unggul P. Wibowo ◽  
Yahdi Zaim ◽  

Sulawesi is known for its complex geological and biogeographic history, which is reflected in their extinct and extant faunal assemblage. Evidence of oldest terrestrial fauna in Sulawesi was found in the Early Pleistocene sediment and evolved since then. Despite being mostly isolated from the mainland Southeast Asia; four successive Proboscidean taxa have been found from the southern part of the island. The four taxa are: Stegoloxodon celebensis, Stegodon sompoensis, Stegodon sp. B, and cf. Palaeoloxodon namadicus, in which respective taxa are included in successive faunal stages. The aim of this research is to reconstruct the diet and palaeoenvironment of these Proboscidean taxa by incorporating stable isotope analysis with the fossil faunal record, geology, and stratigraphy. Stable carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope analysis were especially used in this study. Our result suggests that Stegoloxodon celebensis and Stegodon sompoensis were flexible feeders and were able to adapt to different niches, from closed canopy forest to open vegetation, while the diets of Stegodon sp. B, Celebochoerus heekereni and cf. Palaeoloxodon namadicus suggest that they were more specialized.

2021 ◽  
Alba Rey-Iglesia ◽  
Tess Wilson ◽  
Jennifer Routledge ◽  
Mikkel Skovrind ◽  
Eva Garde ◽  

Rationale Stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope compositions of bone and dentine collagen extracted from subfossil specimens of extinct and extant mammalian species have been widely used to study the paleoecology of past populations. Due to possible systematic differences in stable isotope values between bone and dentine, dentine values can be transformed into bone-collagen equivalent using a correction factor. This approach has been applied to terrestrial species, but correction factors specifically for marine mammals are lacking. Here, we provide correction factors to transform dentine δ13C and δ15N values into bone-collagen equivalent for two toothed whale sister species: narwhal and beluga. Methods We sampled bone and tooth dentine from the skulls of 11 narwhals and 26 belugas. In narwhals, dentine was sampled from tusk and embedded tooth; in beluga, dentine was sampled from tooth. δ13C and δ15N were measured using an elemental analyzer coupled to a continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Intraindividual bone and dentine isotopic compositions were used to calculate correction factors for each species, and to translate dentine isotopic values into bone-collagen equivalent. Results Our analysis revealed differences in δ13C and δ15N between bone and dentine. In narwhals, we found (i) lower average δ13C in bone compared with dentine from tusk and embedded tooth; (ii) no difference in dentine δ13C between tusk and embedded tooth; (iii) lower average δ15N in bone compared with dentine, with the highest values found in embedded tooth. For belugas, we also detected lower δ13C and δ15N in bone compared with tooth dentine. Conclusions Based on our analysis, we provide bone/dentine correction factors for narwhals (both at species and population level), and for belugas. The correction factors, when applied to dentine δ13C and δ15N values, enable the combined analysis of stable isotope data from bone and dentine.

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