mean annual precipitation
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Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 125
Björn Berg ◽  
Mikael Lönn

We have reviewed information on early-, late- and limit-value decomposition stages for litter of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus silvestris). This synthesis covers c 16 studies/papers made along a climatic gradient; range in mean annual temperature (MAT) from −1 to +7 °C and mean annual precipitation (MAP) from 425 to 1070 mm. Scots pine has an early stage dominated by carbohydrate decomposition and a late stage dominated by decomposition of lignin; Norway spruce has just one stage dominated by lignin decomposition. We used data for annual mass loss to identify rate-regulating factors in both stages; climate data, namely, MAT and MAP, as well as substrate properties, namely, nitrogen (N), acid unhydrolyzable residue (AUR), manganese (Mn). Early-stage decomposition for Scots pine litter was dominated positively by MAT; the late stage was dominated negatively by MAT, N, and AUR, changing with decomposition stage; there was no effect of Mn. Norway spruce litter had no early stage; decomposition in the lignin-dominated stage was mainly negative to MAP, a negative relationship to AUR and non-significant relationships to N and MAT. Mn had a positive relationship. Limit values for decomposition, namely, the accumulated mass loss at which decomposition is calculated to be zero, were related positively to Mn and AUR for Scots pine litter and negatively to AUR for Norway spruce litter. With different sets of rate-regulating factors as well as different compounds/elements related to the limit values, the decomposition patterns or pathways are different.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Hongshan Gao ◽  
Fenliang Liu ◽  
Tianqi Yan ◽  
Lin Qin ◽  
Zongmeng Li

The drainage density (Dd) is an important index to show fluvial geomorphology. The study on Dd is helpful to understand the evolution of the whole hydrological and geomorphic process. Based on the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission 90-m digital elevation model, the drainage network of basins along the eastern margin of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau is extracted using a terrain morphology-based method in ArcGIS 10.3, and Dd is calculated. The spatial characteristics of Dd are analyzed, and the relationship between Dd and its influencing factors, e.g., the topography, precipitation, and vegetation coverage, is explored. Our results show that terrains with a plan curvature ≥3 can represent the channels in the study area. Dd ranges from 2.5 to 0.1 km/km2, increases first, and then decreases from north to south on the eastern margin of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. Dd decreases with increasing average slope and average local relief. On the low-relief planation surfaces, Dd increases with increasing altitude, while on the rugged mountainous above planation surfaces, Dd decreases rapidly with increasing altitude. Dd first increased and then decreased with increasing mean annual precipitation (MAP) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and Dd reaches a maximum in the West Qinling Mountains with a semi-arid environment, indicating that Dd in different climatic regions of the eastern margin of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau was mainly controlled by precipitation and vegetation.

2022 ◽  
Yuntao Wu ◽  
Xiaodong Zhang ◽  
Zhaoliang Song ◽  
Changxun Yu ◽  
Man Liu ◽  

Abstract Aims The natural abundances of stable carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) are extensively used to indicate the C and N biogeochemical cycles at large spatial scales. However, the spatial patterns of δ13C and δ15N in plant-soil system of grasslands in northern China and their main driving factors are still not well understood.Methods We conducted sampling campaigns during 2016-2018 in grasslands of northern China and measured plant and soil δ13C and δ15N compositions to determine effects soil physicochemical properties and climatic factors on spatial distribution of δ13C and δ15N.Results Generally, plant and soil δ13C values increased with the decrease of mean annual precipitation (MAP). The interactions between mean annual temperature (MAT) and soil organic carbon have significant impact on soil δ13C. However, plant and soil δ15N decreased with the increase of MAT. Within all factors, the interactions between MAT and MAP on soil δ15N were significant.Conclusions Our results suggest that C cycling in grasslands of northern China is strongly mediated by plant community and MAT, because C4 species were more prevalent in arid regions. Meanwhile, N cycling is mainly directly regulated by MAT and plant community composition via its effect on the plant δ15N. All of these will provide scientific references for future research on the C and N biogeochemical cycles of temperate grassland ecosystems in northern China.

2021 ◽  
Juna Probha Devi ◽  
Chandan Mahanta ◽  
Anamika Barua

Abstract This study is aimed at studying long–term historical and future (1950-2099) trends for the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 on approximately 30-year timescale at annual and seasonal for precipitation and at annual, seasonal, monthly, and diurnal temperature range (DTR) for temperature maximum (T_max), temperature minimum (T_min) variations using statistical trend analysis techniques– Mann–Kendall test (MK) and Sen's slope estimator (S) and the homogeneity test using Pettitt’s test. The study is carried out in three spatial points across the Tawang Chu in the district of Tawang, Arunachal Pradesh. The summer mean precipitation for RCP 4.5 (2006-2065) shows a positive trend with a rise in precipitation between 1.56 mm to 9.94 mm in all the study points. The mean annual precipitation statistics for all the points show an increase of RCP 4.5 in 2006-2052 and 2053-2099 timescale. Both RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios exhibit a uniform rise in T_min and T_max during investigation. For all the points, the results likewise reveal a rising trend in mean annual T_min and T_max. Still, the inter-decadal temperature statistical analysis shows that the increase in mean annual T_min is greater than the increase in T_max, indicating a decreasing trend in DTR. It is anticipated that this study's outcomes will contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between change in climate and the regional hydrological behaviour and will be benefitting the society to develop a regional strategy for water resource management, can serve as a resource for climate impact research scope- assessments, adaptation, mitigation, and disaster management strategies for India's north-eastern region.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (4) ◽  
pp. 41-54 ◽  
Оleg D. Tregubov ◽  
Vladimir E. Glotov ◽  
Pavel Ya. Konstantinov ◽  
Vladimir V. Shamov

The lakes of the Arctic lowlands are both the unique indicator and the result of climatic and permafrost changes. Remote sensing methods and field measurements were used to consider the patterns and features of the morphometric indicators dynamics of the Anadyr lowland lakes over 65 years. We analyzed the parameters of 36 lakes with an area of 0.02–0.3 km2 located in the bottoms of drained lake basins, in river floodplains, on sea-shore terraces. Field studies were conducted on 22 typical lakes. The considered dynamics of seasonal thawing are based on the monitoring of the active layer for 1994–2020. Due to an increase of mean annual air temperature by 1.8 °C, as well as an increase and then a decrease in the mean annual precipitation by 135 mm, the average share of a lake area in the study area decreased by 24%. It is shown for the first time that cryogenic processes of the lacustrine coastal zone affect the change in the area of lakes simultaneously with the influence of precipitation and air temperature. Based on field observations, we considered two causes of natural drainage: discharge of the lakes through newly formed thermokarst and thermoerosional surface flow channels and decrease in suprapermafrost groundwater recharge as a result of changing depth of seasonally thawed active layer in the coastal zone.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Daria B. Kluver ◽  
Wendy Robertson

Fundamental differences in the nature of climate and hydrologic models make coupling of future climate projections to models of watershed hydrology challenging. This study uses the NCAR Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF) to dynamically downscale climate simulations over the Saginaw Bay Watershed, MI and prepare the results for input into semi-distributed hydrologic models. One realization of the bias-corrected NCAR CESM1 model's RCP 8.5 climate scenario is dynamically downscaled at a spatial resolution of 3 km by 3 km for the end of the twenty-first century and validated based on a downscaled run for the end of the twentieth century in comparison to ASOS and NWS COOP stations. Bias-correction is conducted using Quantile Mapping to correct daily maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity for use in future hydrologic model experiments. In the Saginaw Bay Watershed the end of the twenty-first century is projected to see maximum and minimum average daily temperatures warming by 5.7 and 6.3°C respectively. Precipitation characteristics over the watershed show an increase in mean annual precipitation (average of +14.3 mm over the watershed), mainly due to increases in precipitation intensity (average of +0.3 mm per precipitation day) despite a decrease in frequency of −10.7 days per year. The projected changes have substantial implications for watershed processes including flood prediction, erosion, mobilization of non-point source and legacy contaminants, and evapotranspirative demand, among others. We present these results in the context of usefulness of the downscaled and bias corrected data for semi-distributed hydrologic modeling.

Hydrology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 3
Nega Chalie Emiru ◽  
John Walker Recha ◽  
Julian R. Thompson ◽  
Abrham Belay ◽  
Ermias Aynekulu ◽  

This study investigated the impacts of climate change on the hydrology of the Upper Awash Basin, Ethiopia. A soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model was calibrated and validated against observed streamflow using SWAT CUP. The Mann–Kendall trend test (MK) was used to assess climate trends. Meteorological drought (SPEI) and hydrological drought (SDI) were also investigated. Based on the ensemble mean of five global climate models (GCMs), projected increases in mean annual maximum temperature over the period 2015–2100 (compared with a 1983–2014 baseline) range from 1.16 to 1.73 °C, while increases in minimum temperature range between 0.79 and 2.53 °C. Increases in mean annual precipitation range from 1.8% at Addis Ababa to 45.5% over the Hombole area. High streamflow (Q5) declines at all stations except Ginchi. Low flows (Q90) also decline with Q90 equaling 0 m3s−1 (i.e., 100% reduction) at some gauging stations (Akaki and Hombole) for individual GCMs. The SPEI confirmed a significant drought trend in the past, while the frequency and severity of drought will increase in the future. The basin experienced conditions that varied from modest dry periods to a very severe hydrological drought between 1986 and 2005. The projected SDI ranges from modestly dry to modestly wet conditions. Climate change in the basin would enhance seasonal variations in hydrological conditions. Both precipitation and streamflow will decline in the wet seasons and increase in the dry seasons. These changes are likely to have an impact on agricultural activities and other human demands for water resources throughout the basin and will require the implementation of appropriate mitigation measures.

2021 ◽  
Charles West ◽  
Rafael Rosolem ◽  
Alan MacDonald ◽  
Mark Cuthbert ◽  
Thorsten Wagener

Groundwater is critical in supporting current and future reliable water supply throughout Africa. Although continental maps of groundwater storage and recharge have been developed, we currently lack a clear understanding on how the controls on groundwater recharge vary across the entire continent. Reviewing the existing literature, we synthesize information on reported groundwater recharge controls in Africa. We find that 15 out of 22 of these controls can be characterised using global datasets. We develop 11 descriptors of climatic, topographic, vegetation, soil and geologic properties using global datasets, to characterise groundwater recharge controls in Africa. These descriptors cluster Africa into 15 Recharge Landscape Units for which we expect recharge controls to be similar. Over 80% of the continents land area is organized by just nine of these units. We also find that aggregating the Units by similarity into four broader Recharge Landscapes (Desert, Dryland, Wet tropical and Wet tropical forest) provides a suitable level of landscape organisation to explain differences in ground-based long-term mean annual recharge and recharge ratio estimates. Furthermore, wetter Recharge Landscapes are more efficient in converting rainfall to recharge than drier Recharge Landscapes as well as having higher annual recharge rates. In Dryland Recharge Landscapes, we found that annual recharge rates largely varied according to mean annual precipitation, whereas recharge ratio estimates increase with increasing monthly variability in P-PET. However, we were unable to explain why ground-based estimates of recharge signatures vary across other Recharge Landscapes, in which there are fewer ground-based recharge estimates, using global datasets alone. Even in dryland regions, there is still considerable unexplained variability in the estimates of annual recharge and recharge ratio, stressing the limitations of global datasets for investigating ground-based information.

Diversity ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 685
Shasha Cui ◽  
Jian Ouyang ◽  
Yu Lu ◽  
Wenzhi Liu ◽  
Wenyang Li ◽  

Unravelling the patterns, potential processes and mechanisms underlying biodiversity has always been a crucial issue in community ecology. It is also a necessary first step for any conservation and restoration to better adapt fragile ecosystems to a changing climate. However, little is known regarding the structure and maintenance of plant communities in typical high-altitude wetlands. Here, we made a comprehensive analysis of the diversity and composition of wetland plant communities based on the distribution of plants near the shorelines of 19 lakes across the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The latitude, mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP), along with the edaphic properties, were the dominant predictors affecting the taxonomic and phylogenetic α-diversity. Besides diversification, ecological drift, mixing with weak dispersal and weak selection shaped the community composition of wetland plants in our study. The latitude and MAP predictors, although modest, showed an impact on the community structure.

2021 ◽  
Mingqiu Hou ◽  
Guangsheng Zhuang ◽  
et al.

Table S1: Leaf wax isotopic records in the Gulf of Mexico; Table S2: Reconstructions of mean annual precipitation based on leaf wax carbon isotopic records; Table S3: Sea surface temperature reconstructions; Table S4: Leaf wax isotopic records of modern trees.

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