potential risk
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2022 ◽  
Vol 138 ◽  
pp. 116-124
Song Xue ◽  
Wenjie Ding ◽  
Lin Li ◽  
Jiawei Ma ◽  
Fengguang Chai ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 181
Chidozie Declan Iwu ◽  
Chinwe Juliana Iwu-Jaja ◽  
Rami Elhadi ◽  
Lucy Semerjian ◽  
Anthony Ifeanyin Okoh

Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) is the etiologic agent of listeriosis which significantly affects immunocompromised individuals. The potential risk of infection attributed to L. monocytogenes in irrigation water and agricultural soil, which are key transmission pathways of microbial hazards to the human population, was evaluated using the quantitative microbial risk assessment modelling. A Monte Carlo simulation with 10,000 iterations was used to characterize the risks. High counts of L. monocytogenes in irrigation water (mean: 11.96 × 102 CFU/100 mL; range: 0.00 to 56.67 × 102 CFU/100 mL) and agricultural soil samples (mean: 19.64 × 102 CFU/g; range: 1.33 × 102 to 62.33 × 102 CFU/g) were documented. Consequently, a high annual infection risk of 5.50 × 10−2 (0.00 to 48.30 × 10−2), 54.50 × 10−2 (9.10 × 10−3 to 1.00) and 70.50 × 10−2 (3.60 × 10−2 to 1.00) was observed for adults exposed to contaminated irrigation water, adults exposed to contaminated agricultural soil and children exposed to agricultural soil, respectively. This study, therefore, documents a huge public health threat attributed to the high probability of infection in humans exposed to L. monocytogenes in irrigation water and agricultural soil in Amathole and Chris Hani District Municipalities in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa.

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 121
Kristyna Kolarikova ◽  
Radek Vodicka ◽  
Radek Vrtel ◽  
Julia Stellmachova ◽  
Martin Prochazka ◽  

Parkinson’s disease and parkinsonism are relatively common neurodegenerative disorders. This study aimed to assess potential genetic risk factors of haplotypes in genes associated with parkinsonism in a population in which endemic parkinsonism and atypical parkinsonism have recently been found. The genes ADH1C, EIF4G1, FBXO7, GBA, GIGYF2, HTRA2, LRRK2, MAPT, PARK2, PARK7, PINK1 PLA2G6, SNCA, UCHL1, and VPS35 were analyzed in 62 patients (P) and 69 age-matched controls from the researched area (C1). Variants were acquired by high-throughput sequencing using Ion Torrent workflow. As another set of controls, the whole genome sequencing data from 100 healthy non-related individuals from the Czech population were used (C2); the results were also compared with the Genome Project data (C3). We observed shared findings of four intron (rs11564187, rs36220738, rs200829235, and rs3789329) and one exon variant (rs33995883) in the LRRK2 gene in six patients. A comparison of the C1–C3 groups revealed significant differences in haplotype frequencies between ratio of 2.09 for C1, 1.65 for C2, and 6.3 for C3, and odds ratios of 13.15 for C1, 2.58 for C2, and 7.6 for C3 were estimated. The co-occurrence of five variants in the LRRK2 gene (very probably in haplotype) could be an important potential risk factor for the development of parkinsonism, even outside the recently described pedigrees in the researched area where endemic parkinsonism is present.

Silvia Migliaccio ◽  
Andrea Di Nisio ◽  
Silvia Magno ◽  
Fiammetta Romano ◽  
Luigi Barrea ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-4
Kadir Babaoglu ◽  
Yasemin Dogan ◽  
Orhan Uzun

Abstract Although a high percentage of foetuses with supraventricular tachycardia respond to single or dual antiarrhythmic therapy, on occasion when there is no response to these combination regimens, direct intra-foetal therapy remains the only choice, albeit such an approach carries a potential risk to the foetus. Data with regard to the safety and efficacy of triple antiarrhythmic combination have not been reported before. Here, we present a foetus with intractable tachycardia in whom arrhythmia termination was successfully achieved with triple oral antiarrhythmic therapy.

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 111
Aleksandra H. Opinc ◽  
Joanna S. Makowska

Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a group of rare connective tissue diseases with a well-documented association with malignancy. The mechanisms underlying the increased risk of neoplasms in the course of myositis are not fully understood. The Pubmed database has been thoroughly screened for articles concerning cancer-associated myositis (CAM). The article summarizes the current state of knowledge on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of CAM. Furthermore, it analyses potential risk and protective factors for developing CAM, with particular emphasis on the association with distinct serological profiles. The review summarizes recommendations proposed so far for the management of CAM and presents a novel scheme for cancer screening proposed by the authors. Moreover, promising areas requiring further research were indicated.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Jui-Ping Chen ◽  
Ping-Jui Tsai ◽  
Chun-Yi Su ◽  
I.-Chuan Tseng ◽  
Ying-Chao Chou ◽  

AbstractTo elucidate the accuracy, efficacy, and safety of percutaneous iliosacral screw (ISS) and trans-iliac trans-sacral screw (TITS) insertion using a single C-arm fluoroscopy intensifier. Additionally, the potential risk factors that might cause mal-positioned screws were identified. Patients with pelvic ring injuries who underwent percutaneous screw fixation in a single medical institute were divided into an ISS group (n = 59) and a TITS group (n = 62) and assessed. The angles deviated from ideal orientation (ADIO) of the implanted screw were measured, and potential risk factors for mal-positioned screws were analyzed. Overall, the reduction quality of the pelvic ring was good or excellent in 70 patients (82.4%) by Matta’s criteria and in 48 patients (56.5%) by Lefaivre’s criteria. ADIO measurements of the ISS and TITS groups via multi-planar computed tomography were 9.16° ± 6.97° and 3.09° ± 2.8° in the axial view, respectively, and 5.92° ± 3.65° and 2.10° ± 2.01° in the coronal view, respectively. Univariate statistical analysis revealed body mass index as the single potential risk factor of mal-positioned screws. With careful preoperative planning and intraoperative preparations, placing ISS and TITS under the guidance of single C-arm fluoroscopy intensifier is a reliable and safe technique. Caution should be exercised when performing this procedure in patients with a high body mass index.

Kirsimarja Raitasalo ◽  
Elin K. Bye ◽  
Charlotta Pisinger ◽  
Janne Scheffels ◽  
Rikke Tokle ◽  

New tobacco and nicotine products have emerged on the market in recent years. Most research has concerned only one product at a time, usually e-cigarettes, while little is known about the multiple use of tobacco and nicotine products among adolescents. We examined single, dual, and triple use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and snus among Nordic adolescents, using data of 15–16-year-olds (n = 16,125) from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs (ESPAD) collected in 2015 and 2019 from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and the Faroe Islands. Country-specific lifetime use of any of these products ranged between 40% and 50%, and current use between 17% and 31%. Cigarettes were the most common product in all countries except for Iceland, where e-cigarettes were remarkably more common. The proportion of dual and triple users was unexpectedly high among both experimental (24%–49%) and current users (31–42%). Triple use was less common than dual use. The users’ patterns varied somewhat between the countries, and Iceland differed substantially from the other countries, with a high proportion of single e-cigarette users. More knowledge on the patterns of multiple use of tobacco and nicotine products and on the potential risk and protective factors is needed for targeted intervention and prevention efforts.

Jan Náhlík ◽  
Petra Eretová ◽  
Helena Chaloupková ◽  
Hana Vostrá-Vydrová ◽  
Naděžda Fiala Šebková ◽  

Dog attacks on children are a widespread problem, which can occur when parents fail to realise a potentially dangerous interaction between a dog and a child. The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of parents to identify dangerous situations from several everyday child–dog interactions and to determine whether the participants connected these situations to a particular breed of dog. Five sets of photographs depicting potentially dangerous interactions from everyday situations between children and three dogs (one of each breed) were presented via an online survey to parents of children no more than 6 years old. Data from 207 respondents were analysed using proc GLIMMIX in SAS program, version 9.3. The probability of risk assessment varied according to dog breed (p < 0.001) as well as to the depicted situation (p < 0.001). Results indicated that Labrador Retriever was considered the least likely of the three dogs to be involved in a dangerous dog-child interaction (with 49% predicting a dangerous interaction), followed by Parson Russell Terrier (63.2%) and American Pit Bull Terrier (65%). Participants considered one particular dog-child interaction named ‘touching a bowl’ a dangerous interaction at a high rate (77.9%) when compared with the other presented situations, which were assessed as dangerous at rates of 48.4% to 56.5%. The breed of dog seems to be an influential factor when assessing a potentially dangerous outcome from a dog-child interaction. Contrary to our hypothesis, interactions involving the small dog (Russell Terrier) were rated more critically, similarly to those of the Pit Bull Terrier. These results suggest that even popular family dog breeds, such as Labrador Retrievers, should be treated with more caution.

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