Body Mass Index
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2021 ◽  
Vol 70 (37) ◽  
pp. 1278-1283
Samantha J. Lange ◽  
Lyudmyla Kompaniyets ◽  
David S. Freedman ◽  
Emily M. Kraus ◽  
Renee Porter ◽  

BMC Urology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Dandan Lin ◽  
Ting Liu ◽  
Luling Chen ◽  
Zongtao Chen

Abstract Background Only a few previous studies conducted to assess the association between body mass index (BMI) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) related parameters have taken prostate volume (PV) and blood volume (BV) into consideration. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between BMI and parameters of PSA concentrations in Chinese adult men. Methods A total of 86,912 men who have received annual physical examination at the First Affiliated Hospital of Army Medical University from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2018 were included in this study. Linear regression models were performed to assess the relationship between BMI, PV, BV and PSA, and analyze the correlation between BMI and PSA, PSA density and PSA mass. Results The univariable linear regression showed that PV, BV, systolic pressure (SBP), pulse, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and age were significantly associated with PSA level (P < 0.05). The multivariate linear regression demonstrated that PV, BV, FBG and age were significantly associated with PSA level (P < 0.05). WHR and BMI is negatively associated with PSA and PSA density (P < 0.05), and no statistically significant association was found between PSA mass and WHR and (P = 0.268) or BMI (P = 0.608). Conclusions The findings of this large-sample, hospital-based study in China indicate that PV was positively associated with serum PSA concentrations, while BMI and BV were inversely related with PSA levels. PSA mass can be used to estimate the PSA concentration without being affected by obesity in Chinese men.

Cory M. Pfeifer ◽  
Luyu Xie ◽  
Folefac D. Atem ◽  
M. Sunil Mathew ◽  
Desi M. Schiess ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Stephan K. Böhm

<b><i>Background:</i></b> The worldwide proportion of overweight adults almost doubled from 22% in 1975 to 39% in 2016. Comparably, for the USA and Germany in 2016, the proportion was 68 and 56.8%, respectively. In Olmsted County, Minnesota, the prevalence of diverticulitis also doubled between 1980 and 2007, from 19 to 40%. Obesity substantially increases the risk of multiple gastrointestinal (GI) diseases and non-GI diseases. In a narrative review, we examined the evidence on whether obesity also increases the risk for the development of diverticulosis or diverticular disease and its outcome. <b><i>Summary:</i></b> Evidence suggests that being overweight (body mass index ≥25 kg/m<sup>2</sup>) or obese (≥30 kg/m<sup>2</sup>), especially viscerally obese, is a risk factor for diverticulosis, diverticular disease and diverticulitis, diverticular bleeding, more severe or complicated disease, recurrent disease, and for worse outcomes after surgery. <b><i>Key Messages:</i></b> There is a well-founded association between overweight and diverticular disease as well as diverticulosis. It is not clear whether overweight per se or confounders linked with it are responsible for the association. However, means to fight the overweight and obesity epidemic might also help to reduce the prevalence of morbidity and mortality from diverticular disease.

2021 ◽  
Vol 188 ◽  
pp. 106603
Geertje M. de Boer ◽  
Gerdien A. Tramper-Stranders ◽  
Laura Houweling ◽  
Cathelijne M. van Zelst ◽  
Nadine Pouw ◽  

Autism ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 136236132110443
Hunter J Bennett ◽  
Taylor Jones ◽  
Kevin A Valenzuela ◽  
Justin A Haegele

Autistic persons exhibit variable movement, loading, and coordination patterns during walking. While much research has examined walking, little to no research exists regarding running for autistic persons despite its prevalence and benefits as a mode of physical activity. This study determined if autistic adolescents demonstrate increased coordination variability during running compared to matched controls. Seventeen autistic adolescents (aged = 13–18 years) and seventeen sex, age, and body mass index matched controls performed running at two matched speeds: self-selected of autistic adolescents and at 3.0 m/s. Modified vector coding was used to determine the patterns of movement for foot-shank, shank-thigh, left/right thigh, and contralateral arm-thigh coupling. Coordination variability, measuring cycle-to-cycle variability, was determined during loading response and pushoff phases. Mixed-model analyses of variance were used to determine group by speed interactions and main effects. Coordination variability was nearly 2× larger (all p < 0.001) in autistic adolescents compared to controls. Speed main effects were found for several sagittal plane couples during loading response. In agreement with walking analyses, this study illustrates that autistic adolescents run with increased intra-limb, inter-limb, and cross-body coordination variability. Like walking, increased coordination variability during running may negatively impact this mode of physical activity for autistic persons. Lay abstract Walking and running are popular forms of physical activity that involve the whole body (pelvis/legs and arms/torso) and are coordinated by the neuromuscular system, generally without much conscious effort. However, autistic persons tend not to engage in sufficient amounts of these activities to enjoy their health benefits. Recent reports indicate that autistic individuals tend to experience altered coordination patterns and increased variability during walking tasks when compared to non-autistic controls. Greater stride-to-stride coordination variability, when the task has not changed (i.e. walking at same speed and on same surface), is likely indicative of motor control issues and is more metabolically wasteful. To date, although, research examining running is unavailable in any form for this population. This study aimed to determine if coordination variability during running differs between autistic adolescents and age, sex, and body mass index matched non-autistic controls. This study found that increased variability exists throughout the many different areas of the body (foot-leg, left/right thighs, and opposite arm-opposite thigh) for autistic adolescents compared to controls. Along with previous research, these findings indicate autistic persons exhibit motor control issues across both forms of locomotion (walking and running) and at multiple speeds. These findings highlight issues with motor control that can be addressed by therapeutic/rehabilitative programming. Reducing coordination variability, inherently lessening metabolic inefficiency, may be an important step toward encouraging autistic youth to engage in sufficient physical activity (i.e. running) to enjoy physiological and psychological benefits.

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