Risk Of Infection
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2021 ◽  
Vol 118 (49) ◽  
pp. e2110117118
Gholamhossein Bagheri ◽  
Birte Thiede ◽  
Bardia Hejazi ◽  
Oliver Schlenczek ◽  
Eberhard Bodenschatz

There is ample evidence that masking and social distancing are effective in reducing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission. However, due to the complexity of airborne disease transmission, it is difficult to quantify their effectiveness, especially in the case of one-to-one exposure. Here, we introduce the concept of an upper bound for one-to-one exposure to infectious human respiratory particles and apply it to SARS-CoV-2. To calculate exposure and infection risk, we use a comprehensive database on respiratory particle size distribution; exhalation flow physics; leakage from face masks of various types and fits measured on human subjects; consideration of ambient particle shrinkage due to evaporation; and rehydration, inhalability, and deposition in the susceptible airways. We find, for a typical SARS-CoV-2 viral load and infectious dose, that social distancing alone, even at 3.0 m between two speaking individuals, leads to an upper bound of 90% for risk of infection after a few minutes. If only the susceptible wears a face mask with infectious speaking at a distance of 1.5 m, the upper bound drops very significantly; that is, with a surgical mask, the upper bound reaches 90% after 30 min, and, with an FFP2 mask, it remains at about 20% even after 1 h. When both wear a surgical mask, while the infectious is speaking, the very conservative upper bound remains below 30% after 1 h, but, when both wear a well-fitting FFP2 mask, it is 0.4%. We conclude that wearing appropriate masks in the community provides excellent protection for others and oneself, and makes social distancing less important.

Allison Naleway ◽  
Lauren Grant ◽  
Alberto Caban-Martinez ◽  
Meredith Wesley ◽  
Jefferey Burgess ◽  

Background. We sought to evaluate the impact of changes in estimates of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness on the incidence of laboratory-confirmed infection among frontline workers at high risk for SARS-CoV-2. Methods. We analyzed data from a prospective frontline worker cohort to estimate the incidence of COVID-19 by month as well as the association of COVID-19 vaccination, occupation, demographics, physical distancing and mask use with infection risk. Participants completed baseline and quarterly surveys, and each week self-collected mid-turbinate nasal swabs and reported symptoms. Results. Among 1,018 unvaccinated and 3,531 fully vaccinated workers, the monthly incidence of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in January 2021 was 13.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.4-17.4), declining to 0.5 (95% CI -0.4-1.4) per 1000 person-weeks in June. By September 2021, when the Delta variant predominated, incidence had once again risen to 13.6 (95% CI 7.8-19.4) per 1000 person-weeks. In contrast, there was no reportable incidence among fully vaccinated participants at the end of January 2021, and incidence remained low until September 2021 when it rose modestly to 4.1 (95% CI 1.9-3.8) per 1000. Below average facemask use was associated with a higher risk of infection for unvaccinated participants during exposure to persons who may have COVID-19, and vaccinated participants during hours in the community. Conclusions. COVID-19 vaccination was significantly associated with a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection despite Delta variant predominance. Our data demonstrate the added protective benefit of facemask use among both unvaccinated and vaccinated frontline workers.

2021 ◽  
Vol 37 (6) ◽  
pp. 543-554
Mun-Il Ahn ◽  
Sung Chul Yun

To preventively control fire blight in apple trees and determine policies regarding field monitoring, the Maryblyt ver. 7.1 model (MARYBLYT) was evaluated in the cities of Chungju, Jecheon, and Eumseong in Korea from 2015 to 2020. The number of blossom infection alerts was the highest in 2020 and the lowest in 2017 and 2018. And the common feature of MARYBLYT blossom infection risks during the flowering period was that the time of BIR-High or BIR-Infection alerts was the same regardless of location. The flowering periods of the trees required to operate the model varied according to the year and geographic location. The model predicts the risk of “Infection” during the flowering periods, and recommends the appropriate times to control blossom infection. In 2020, when flower blight was severe, the difference between the expected date of blossom blight symptoms presented by MARYBLYT and the date of actual symptom detection was only 1-3 days, implying that MARYBLYT is highly accurate. As the model was originally developed based on data obtained from the eastern region of the United States, which has a climate similar to that of Korea, this model can be used in Korea. To improve field utilization, however, the entire flowering period of multiple apple varieties needs to be considered when the model is applied. MARYBLYT is believed to be a useful tool for determining when to control and monitor apple cultivation areas that suffer from serious fire blight problems.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0260575
AbdulAzeez A. Anjorin ◽  
Ismail A. Odetokun ◽  
Ajibola I. Abioye ◽  
Hager Elnadi ◽  
Mfon Valencia Umoren ◽  

The economic and humanistic impact of COVID-19 pandemic is enormous globally. No definitive treatment exists, hence accelerated development and approval of COVID-19 vaccines, offers a unique opportunity for COVID-19 prevention and control. Vaccine hesitancy may limit the success of vaccine distribution in Africa, therefore we assessed the potentials for coronavirus vaccine hesitancy and its determinants among Africans. An online cross-sectional African-wide survey was administered in Arabic, English, and French languages. Questions on demographics, self-reported health status, vaccine literacy, knowledge and perception on vaccines, past experience, behavior, infection risk, willingness to receive and affordability of the SARS-COV-2 vaccine were asked. Data were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics. A total of 5,416 individuals completed the survey. Approximately, 94% were residents of 34 African countries while the other Africans live in the Diaspora. Only 63% of all participants surveyed were willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccination as soon as possible and 79% were worried about its side effects. Thirty-nine percent expressed concerns of vaccine-associated infection. The odds of vaccine hesitancy was 0.28 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.30) among those who believed their risk of infection was very high, compared to those who believed otherwise. The odds of vaccine hesitancy was one-fifth (OR = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.28) among those who believed their risk of falling sick was very high, compared to those who believed their risk of falling very sick was very low. The OR of vaccine hesitancy was 2.72 (95% CI: 2.24, 3.31) among those who have previously refused a vaccine for themselves or their child compared to counterparts with no self-reported history of vaccine hesitancy. Participants want the vaccines to be mandatory (40%), provided free of charge (78%) and distributed in homes and offices (44%). COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is substantial among Africans based on perceived risk of coronavirus infection and past experiences.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 97
Carlo Perisano ◽  
Tommaso Greco ◽  
Chiara Polichetti ◽  
Michele Inverso ◽  
Giulio Maccauro

Implant-associated infections still represent one of the main problems in treatment of open fracture. The role of systemic antibiotic prophylaxis is now agreed and accepted; however, recent literature seems to underline the importance of local antibiotic therapy at the fracture site, and antibiotic nails have been shown to play a role in the treatment of open fractures in terms of fracture healing and lower risk of infection. We retrospectively analyzed our results, from January 2016 to March 2020, with the use of coated nails in the treatment of open tibial fractures, evaluating the rates of infection and fracture healing as primary outcomes and the rate of reoperations, time from trauma to nailing and hospital stay as secondary outcomes. Thirty-eight patients treated with coated nail (ETN ProtectTM, Synthes) were included in the study. Minimum follow-up was of 18 months. Thirty-four of 38 patients achieved bone union and 2 patients underwent septic non-union. In our series, no systemic toxicity or local hypersensitivity to antibiotics were recorded. From this study, use of antibiotic-coated nails appears to be a valid and safe option for treatment of open tibial fractures and prevention of implant-related infections, particularly in tibial fractures with severe soft tissue exposure and impairment.

Dariusz Bazaliński ◽  
Joanna Przybek-Mita ◽  
Marek Kucharzewski ◽  
Paweł Więch

Extravasation of doxorubicin, vincristine or vinblastine leads to necrosis, damage of the muscles and nerves, deep ulceration, as well as limb dysfunction. Necrosis and deep ulcers develop within 7 to 28 days. Like necrotomy, Lucilia sericata maggot therapy is recognised as a method enabling effective, safe and quick removal of necrotic tissue. The purpose of the study was to present local treatment of hypodermic necrosis caused by docetaxel extravasation in course of systemic cancer therapy. A woman, 59 years of age, in course of systemic therapy due to advanced cancer of the left breast (T2N1M1 CS IV) with confirmed metastases within the body of the fourth lumbar vertebra and in the liver, receiving a combination treatment with pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel. During the therapy, a conservative treatment was applied due to extravasation for over three months. Effects in the right forearm included swelling, redness, signs of 4x10cm inflammatory infiltrate, with 1x4cm necrotic crust visible in the central region. Hypodermic necrosis was debrided using L. sericata maggots, and subsequently specialist dressings were applied to promote granulation and healing. In the case discussed here, effectiveness of MDT was rather poor, however the treatment minimised the risk of infection associated with evacuation of necrosis. Attempts to use MDT should be continued to enable more comprehensive understanding of problems related to management of necrosis in wounds developing during cancer therapy.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 3396
Izabella Rząd ◽  
Agata Stapf ◽  
Sławomir Adam Kornaś ◽  
Ewa Dzika ◽  
Rusłan Sałamatin ◽  

The aim of this study was to describe the morphology and means of identification of helminths in native partridges (65) and introduced pheasants (32) in Poland and to determine the level of intestinal infection of these birds by helminths using parasitological and ecological indices. The birds were acquired during the hunting season in the years 2015–2017. Nematodes, Capillaria phasianina, cestodes, Railietina friedbergeri, and one trematode, Brachylaima sp. were recorded for the first time in partridges in Poland. Our findings indicate that parasites are more prevalent in pheasants (prevalence 70.4%) than in partridges (prevalence 50.0%). The component community and infracommunity of parasites of partridges are more diverse (Simpson’s diversity index: 0.63 and mean Brillouin diversity index: 0.10 ± 0.17) and less dominated by a single parasite species (Capillaria sp., Berger-Parker dominance index: 0.53) than the pheasant parasite community (Simpson’s diversity index: 0.07, mean Brillouin diversity index: 0.005 ± 0.02, dominant species Heterakis gallinarum, Berger-Parker dominance index: 0.96). There were statistically significant differences between partridges and pheasants in the Brillouin diversity index and in the prevalence of Heterakis gallinarum (55.6% in pheasants vs. 19.0 in partridges). There were significant differences between wild and farmed partridges in the prevalence of infection by Capillaria sp. (4.3% vs. 37.5%) and H. gallinarum (39.1 vs. 6.2%). In conclusion, the pheasant was shown to be a reservoir, carrier, and shedder of nematodes, which may increase the risk of infection in partridges.

Charlotte Martin ◽  
Vinciane Muls ◽  
Céline Brasseur ◽  
Laurent Meric de Bellefon ◽  
Xuan-Lan Lam Hoai ◽  

Abstract Objectives Patients with immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID) present an increased risk of infection. Here, we present the concept of a preventive consultation called ImmunoStart and the first results of its implementation in the care pathway of patients with IMID. Methods Relevant information about vaccination history, TB exposition and other infectious risks are collected through blood sampling, complete anamnesis, chest X-Ray and Mantoux test. During ImmunoStart consultation, vaccination schedules, specific treatments and risk considerations are discussed. Results Between October 2016 and February 2020, 437 patients were seen at the ImmunoStart consultation, mainly referred by rheumatologists (56%), dermatologists (25%), and gastroenterologists (18%). A total of 421 (96%) patients needed at least one vaccine (a mean of 3.3 vaccines per patient). Live attenuated vaccine was indicated for 45 patients (10%), requiring them to reduce or interrupt their immunosuppressive drug(s). Ninety-two patients (21%) were treated for latent TB infection. Conclusion This preventive consultation provides a centralized and systematic setting for the direct management of patients with IMID in need of vaccination, treatment of latent disease and specific advice regarding their immunomodulating treatments.

Janet Antwi ◽  
Bernard Appiah ◽  
Busayo Oluwakuse ◽  
Brenda A. Z. Abu

Abstract Purpose of Review Nutritional status is affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, directly or indirectly. Even with the recent rollout of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines and availability of medicines such as remdesivir, and monoclonal antibodies, host nutritional status is pivotal in the fight against the acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and outcomes. The purpose of this review is to discuss the effects of COVID-19-related lockdown on lifestyle behaviors, and the nutritional consequences, and the direct sequelae of the infection on nutrition including potential nutritional interventions. Recent Findings The COVID-19-related lockdown imposed radical changes in lifestyle behaviors with considerable short-term and long-term health and nutritional consequences including weight gain and obesity and increased cardiometabolic risk, consistently linked to worsened prognosis. The extent of the impact was dependent on food insecurity, overall stress and disordered eating, physical inactivity, and exposure to COVID-19-related nutrition information sources. COVID-19 could directly induce inflammatory responses and poor nutrient intake and absorption leading to undernutrition with micronutrient deficiencies, which impairs immune system function with subsequent amplified risk of infection and disease severity. Nutrition interventions through nutrition support, dietary supplementation, and home remedies such as use of zinc, selenium, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids showed the most significant promise to mitigate the course of COVID-19 infection and improve survival rates. Summary The nutrition-COVID-19 relationship and related dietary changes mimic a vicious cycle of the double burden of malnutrition, both obesity and undernutrition with micronutrient deficiencies, which promote infection, disease progression, and potential death.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 2448
Rachel Francoeur ◽  
Alon Atuhaire ◽  
Moses Arinaitwe ◽  
Moses Adriko ◽  
Diana Ajambo ◽  

Schistosoma mansoni is a parasite which causes significant public-health issues, with over 240 million people infected globally. In Uganda alone, approximately 11.6 million people are affected. Despite over a decade of mass drug administration in this country, hyper-endemic hotspots persist, and individuals who are repeatedly heavily and rapidly reinfected are observed. Human blood-type antigens are known to play a role in the risk of infection for a variety of diseases, due to cross-reactivity between host antibodies and pathogenic antigens. There have been conflicting results on the effect of blood type on schistosomiasis infection and pathology. Moreover, the effect of blood type as a potential intrinsic host factor on S. mansoni prevalence, intensity, clearance, and reinfection dynamics and on co-infection risk remains unknown. Therefore, the epidemiological link between host blood type and S. mansoni infection dynamics was assessed in three hyper-endemic communities in Uganda. Longitudinal data incorporating repeated pretreatment S. mansoni infection intensities and clearance rates were used to analyse associations between blood groups in school-aged children. Soil-transmitted helminth coinfection status and biometric parameters were incorporated in a generalised linear mixed regression model including age, gender, and body mass index (BMI), which have previously been established as significant factors influencing the prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis. The analysis revealed no associations between blood type and S. mansoni prevalence, infection intensity, clearance, reinfection, or coinfection. Variations in infection profiles were significantly different between the villages, and egg burden significantly decreased with age. While blood type has proven to be a predictor of several diseases, the data collected in this study indicate that it does not play a significant role in S. mansoni infection burdens in these high-endemicity communities.

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