Exercise Test
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M. Binek ◽  
Z. Drzazga ◽  
T. Socha ◽  
I. Pokora

AbstractThe aim of study was to assess the skin temperature changes over selected muscles zones of the lower limbs following an exercise performed at similar relative external workload in 10 male and 6 female high-trained cross-country skiers. The first stage of experiment involved preliminary exercise to determine individual oxygen uptake VO2max and anaerobic threshold. The second stage experimental exercise consisted of 60 min running on treadmill with 80% of determined VO2max Thermographic imaging of lower limbs was performed, before, immediately after exercise and during recovery. Physiological parameters: VO2, MET—metabolic energy equivalent, heart rate and internal temperature were assessed at rest and at the end of exercise, respectively. Infrared thermography showed that at rest the skin temperature over lower limb muscles was significantly higher in men than in women. In response to exercise an increase in skin temperature over the studied muscles was significantly higher in women than men. Since was no significant difference in skin temperature in men and women after exercise. Before the test, no physiological parameter was significantly different in women and men. Exercise test reveled significant differences between men and women in some physiological parameters such as VO2 and MET. Our study showed that there are significant differences in lower limbs skin temperature between male and female at rest but not at the end of exercise test. Women in comparison with men had a greater increase in skin temperature in response to exercise and a persistence of elevated temperature over muscles of lower limbs after exercise.

Nicolas I Busse ◽  
Madison L Gonzalez ◽  
Mackenzie L Krason ◽  
Sally E Johnson

Abstract Consumption of β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) alters muscle composition and metabolism leading to strength and agility improvements in human athletes. To determine if HMB affects athletic performance and muscle function in horses, Thoroughbred geldings were fed a control (CON; n=5) or HMB (n=6) supplement for 6 wks prior to completing a standardized exercise test (SET). Gluteus Medius (GM) muscle biopsies were obtained before the SET for fiber typing. Heart rate (HR), biceps femoris (BF) and semitendinosus (ST) surface electromyograms (EMG) and fore and hind limb metacarpophalangeal joint angles were captured at the gallop of the SET. Results demonstrate that HMB supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the percentage of type IIA and IIA/X muscle fibers in the GM with a corresponding decrease (P < 0.05) in type IIX fibers. The percentage of type I fibers was unaffected by diet. Supplementation with HMB did not result in any measurable effects on performance or biomechanical properties by comparison to CON. Supplementation with HMB resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) in ST median frequency at speeds of 10 m/s and greater. Increasing treadmill speed resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) in stride length and the maximal proximal forelimb fetlock angle, and a decrease (P < 0.05) in stance phase time of the gait cycle. Integrated EMG increased (P < 0.05) with increasing treadmill speeds for both the BF and ST with the BF exhibiting greater (P < 0.05) iEMG values than the ST. In summary, HMB increased the percentage of type IIA GM fibers which did not translate into improved performance.

ASAIO Journal ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Ander Dorken Gallastegi ◽  
Güneş D. Ergi ◽  
Ümit Kahraman ◽  
Burcu Yağmur ◽  
Ece Çinar ◽  

Kenta Kawamura ◽  
Shogo Iida ◽  
Masaaki Kobayashi ◽  
Yukako Setaka ◽  
Kazuhide Tomita

2021 ◽  
Vol 45 (4) ◽  
pp. 304-313
Kazuaki Oyake ◽  
Yasuto Baba ◽  
Yuki Suda ◽  
Jun Murayama ◽  
Ayumi Mochida ◽  

Objective To examine the relationship between the time constant of oxygen uptake kinetics during the onset of exercise (τVO2) estimated from a single exercise bout and that obtained from three averaged exercise bouts in individuals with stroke.Methods Twenty participants with stroke performed three bouts of a constant-load pedaling exercise at approximately 80% of the workload corresponding to the ventilatory threshold to estimate τVO2. The VO2 data from the first trial of three bouts were used to estimate τVO2 for a single bout. Additionally, data collected from three bouts were ensemble-averaged to obtain τVO2 for three averaged bouts as the criterion.Results There was a very high correlation between τVO2 for a single bout (34.8±14.0 seconds) and τVO2 for three averaged bouts (38.5±13.4 seconds) (r=0.926, p<0.001). However, τVO2 for a single bout was smaller than that for three averaged bouts (p=0.006).Conclusion τVO2 for a single bout could reflect the relative difference in τVO2 for three averaged bouts among individuals with stroke. However, it should be noted that τVO2 for a single bout may be underestimated compared to τVO2 for three averaged bouts.

Magnus Bjørkavoll‐Bergseth ◽  
Christine Bjørkvik Erevik ◽  
Øyunn Kleiven ◽  
Thijs M. H. Eijsvogels ◽  
Øyvind Skadberg ◽  

Background Postexercise cardiac troponin levels show considerable interindividual variations. This study aimed to identify the major determinants of this postexercise variation in cardiac troponin I (cTnI) following 3 episodes of prolonged high‐intensity endurance exercise. Methods and Results Study subjects were recruited among prior participants in a study of recreational cyclists completing a 91‐km mountain bike race in either 2013 or 2014 (first race). In 2018, study participants completed a cardiopulmonary exercise test 2 to 3 weeks before renewed participation in the same race (second race). Blood was sampled before and at 3 and 24 hours following all exercises. Blood samples were analyzed using the same Abbot high‐sensitivity cTnI STAT assay. Fifty‐nine individuals (aged 50±9 years, 13 women) without cardiovascular disease were included. Troponin values were lowest before, highest at 3 hours, and declining at 24 hours. The largest cTnI difference was at 3 hours following exercise between the most (first race) (cTnI: 200 [87–300] ng/L) and the least strenuous exercise (cardiopulmonary exercise test) (cTnI: 12 [7–23] ng/L; P <0.001). The strongest correlation between troponin values at corresponding times was before exercise ( r =0.92, P <0.0001). The strongest correlations at 3 hours were between the 2 races ( r =0.72, P <0.001) and at 24 hours between the cardiopulmonary exercise test and the second race ( r =0.83, P <0.001). Participants with the highest or lowest cTnI levels showed no differences in race performance or baseline echocardiographic parameters. Conclusions The variation in exercise‐induced cTnI elevation is largely determined by a unique individual cTnI response that is dependent on the duration of high‐intensity exercise and the timing of cTnI sampling. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov ; Unique identifier: NCT02166216 .

Diagnostics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 1519
Ivana P Nedeljkovic ◽  
Vojislav Giga ◽  
Marina Ostojic ◽  
Ana Djordjevic-Dikic ◽  
Tamara Stojmenovic ◽  

COVID-19 infection in athletes usually has a milder course, but in the case of complications, myocarditis and even sudden cardiac death may occur. We examined an athlete who felt symptoms upon returning to training after asymptomatic COVID-19 infection. Physical, laboratory, and echocardiography findings were normal. The cardiopulmonary exercise test was interrupted at submaximal effort due to severe dyspnea in the presence of reduced functional capacity in comparison to previous tests. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) detected the focal myocarditis. After three months of recovery, CMR still revealed the presence of focal myocarditis and the persistence of decreased functional capacity. This case raises the question of screening athletes even after asymptomatic forms of COVID-19 infection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (3) ◽  
Hannah Nelson ◽  
Andy Bosak ◽  
Russell Lowell ◽  
Maggie McDermott ◽  
Branden Ziebell ◽  

Introduction: The Concept2 SkiErg is increasing in popularity and is widely used to provide a low impact total body workout. Because of these benefits, the SkiErg could be an ideal tool for fitness testing. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare VO2peak values elicited from a treadmill (TM) and SkiErg (SE) graded exercise test (GXT). Methods: Twenty-two averagely fit females completed 2 GXT protocols to volitional exhaustion on a TM and SE. Peak VO2, HR, VE, TTE, and RER were compared using paired-samples t-tests with significant differences at p≤0.05. Max RPE was compared using a Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Results: TM was significantly greater than SE for VO2peak (43.82±1.07 vs 33.97±5.01 ml/kg/min, p<0.01), HR (189±8 vs 182±11 bpm, p<0.01), RPE (18.91+1.11vs 17.26+2.03, p=0.02), VE (95.44±11.26 vs 86.21±2.90 L/min, p=0.015), and TTE (550.16+137.56 vs 391.86±81.20 sec, p<0.01). RER was significantly greater on the SE (1.16±0.08 vs 1.12±0.06, p=0.024). Conclusion: Results suggest that TM elicits higher max values for VO2, HR, TTE, VE, and RPE compared to SE, while SE elicits a higher RER in the current population. SE could be used as an alternative mode of testing in averagely-fit females but does not directly compare to TM values.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. e000940
Christopher M R Satur ◽  
Ian Cliff ◽  
Nicholas Watson

Cohort studies of patients with pectus excavatum have inadequately characterised exercise dysfunction experienced. Cardiopulmonary exercise test data were delineated by maximal oxygen uptake values >80%, which was tested to examine whether patterns of exercise physiology were distinguished.MethodsSeventy-two patients considered for surgical treatment underwent assessment of pulmonary function and exercise physiology with pulmonary function tests and cardiopulmonary exercise test between 2006 and 2019. Seventy who achieved a threshold respiratory gas exchange ratio of >1.1 were delineated by maximal oxygen uptake >80%, (group A, n=33) and <80% (group B, n=37) and comparison of constituent physiological parameters performed.ResultsThe cohort was 20.8 (±SD 6.6) years of age, 60 men, with a Haller’s Index of 4.1 (±SD 1.4). Groups A and B exhibited similar demography, pulmonary function test results and Haller’s index values. Exercise test parameters of group B were lower than group A; work 79.2% (±SD 11.3) versus 97.7 (±SD 10.1), anaerobic threshold 38.1% (±SD 7.8) versus 49.7% (±SD 9.1) and O2 pulse 77.4% (±SD 9.8) versus 101.8% (±SD 11.7), but breathing reserve was higher, 54.9% (±SD 13.1) versus 44.2% (±SD 10.8), p<0.001 for each. Both groups exhibited similar incidences of carbon dioxide retention at peak exercise. A total of 65 (93%) exhibited abnormal values of at least one of four exercise test measures.ConclusionThis study showed that patients with pectus excavatum exhibited multiple physiological characteristics of compromised exercise function. It is the first study that defines differing patterns of exercise dysfunction and provides evidence that patients with symptomatic pectus excavatum should be considered for surgical treatment.

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