Diagnostic Challenge
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Emma Fitzpatrick ◽  
Vivek Sharma ◽  
Djamila Rojoa ◽  
Firas Raheman ◽  
Harvinder Singh

Abstract Objective Occult radiocarpal fractures often present a diagnostic challenge to the emergency department. Accurate diagnosis of these injuries is crucial as a missed fracture can lead to significant morbidity. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) scan is a novel imaging modality, with minimal radiation exposure and comparatively fast acquisition time. Our aim was to evaluate its use in the diagnosis of cortical fractures in the upper limb extremity. Materials and methods We conducted a systematic review of literature and included all studies that evaluated the use of CBCT in the diagnosis of radiocarpal fractures. We used a mixed-effects logistic regression bivariate model to estimate the summary sensitivity and specificity and constructed hierarchical summary receiver operative characteristic curves (HSROC). Results We identified 5 studies, with 439 patients, and observed CBCT to be 87.7% (95% CI 77.6–93.6) sensitive and 99.2% (95% CI 92.6–99.9) specific for scaphoid fractures. For carpal fractures, CBCT was observed to have a pooled sensitivity and specificity of 90.6% (95% CI 72.7–97.2) and 100% (95% CI 99–100) respectively. For distal radius fractures, CBCT sensitivity was 90% (95% CI 67–98) and specificity was 100% (95% CI 10–100). The overall inter-rater agreement effect was shown to be 0.89 (95% CI 0.82–0.96), which is deemed to be almost perfect. Conclusion CBCT is an accurate diagnostic tool for occult radiocarpal cortical fractures, which could replace or supplement radiographs. We believe CBCT has a promising role in the acute radiocarpal fracture diagnostic algorithm in both emergency and trauma departments.

Oral Oncology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 122 ◽  
pp. 105538
Maria Gabriela Rolim Silveira Sá ◽  
Henrique Bemfica de Farias Freitas ◽  
Martinho Campolina Rebello Horta ◽  
Marcelo Ferreira Cardoso Pinto ◽  
Lorenzo Duarte Testolin ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Riccardo Scagliola ◽  
Gian Marco Rosa ◽  
Sara Seitun

Background and Aims. Cardiac outpouchings encounter a series of distinct congenital or acquired entities (i.e. aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms, diverticula, and herniations), whose knowledge is still poorly widespread in clinical practice. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview focusing on definition, differential diagnosis, and prognostic outcomes of cardiac outpouchings, as well as further insights on therapeutic options, in order to assist physicians in the most appropriate decision-making. Methods. The material reviewed was obtained by the following search engines: MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, Google Scholar, and Clinical Trials databases, from January 1966 until March 2021. We searched for the following keywords (in title and/or abstract): (“cardiac” OR “heart”) AND (“outpouching” OR “outpouch” OR “aneurysm” OR “pseudoaneurysm” OR “false aneurysm” OR “diverticulum” OR “herniation”). Review articles, original articles, case series, and case reports with literature review were included in our search. Data from patients with congenital or acquired cardiac outpouchings, from prenatal to geriatric age range, were investigated. Results. Out of the 378 papers initially retrieved, 165 duplicates and 84 records in languages other than English were removed. Among the 129 remaining articles, 76 were included in our research material, on the basis of the following inclusion criteria: (a) papers pertaining to the research topic; (b) peer-reviewed articles; (c) using standardized diagnostic criteria; and (d) reporting raw prevalence data. Location, morphologic features, wall motion abnormalities, and tissue characterization were found to have a significant impact in recognition and differential diagnosis of cardiac outpouchings as well as to play a significant role in defining their natural history and prognostic outcomes. Conclusions. Careful recognition of cardiac outpouchings remains a diagnostic challenge in clinical practice. Due to a broad cluster of distinctive and heterogeneous entities, their knowledge and timely recognition play a pivotal role in order to provide the most appropriate clinical management and therapeutic approach.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Wen-Hao Qin ◽  
Jun-Teng Liu ◽  
Shu-Ping Wang ◽  
Zhi-Shi Yang ◽  
Kun-Ke Wang ◽  

BACKGROUND: Distinguishing between benign and malignant bile duct strictures has long been a diagnostic challenge in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to discover novel biomarkers in bile to improve the diagnostic accuracy of malignant biliary strictures. METHODS: Bile samples were collected from 6 patients with malignant or benign biliary stricture, respectively. Protein profiles of the bile were analyzed with a semi-quantitative human antibody array of 440 proteins. Then the differential expressed proteins were screened by Venn diagram analysis. Following this, the accuracy of these potential biomarkers for discriminating between malignant and non-malignant biliary strictures was validated in a larger (n= 40) group of patients using lasso analysis. Results: Twenty proteins were found differentially expressed in malignant versus benign biliary strictures, 6 of which were identified by Venn diagram analysis to be up-regulated regardless of the location of biliary strictures. Among the 6 biomarkers, bile lipocalin-2, P-cadherin, and adipsin showed better diagnostic utility than that of bile CA19-9. Lasso analysis identified that lipocalin-2, P-cadherin and CA19-9 as a group of makers best distinguished malignant from benign strictures. CONCLUSIONS: Lipocalin-2 and P-cadherin measurements in bile could be clinically useful for the detection of malignant biliary strictures.

Sara Rebelo CASANOVA ◽  
Rita PAULINO ◽  
Joana TAVARES ◽  
Ana Cláudia MIRANDA ◽  
Raquel SABINO ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (3) ◽  
pp. 631-639
Maria-Gabriela Aniţei ◽  
Diana-Elena Lazăr ◽  
Raluca Alina Pleşca ◽  
Cristina Terinte ◽  
Radu Iulian ◽  

Background: Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) is a rare and newly defined disease, which most commonly occurs in women of reproductive age and can be a sequela of any gestational event. ETT can be present in both intrauterine and extrauterine sites. Case report: A woman of reproductive age, without specific comorbidities and with a single pregnancy and natural childbirth eight years ago, was diagnosed initially with poorly differentiated pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma on the hemostatic uterine curettage. Conclusion: Our case highlights that ETT presents a diagnostic challenge due to its rarity and histologic resemblance to other pathologies. Misdiagnosis delays effective treatment and affects survival. To date, only 8 cases of ETT of the uterus without previous gestational event and normal human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) levels in a 60-year literature survey have been reported.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Maria Antonello ◽  
Rossana Scutari ◽  
Calogero Lauricella ◽  
Silvia Renica ◽  
Valentina Motta ◽  

Background: Rapid and reliable diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) represents a diagnostic challenge in compartmentalized extrapulmonary TB infection because of the small number of mycobacteria (MTB) and the frequent lack of fresh samples to perform culture. Here, we estimate the performances of homemade droplet digital PCR (ddPCR)-based assays against culture in 89 biopsies, for those fresh and formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) subsamples were available.Methods: MTB diagnosis in fresh subsamples was performed by culture. Fresh subsamples were also analyzed for acid-fast bacilli smear-microscopy (AFB) and Xpert® MTB/RIF (Xpert). MTB examination was repeated in blind in the 89 FFPE subsamples by in-house ddPCR assays targeting the IS6110 and rpoB. Analytical sensitivity of ddPCR assays was evaluated using serial dilution of H37Rv strain. Limit of detection (LOD) was calculated by probit analysis. Results were expressed in copies/106 cells.Results: IS6110 and rpoB ddPCR assays showed a good linear correlation between expected and observed values (R2: 0.9907 and 0.9743, respectively). Probit analyses predicted a LOD of 17 and 40 copies/106 cells of MTB DNA for IS6110 and rpoB, respectively. Of the 89 biopsies, 68 were culture positive and 21 were culture negative. Considering mycobacterial culture as reference method, IS6110 assay yielded positive results in 67/68 culture-positive samples with a median interquartile range (IQR) of 1,680 (550–8,444) copies/106 cells (sensitivity: 98.5%; accuracy: 98.9). These performances were superior to those reported by the rpoB assay in FFPE subsamples (sensitivity: 66.20%; accuracy: 74.1) and even superior to those reported by Xpert and AFB in fresh subsamples (sensitivity: 79.4 and 33.8%, respectively; accuracy: 84.3 and 49.4, respectively). When Xpert and AFB results were stratified according to mycobacterial load detected by rpoB and IS6110 ddPCR, bacterial load was lower in Xpert and AFB negative with respect to Xpert and AFB-positive samples (p = 0.003 and 0.01 for rpoB and p = 0.01 and 0.11 for IS6110), confirming the poor sensitivity of these methods in paucibacillary disease.Conclusion: ddPCR provides highly sensitive, accurate, and rapid MTB diagnosis in FFPE samples, as defined by the high concordance between IS6110 assay and culture results. This approach can be safely introduced in clinical routine to accelerate MTB diagnosis mainly when culture results remain unavailable.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (11) ◽  
Augustinas Fedaravičius ◽  
Yael Feinstein ◽  
Isaac Lazar ◽  
Micky Gidon ◽  
Ilan Shelef ◽  

BACKGROUND Fibrocartilaginous embolism (FCE) is a rare cause of ischemic myelopathy that occurs when the material of the nucleus pulposus migrates into vessels supplying the spinal cord. The authors presented a case of pediatric FCE that was successfully managed by adapting evidence-based recommendations used for spinal cord neuroprotection in aortic surgery. OBSERVATIONS A 7-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with acute quadriplegia and hemodynamic instability that quickly progressed to cardiac arrest. After stabilization, the patient regained consciousness but remained in a locked-in state with no spontaneous breathing. The patient presented a diagnostic challenge. Traumatic, inflammatory, infectious, and ischemic etiologies were considered. Eventually, the clinical and radiological findings led to the presumed diagnosis of FCE. Treatment with continuous cerebrospinal fluid drainage (CSFD), pulse steroids, and mean arterial pressure augmentation was applied, with subsequent considerable and consistent neurological improvement. LESSONS The authors proposed consideration of the adaptation of spinal cord neuroprotection principles used routinely in aortic surgery for the management of traumatic spinal cord ischemia (FCE-related in particular), namely, permissive arterial hypertension and CSFD. This is hypothesized to allow for the maintenance of sufficient spinal cord perfusion until adequate physiological blood perfusion is reestablished (remodeling of the collateral arterial network and/or clearing/absorption of the emboli).

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