hematological malignancies
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
U. A. Awan ◽  
N. Farooq ◽  
A. Sarwar ◽  
H. M. S. Jehangir ◽  
M. S. Hashmi ◽  

Abstract Hematological and hematopoietic cells malignancies of the genes and hematopoietic cells are associated with the genetic mutation, often at the chromosomal level. The standard cytogenetic study is widely accepted as one of the main diagnostics and prognostic determinants in patients. Therefore, the current descriptive and cross-sectional study sought to determine the cytogenetic analysis of frequent hematological malignancies in Pakistan. A total of 202 peripheral bone marrow or blood samples from patients with benign and malignant hematological malignancy were taken using a conventional G-banding technique. Among enrolled patients, the mean age was 21.5 years ± 23.4, and gender-wise distribution showed a marked predominance of the male 147 (73%) population compared to the female 55 (27%). Patients in the age group (2-10 years) had the highest frequency, 48 (24%), of hematological neoplasms, followed by age (11-20 years) with 40 (20%). Normal karyotypes (46, XX/46, XY) was found in 51% (n=103) patients. Furthermore, the frequency of complex karyotype was 30 (15%), while normal was seen in 171 (85%) patients. Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Pre-B ALL) was the most prevalent malignancy of 66 (33%), followed by Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) of 41 (20%) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia of 29 (14%). Translocation was the most prevalent 50 (25%), followed by hypotriploidy 14 (7%) and monosomy 8 (4%) on chromosome aberration analysis. In addition, t(9:22) translocation was found to be 20 (10%) in CML, with the majority in the age group (31-40 years). This study recommends that karyotyping should be tested frequently in hematological conditions because it may provide insight into the relative chromosomal changes associated with particular malignancies.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 434
Stefan A. Lange ◽  
Holger Reinecke

Cardiovascular disease and cancer remain the leading causes of hospitalization and mortality in high-income countries. Survival after myocardial infarction has improved but there is still a difference in clinical outcome, mortality, and developing heart failure to the disadvantage of women with myocardial infarction. Most major cardiology trials and registries have excluded patients with cancer. As a result, there is only very limited information on the effects of coronary artery disease in cancer patients. In particular, the outcomes in women with cancer and coronary artery disease and its management remain empiric. We reviewed studies of over 27 million patients with coronary artery disease and cancer. Our review focused on the most important types of cancer (breast, colon, lung, prostate) and hematological malignancies with particular attention to sex-specific differences in treatment and prognosis.

2022 ◽  
Merve Aksoz ◽  
Grigore-Aristide Gafencu ◽  
Bilyana Stoilova Stoilova ◽  
Mario Buono ◽  
Yiran Meng ◽  

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) reconstitute multi-lineage human hematopoiesis after clinical bone marrow transplantation and are the cells-of-origin of hematological malignancies. Though HSC provide multi-lineage engraftment, individual murine HSCs are lineage-biased and contribute unequally to blood cell lineages. Now, by combining xenografting of molecularly barcoded adult human bone marrow (BM) HSCs and high-throughput single cell RNA sequencing we demonstrate that human individual BM HSCs are also functionally and transcriptionally lineage biased. Specifically, we identify platelet-biased and multi-lineage human HSCs. Quantitative comparison of transcriptomes from single HSCs from young, and aged, BM show that both the proportion of platelet-biased HSCs, and their level of transcriptional platelet priming, increases with age. Therefore, platelet-biased HSCs, as well as their increased prevalence and elevated transcriptional platelet priming during ageing, are conserved between human and murine hematopoiesis.

Gábor Ternák ◽  
Károly Berényi ◽  
Balázs Németh ◽  
Ágnes Szenczi ◽  
István Kiss

Hematological malignancies are considered the fifth most common cancer in the world. Several risk factors and probable etiological agents have been suspected in the pathomechanism of those malignancies as infections, chemicals, irradiation, etc., and recently, the contribution of the altered gut flora, dysbiosis, was identified also as a possible additional factor to the existing ones. Host, and external factors, like antibiotics, which were identified as a major disruptor of the "normal" gut flora, influence the composition of the microbiome. Considering the several-fold differences in antibiotic consumption patterns and the incidence of hematological malignancies in European countries, the hypothesis was raised that the dominant consumption of certain antibiotic classes might influence the incidence of different hematological malignancies through the modification of gut flora. Comparisons were performed between the average antibiotic consumption databases reported yearly by ECDC (2009-2019) and the incidence rate of Hodkin lymphoma (HL), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), multiple myeloma (MM), and leukemia (LEU) estimated for 2020 in 30 European countries. Applying Spearman calculations, significant positive correlation has been found between the incidence of HL and tetracycline (J01A) consumption (r = 0.399, p = 0,029), NHL and narrow spectrum, beta-lactamase resistant penicillin (J01CF) (r = 0.580, p = 0,001), MM and tetracycline (r = 0.492, p = 0.006), penicillin (J01C) (r = 0.366, p = 0.047), narrow spectrum, beta-lactamase resistant penicillin (J01CF) (r = 0.574, p = 0.001), while strong, significant negative correlation has been recorded between NHL and cephalosporin (r = -0,460, p = 0,011), and quinolone (r = -0,380, p = 0,038). The incidence of LEU did not show any positive or negative association with any antibiotic classes. It is concluded that certain antibiotic classes, in addition to other putative factors, might promote or inhibit the development of different hematological malignancies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ondrej Venglar ◽  
Julio Rodriguez Bago ◽  
Benjamin Motais ◽  
Roman Hajek ◽  
Tomas Jelinek

Natural killer (NK) cells represent a subset of CD3- CD7+ CD56+/dim lymphocytes with cytotoxic and suppressor activity against virus-infected cells and cancer cells. The overall potential of NK cells has brought them to the spotlight of targeted immunotherapy in solid and hematological malignancies, including multiple myeloma (MM). Nonetheless, NK cells are subjected to a variety of cancer defense mechanisms, leading to impaired maturation, chemotaxis, target recognition, and killing. This review aims to summarize the available and most current knowledge about cancer-related impairment of NK cell function occurring in MM.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262484
Klara Pecankova ◽  
Pavla Pecherkova ◽  
Zdenka Gasova ◽  
Zofie Sovova ◽  
Tomas Riedel ◽  

Background Extracellular vesicles are released into body fluids from the majority of, if not all, cell types. Because their secretion and specific cargo (e.g., proteins) varies according to pathology, extracellular vesicles may prove a rich source of biomarkers. However, their biological and pathophysiological functions are poorly understood in hematological malignancies. Objective Here, we investigated proteome changes in the exosome-rich fraction of the plasma of myelodysplastic syndrome patients and healthy donors. Methods Exosome-rich fraction of the plasma was isolated using ExoQuick™: proteomes were compared and statistically processed; proteins were identified by nanoLC-MS/MS and verified using the ExoCarta and QuickGO databases. Mann-Whitney and Spearman analyses were used to statistically analyze the data. 2D western blot was used to monitor clusterin proteoforms. Results Statistical analyses of the data highlighted clusterin alterations as the most significant. 2D western blot showed that the clusterin changes were caused by posttranslational modifications. Moreover, there was a notable increase in the clusterin proteoform in the exosome-rich fraction of plasma of patients with more severe myelodysplastic syndrome; this corresponded with a simultaneous decrease in their plasma. Conclusions This specific clusterin proteoform seems to be a promising biomarker for myelodysplastic syndrome progression.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
P. Guisado-Vasco ◽  
M. M. Carralón-González ◽  
J. Aguareles-Gorines ◽  
E. M. Martí-Ballesteros ◽  
M. D. Sánchez-Manzano ◽  

Abstract Background There is an urgent need for highly efficacious antiviral therapies in immunosuppressed hosts who develop coronavirus disease (COVID-19), with special concern for those affected by hematological malignancies. Case presentation Here, we report the case of a 75-year-old male with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who was deficient in CD19+CD20+ B-lymphocyte populations due to previous treatment with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies. The patient presented with severe COVID-19 pneumonia due to prolonged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and was treated with two courses of the antiviral plitidepsin on a compassionate use basis. The patient subsequently achieved an undetectable viral load, and his pneumonia resolved. Conclusions Treatment with plitidepsin was well-tolerated without any further hematological or cardiovascular toxicities. This case further supports plitidepsin as a potential antiviral drug in SARS-CoV-2 patients affected by immune deficiencies and hematological malignancies.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 196
Yannis Belloucif ◽  
Camille Lobry

Hematological malignancies affecting either the lymphoid or the myeloid lineages involve epigenetic mutations or dysregulation in the majority of cases. These epigenetic abnormalities can affect regulatory elements in the genome and, particularly, enhancers. Recently, large regulatory elements known as super-enhancers, initially identified for their critical roles in cell-type specific expression regulation of genes controlling cell identity, have been shown to also be involved in tumorigenesis in many cancer types and hematological malignancies via the regulation of numerous oncogenes, including MYC. In this review, we highlight the existing links between super-enhancers and hematological malignancies, with a particular focus on acute myeloid leukemia, a clonal hematopoietic neoplasm with dismal outcomes, resulting in an uncontrolled proliferation of myeloblasts, abnormally blocked during differentiation and accumulating within the patient’s bone marrow. We report recent works, performed during the last few years, treating this subject and consider the possibility of targeting oncogenic regulatory elements, as well as the effectiveness and limitations reported so far for such strategies.

Gerontology ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Yusuke Asai ◽  
Hidetoshi Nomoto ◽  
Kayoko Hayakawa ◽  
Nobuaki Matsunaga ◽  
Shinya Tsuzuki ◽  

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Old age is an independent risk factor (RF) for severe COVID-19; evidence for clinico-epidemiological characteristics among elderly COVID-19 patients is scarce. We aimed to analyze clinical and epidemiological characteristics and comorbidities associated with COVID-19 inpatients in age-stratified populations of an elderly COVID-19 cohort. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> We conducted a retrospective cohort study, using nationwide registry data of COVID-19 patients hospitalized before October 31, 2020 (major information entered in the registry as of December 28, 2020). Participants were divided by age according to the Japan Geriatrics Society and the Japan Gerontological Society: pre-old (65–74 years), old (75–89 years), and super-old (≥90 years). Multivariable logistic regression (MLR) analyses were conducted to identify stratified risk and relationships with comorbidities associated with worse outcomes in different age-groups of elderly patients. Demographics and supportive care were evaluated by category. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Data of 4,701 patients from 444 hospitals were included. Most patients (79.3%) had at least one comorbidity; the proportion of patients with hypertension was high in all categories. The proportion of patients with dementia, cardiovascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease increased with age. The percentage of patients who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation/extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was lower in the super-old group. In total, 11.5% of patients died (5.3%, pre-old; 15.2%, old; and 22.4%, super-old). MLR showed that the risk of critical illness differed among age-groups. Male sex was a significant RF in all ages. Collagen disease, moderate to severe renal disorder, and dialysis were significant RFs in older patients, while hematological malignancies and metastatic tumors were more important RFs for severe disease in relatively younger patients. Most of the RFs for critical illnesses were associated with death. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Differences in the epidemiological and clinical characteristics among the different age-groups were found.

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