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Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (11) ◽  
pp. 3780
Author(s):  
Youngyoon Lee ◽  
Yelim Kim ◽  
Minam Lee ◽  
Dayong Wu ◽  
Munkyong Pae

Studies suggest that time-restricted feeding (TRF) may prevent obesity and its commodities. At present, little is known about how TRF impacts immune cells, and whether such an effect is linked to altered metabolic parameters under condition of a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. To address these issues, we conducted a study in which we determined whether TRF has therapeutic efficacy against weight gain, adiposity, as well as associated immune cell disturbance found in obese mice. Six-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD) or HFD ad libitum for six weeks, after which time a subgroup of HFD mice was switched to the 10 h TRF paradigm (HFD-TRF) for additional eight weeks. We found that TRF intervention reduced HFD-induced weight gain. Even with comparable fat mass and mean adipocyte area, the HFD-TRF group had lower mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokine Tnfα and chemokine Ccl8, along with reduced numbers of adipose tissue macrophages (ATM), CD11c+ ATM, and CD8+ T cell compared to the HFD group, while maintaining CD8+ to CD4+ ratio at levels similar to those in the LFD group. Furthermore, TRF intervention was effective in improving glucose tolerance and reducing HOMA-IR. Taken together, our findings suggest that TRF restores the obesity-induced alteration in immune cell composition, and this effect may in part contribute to health benefits (including insulin sensitivity) of practicing TRF.


Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 3043
Author(s):  
Clara Ajeng Artdita ◽  
Yi-Ru Zhuang ◽  
Tzu-Yu Liu ◽  
Chih-Yuan Cheng ◽  
Felix Shih-Hsiang Hsiao ◽  
...  

This study investigated cecal bacterial community profile, cecal and serum metabolites, and its biosynthesis pathway in late-phase laying hens during 6 weeks feeding restriction (FR), using 16S rDNA as gene sequencing and non-targeted LC-MS/MS as metabolomics approach. We used three groups (ad libitum, FR20, and FR40). FR can reduce excessive fat in late-phase laying hens, while egg production rate is not affected, except for the FR40 group. In phylum level, FR20 had more population of Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes amongst groups. The same result is at genus level, FR20 were higher of the predominant genus (Bacteroides and Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group). Both of FR20 and FR40 reduced Proteobacteria as potential pathogenic bacteria. Non-targeted metabolomic analysis revealed that FR20 modified 20 metabolites in cecal and 10 metabolites in serum of laying hens, whereas 48 cecal metabolites and 31 serum metabolites has revealed in FR40. KEGG assay showed FR20 and FR40 upregulated lipid, carbohydrate, amino acid, nucleic acid pathway, and FR40 modified steroid metabolism in cecal analysis. In serum, only FR40 modified lipid, amino acid pathway, and carbohydrate biosynthesis were shown. This study showed that FR during late-phase laying hens altered the microbiome composition, modified metabolites profile and biosynthesis of the cecal as well as serum.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Katie Blackburne

<p><b>Major depressive and anxiety disorders are debilitating psychiatric illnesses which are often a serious burden to the patients, their families and society as a whole. A major contributor to this burden is that a large number of patients do not respond to current therapeutics. As all treatments are established first in animal models, an imperative direction to advance treatment efficacy in humans is through progressing these models. This thesis aims to develop and validate a novel behavioural test (Affective Disorder Test: ADT) that simultaneously assesses depression and anxiety-like behaviours, as well as provides a more valid index of depression-like behaviour than previous tests, and allows repeated testing in the same animal.</b></p> <p>In order to develop a standardized protocol, the impact of food restriction on behaviour was examined. Subjects with ad libitum access to food, failed to exhibit sufficient responses in aspects of the test, supporting the incorporation of food restriction into the test protocol. The serotonin transporter knockout (SERT -/-) rat was employed as a model of depression and anxiety, and as hypothesised displayed corresponding behaviour in the test, indicating construct validity. Finally, the predictive validity of the test was corroborated as pharmacological treatment of anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs, diazepam (1 mg/kg) and ketamine (5 mg/kg), improved subjects behaviour on relevant areas of the test. The ADT is an innovate tool which has the ability to contribute to the scientific and general community by furthering our understanding of the aetiology of these disorders and enhancing pharmacological developments</p>


Author(s):  
Deandra M. Widiatmaja ◽  
Alif Lutvyani ◽  
Desi R. Sari ◽  
Hamidah Kurniasari ◽  
Ismi D. Meiliana ◽  
...  

Abstract Objectives Noncommunicable disease (NCD) including obesity, cancer, and diabetes has become particular concern worldwide due to its morbidity and mortality which keep increasing annually. Adiponectin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are known to be substances that are involved in the development of NCD. Several diet regimens have been developed to treat NCD, one of which is the ketogenic diet (KD). This study aimed to analyze the long-term KD effect on serum adiponectin and IGF-1 levels in mice. Methods This study was a real experimental with post-test only controls group design. The subjects were 14 male mice (2–3 months, 20–30 g) were randomly divided into two groups, K1 (n=7, standard diet) and K2 (n=7, KD with a composition of 60% fat, 30% protein, and 10% fiber). All subjects were given diet intervention for 8 weeks ad libitum. Serum adiponectin and IGF levels were measured in post-intervention using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Distribution of normality was analyzed by the Shapiro–Wilk Test, mean difference using Independent T-Test, and linear correlation using Pearson’s Correlation Test. Data analysis was performed using Statistic Package for Social Science Version 16. Results Serum adiponectin levels in K1 (0.080 ± 0.012) pg/mL and K2 (0.099 ± 0.005) pg/mL, with p=0.003. Serum IGF-1 levels in K1 (133.535 ± 25.702) ng/mL and K2 (109.987 ± 27.118) ng/mL, with p=0.121. Coefficient correlation between serum adiponectin and serum IGF-1 levels [r]=−0.401, with p=0.155. Conclusions Long-term KD increases serum adiponectin levels and has no effect on serum IGF-1 levels. There was no significant correlation between serum adiponectin and serum IGF-1 levels.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Katie Blackburne

<p><b>Major depressive and anxiety disorders are debilitating psychiatric illnesses which are often a serious burden to the patients, their families and society as a whole. A major contributor to this burden is that a large number of patients do not respond to current therapeutics. As all treatments are established first in animal models, an imperative direction to advance treatment efficacy in humans is through progressing these models. This thesis aims to develop and validate a novel behavioural test (Affective Disorder Test: ADT) that simultaneously assesses depression and anxiety-like behaviours, as well as provides a more valid index of depression-like behaviour than previous tests, and allows repeated testing in the same animal.</b></p> <p>In order to develop a standardized protocol, the impact of food restriction on behaviour was examined. Subjects with ad libitum access to food, failed to exhibit sufficient responses in aspects of the test, supporting the incorporation of food restriction into the test protocol. The serotonin transporter knockout (SERT -/-) rat was employed as a model of depression and anxiety, and as hypothesised displayed corresponding behaviour in the test, indicating construct validity. Finally, the predictive validity of the test was corroborated as pharmacological treatment of anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs, diazepam (1 mg/kg) and ketamine (5 mg/kg), improved subjects behaviour on relevant areas of the test. The ADT is an innovate tool which has the ability to contribute to the scientific and general community by furthering our understanding of the aetiology of these disorders and enhancing pharmacological developments</p>


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mumin Ozturk ◽  
Julius E. Chia ◽  
Rudranil Hazra ◽  
Mohd Saqib ◽  
Rebeng A. Maine ◽  
...  

Tuberculosis (TB) is the global health problem with the second highest number of deaths from a communicable disease after COVID-19. Although TB is curable, poor health infrastructure, long and grueling TB treatments have led to the spread of TB pandemic with alarmingly increasing multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB prevalence. Alternative host modulating therapies can be employed to improve TB drug efficacies or dampen the exaggerated inflammatory responses to improve lung function. Here, we investigated the adjunct therapy of natural immune-modulatory compound berberine in C57BL/6 mouse model of pulmonary TB. Berberine treatment did not affect Mtb growth in axenic cultures; however, it showed increased bacterial killing in primary murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages. Ad libitum berberine administration was beneficial to the host in combination with rifampicin and isoniazid. Berberine adjunctive treatment resulted in decreased lung pathology with no additive or synergistic effects on bacterial burdens in mice. Lung immune cell flow cytometry analysis showed that adjunctive berberine treatment decreased neutrophil, CD11b+ dendritic cell and recruited interstitial macrophage numbers. Late onset of adjunctive berberine treatment resulted in a similar phenotype with consistently reduced numbers of neutrophils both in lungs and the spleen. Together, our results suggest that berberine can be supplemented as an immunomodulatory agent depending on the disease stage and inflammatory status of the host.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 35-42
Author(s):  
Jérôme Casse ◽  
Nicolas Curien

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
pp. 1809
Author(s):  
Gilson de Souza Ferreira Neto ◽  
Marco Antônio Prado ◽  
Pedro Ubatan Camargo Neves ◽  
Regison da Costa Oliveira ◽  
Elizabeth Ferreira Guimarães
Keyword(s):  

<p>Em geral, animais resgatados passam um período em cativeiro para avaliação da condição física e capacidade de sobrevivência antes de retornarem a natureza. Durante este período, os animais devem ser estimulados através de um enriquecimento ambiental e alimentar para manterem os comportamentos similares aos apresentados em meio natural. Este estudo foi realizado com seis indivíduos de <em>Rhea americana</em> no bioma Cerrado, em Goiás. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade de comportamentos de emas, através de uma comparação entre os comportamentos de cativeiro e vida livre. Os animais tinham entre 4 e 10 meses durante o monitoramento, sendo que os mesmos indivíduos foram observados em cativeiro e vida livre. Observações comportamentais foram feitas com seis indivíduos durante um total de 120 h, sendo 60 h em cativeiro e 60 h em vida livre. Para a construção do etograma foram utilizados os métodos de observação <em>ad libitum</em> e animal focal. Identificamos um total de 19 comportamentos agrupados em oito categorias comportamentais: alimentação, encontro agonístico, locomoção, limpeza, vocalização, brincadeiras, inatividade e defesa. As diversidades de comportamentos tiveram frequências semelhantes nas fases de cativeiro e vida livre. Os comportamentos de locomoção e vocalização tiveram maior expressão em cativeiro, enquanto os comportamentos de limpeza, alimentação, encontro agonístico e brincadeira tiveram maior expressão em vida livre. Entretanto, não houve nenhuma diferença significativa entre os comportamentos de vida livre e cativeiro. Nesse estudo foram feitas observações apenas de machos, e por isso, sugerimos estudos adicionais que incluam machos e fêmeas, para serem observados possíveis comportamentos de reprodução. As reintroduções com emas, geralmente, não são bem sucedidas, considerando a alta taxa de mortalidade por um predador natural. Medidas adequadas de manejo poderiam evitar estes problemas. Desta forma, ações conservacionistas que visem a reintrodução de emas e que identifiquem os comportamentos de indivíduos em cativeiro e vida livre podem ajudar a melhorar o bem-estar animal em cativeiro e, desta forma, aumentar as chances de sobrevivência no ambiente natural. O enriquecimento ambiental e alimentar pode ser essencial para estimular os comportamentos naturais, evitando comportamentos estereotipados em cativeiro. Além disso, os métodos usados nesse estudo poderiam ser utilizados para outras aves ratitas.</p><p><strong>Palavras chave</strong>: Aves ratitas, bem-estar animal, Cerrado, observações comportamentais, <em>Rhea americana</em>.</p>


Author(s):  
Haley A. Hallowell ◽  
Keah V. Higgins ◽  
Morgan Roberts ◽  
Robert M. Johnson ◽  
Jenna Bayne ◽  
...  

Due to its immunomodulatory potential, the intestinal microbiota has been implicated as a contributing factor in the development of the meta-inflammatory state that drives obesity-associated insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. A better understanding of this link would facilitate the development of targeted treatments and therapies to treat the metabolic complications of obesity. To this end, we validated and utilized a novel swine model of obesity, the Mangalica pig, to characterize changes in the gut microbiota during the development of an obese phenotype, and in response to dietary differences. In the first study, we characterized the metabolic phenotype and gut microbiota in lean and obese adult Mangalica pigs. Obese or lean groups were created by allowing either ad libitum (obese) or restricted (lean) access to a standard diet for 54 weeks. Mature obese pigs were significantly heavier and exhibited 170% greater subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, with no differences in muscle mass compared to their lean counterparts. Obese pigs displayed impaired glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia following oral glucose challenge, indicating that a metabolic phenotype also manifested with changes in body composition. Consistent with observations in human obesity, the gut microbiota of obese pigs displayed altered bacterial composition. In the second study, we characterized the longitudinal changes in the gut microbiota in response to diet and aging in growing Mangalica pigs that were either limit fed a standard diet, allowed ad libitum access to a standard diet, or allowed ad libitum access to a high fat-supplemented diet over an 18-week period. As expected, weight gain was highest in pigs fed the high fat diet compared to ad libitum and limit fed groups. Furthermore, the ad libitum and high fat groups displayed significantly greater adiposity consistent with the development of obesity relative to the limit fed pigs. The intestinal microbiota was generally resilient to differences in dietary intake (limit fed vs ad libitum), though changes in the microbiota of pigs fed the high fat diet mirrored changes observed in mature obese pigs during the first study. This is consistent with the link observed between the microbiota and adiposity. In contrast to intestinal bacterial populations, bacteriophage populations within the gut microbiota responded rapidly to differences in diet, with significant compositional changes in bacteriophage genera observed between the dietary treatment groups as pigs aged. These studies are the first to describe the development of the intestinal microbiota in the Mangalica pig, and are the first to provide evidence that changes in body composition and dietary conditions are associated with changes in the microbiome of this novel porcine model of obesity.


Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 2991
Author(s):  
Isabelle Ruhnke ◽  
Yeasmin Akter ◽  
Terence Zimazile Sibanda ◽  
Aaron J. Cowieson ◽  
Stuart Wilkinson ◽  
...  

Laying hens require substantial quantities of calcium (Ca) to maintain egg production. However, maintaining recommended dietary Ca through inclusion of limestone may impede nutrient digestibility, including that of other minerals. It was hypothesized that providing a separate source of dietary Ca in the form of limestone grit would preserve Ca intake of hens offered diets containing suboptimal Ca concentrations. Furthermore, the impact of dietary phytase at a “superdosing” inclusion rate on the voluntary consumption of limestone grit was evaluated. One hundred and forty-four laying hens (19 weeks of age) were assigned to one of six dietary treatments in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement comprising three dietary Ca concentrations (40, 30, and 20 g/kg) and ±dietary phytase (3500 FYT/kg diet) on an ad libitum basis for six weeks. Limestone grit (3.4 ± 1.0 mm) was provided to all hens ad libitum. Hens offered diets containing phytase consumed significantly less limestone grit p = 0.024). Egg weight, rate of lay, and egg mass were unaffected by dietary treatment (p > 0.05). Egg shell weight % (p < 0.001), shell thickness (p < 0.001), and shell breaking strength (p < 0.01) decreased in line with dietary Ca levels. In summary, dietary superdosing with phytase reduced the consumption of a separate limestone source in individually housed, early lay ISA Brown hens. Egg shell quality variables but not egg production worsened in line with lower dietary Ca levels.


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