soil biodiversity
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2022 ◽  
Vol 217 ◽  
pp. 105283
Andrea Fiorini ◽  
Sara Remelli ◽  
Roberta Boselli ◽  
Paolo Mantovi ◽  
Federico Ardenti ◽  

Carmelo Andujar ◽  
Paula Arribas ◽  
Heriberto López ◽  
Yurena Arjona ◽  
Antonio Pérez-Delgado ◽  

Most of our understanding of island diversity comes from the study of aboveground systems, while the patterns and processes of diversification and community assembly for belowground biotas remain poorly understood. Here we take advantage of a relatively young and dynamic oceanic island to advance our understanding of eco-evolutionary processes driving community assembly within soil mesofauna. Using whole organism community DNA (wocDNA) metabarcoding and the recently developed metaMATE pipeline, we have generated spatially explicit and reliable haplotype-level DNA sequence data for soil mesofaunal assemblages sampled across the four main habitats within the island of Tenerife. Community ecological and metaphylogeographic analyses have been performed at multiple levels of genetic similarity, from haplotypes to species and supraspecific groupings. Broadly consistent patterns of local-scale species richness across different insular habitats have been found, whereas local insular richness is lower than in continental settings. Our results reveal an important role for niche conservatism as a driver of insular community assembly of soil mesofauna, with only limited evidence for habitat shifts promoting diversification. Furthermore, support is found for a fundamental role of habitat in the assembly of soil mesofauna, where habitat specialism is mainly due to colonisation and the establishment of preadapted species. Hierarchical patterns of distance decay at the community level and metaphylogeographical analyses support a pattern of geographic structuring over limited spatial scales, from the level of haplotypes through to species and lineages, as expected for taxa with strong dispersal limitations. Our results demonstrate the potential for wocDNA metabarcoding to advance our understanding of biodiversity.

2022 ◽  
Anton M. Potapov ◽  
Xin Sun ◽  
Maria J.I. Briones ◽  
George Brown ◽  
Erin Cameron ◽  

Here we introduce the Soil BON Foodweb Team, a cross-continental collaborative network that aims to monitor soil animal communities and food webs using consistent methodology at a global scale. Soil animals support vital soil processes via soil structure modification, direct consumption of dead organic matter, and interactions with microbial and plant communities. Soil animal effects on ecosystem functions have been demonstrated by correlative analyses as well as in laboratory and field experiments, but these studies typically focus on selected animal groups or species at one or few sites with limited variation in environmental conditions. The lack of comprehensive harmonised large-scale soil animal community data including microfauna, mesofauna, and macrofauna, in conjunction with related soil functions, limits our understanding of biological interactions in soil communities and how these interactions affect ecosystem functioning. To provide such data, the Soil BON Foodweb Team invites researchers worldwide to use a common methodology to address six long-term goals: (1) to collect globally representative harmonised data on soil micro-, meso-, and macrofauna communities; (2) to describe key environmental drivers of soil animal communities and food webs; (3) to assess the efficiency of conservation approaches for the protection of soil animal communities; (4) to describe soil food webs and their association with soil functioning globally; (5) to establish a global research network for soil biodiversity monitoring and collaborative projects in related topics; (6) to reinforce local collaboration networks and expertise and support capacity building for soil animal research around the world. In this paper, we describe the vision of the global research network and the common sampling protocol to assess soil animal communities and advocate for the use of standard methodologies across observational and experimental soil animal studies. We will use this protocol to conduct soil animal assessments and reconstruct soil food webs on the sites included in the global soil biodiversity monitoring network, Soil BON, allowing us to assess linkages among soil biodiversity, vegetation, soil physico-chemical properties, and ecosystem functions. In the present paper, we call for researchers especially from countries and ecoregions that remain underrepresented in the majority of soil biodiversity assessments to join us. Together we will be able to provide science-based evidence to support soil biodiversity conservation and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems.

2022 ◽  
Anton M. Potapov ◽  
Carlos A. Guerra ◽  
Johan van den Hoogen ◽  
Anatoly Babenko ◽  
Bruno C. Bellini ◽  

Soil life supports the functioning and biodiversity of terrestrial ecosystems1,2. Springtails (Collembola) are among the most abundant soil animals regulating soil fertility and flow of energy through above- and belowground food webs3-5. However, the global distribution of springtail diversity and density, and how these relate to energy fluxes remains unknown. Here, using a global dataset collected from 2,470 sites, we estimate total soil springtail biomass at 29 Mt carbon (threefold higher than wild terrestrial vertebrates6) and record peak densities up to 2 million individuals per m2 in the Arctic. Despite a 20-fold biomass difference between tundra and the tropics, springtail energy use (community metabolism) remains similar across the latitudinal gradient, owing to the increase in temperature. Neither springtail density nor community metabolism were predicted by local species richness, which was highest in the tropics, but comparably high in some temperate forests and even tundra. Changes in springtail activity may emerge from latitudinal gradients in temperature, predation7,8, and resource limitation7,9,10 in soil communities. Contrasting temperature responses of biomass, diversity and activity of springtail communities suggest that climate warming will alter fundamental soil biodiversity metrics in different directions, potentially restructuring terrestrial food webs and affecting major soil functions.

2022 ◽  
pp. 112-131
Tatjana D. Golubović

Soil is one of the most valuable natural resources. Despite soil importance, the pressures on soil have increased in recent decades. Soil degradation is a critical and growing problem, whereby soil erosion presents a prevailing process compared to other degradative processes. The intensity of erosion depends on the topography, climate conditions, soil characteristics, human activities, and the presence of vegetation. In this chapter, the diverse factors that cause soil erosion have been evaluated. The level of damage associated with soil erosion has been analyzed, with emphasis on the impacts they may have on the global carbon cycle, phosphorus loss, dust emissions, eutrophication, and soil biodiversity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 169 ◽  
pp. 104209
Jonas Inkotte ◽  
Barbara Bomfim ◽  
Sarah Camelo da Silva ◽  
Marco Bruno Xavier Valadão ◽  
Márcio Gonçalves da Rosa ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 383
Emanuela Coller ◽  
Claudia Maria Oliveira Longa ◽  
Raffaella Morelli ◽  
Sara Zanoni ◽  
Marco Cristiano Cersosimo Ippolito ◽  

The use of conservation and sustainable practices could restore the abundance and richness of soil organisms in agroecosystems. Fitting in this context, this study aimed to highlight whether and how different soil living communities reacted to the conversion from an integrated to an organic orchard. The metataxonomic approach for fungi and bacteria and the determination of biological forms of diatoms and microarthropods were applied. Soil analyses were carried out in order to evaluate the effect of soil chemical features on four major soil living communities. Our results showed that the different taxa reacted with different speeds to the management changes. Fungi responded quickly to the changes, suggesting that modification in agricultural practices had a greater impact on fungal communities. Bacteria and microarthropods were more affected by abiotic parameters and less by the management. The diatom composition seemed to be affected by seasonality but the highest H’ (Shannon index) value was measured in the organic system. Fungi, but also diatoms, seemed to be promising for monitoring changes in the soil since they were sensitive to both the soil features and the anthropic impact. Our study showed that soil biodiversity could be affected by the conversion to sustainable management practices from the early years of an orchard onwards. Therefore, better ecological orchard management may strengthen soil sustainability and resilience in historically agricultural regions.

Ecosistemas ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 30 (3) ◽  
pp. 2238
Miriam Muñoz-Rojas ◽  
Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo ◽  
Manuel Esteban Lucas-Borja

La biodiversidad y el carbono orgánico del suelo, así como la interacción entre ambos, juegan papeles esenciales en el mantenimiento y regulación de los servicios ecosistémicos de las zonas secas, desde la fertilidad del suelo a la producción de alimentos. El cambio climático y los impactos antrópicos pueden provocar pérdidas en la biodiversidad y carbono del suelo, lo cual puede resultar en alteraciones de los ciclos del carbono y la funcionalidad de los ecosistemas derivando en procesos acelerados de desertificación. Es necesario, por tanto, mejorar nuestro conocimiento sobre la compleja diversidad biológica del suelo, así como su interacción con el carbono orgánico en las zonas secas. Esto nos permitirá diseñar estrategias efectivas para promover el secuestro de carbono en el suelo, contribuyendo así a revertir los procesos de degradación y desertificación. En esta revisión discutimos la importancia de la biodiversidad y el carbono orgánico del suelo de las zonas secas en un contexto de cambio global, definiendo la relación entre ambos y su respuesta a factores climáticos y degradación. También destacamos el uso de herramientas avanzadas tales como la genómica, y practicas relevantes de manejo del suelo que nos permitan incrementar los contenidos de carbono y mejorar la diversidad y funcionalidad de suelo en las zonas secas, con el fin último de prevenir y revertir la desertificación.

2021 ◽  
Jingru Zhang ◽  
Zhengkun Hu ◽  
Chongzhe Zhang ◽  
Yiheng Tao ◽  
Xiaoyun Chen ◽  

Abstract Aims Roots bridge above and belowground systems, and play a pivotal role in structuring root-associated organisms via influencing food resources and habitat conditions. Most studies focused on the relationships between plant identity and root-associated organisms, however, little is known about how root traits affect nematode communities within the rhizosphere. Methods We investigated the relationships between root traits of four plant species and nematode diversity, community structure and trophic complexity in an ex-arable field. Results While the relative abundance of herbivorous nematodes was negatively associated with specific root length (SRL), specific root area (SRA), root length density (RLD) and root C: N ratio, free-living nematodes were positively affected by these traits, implying a multifaceted effect of root traits on root-associated organisms. Importantly, we found that finer root systems promoted the complexity of the nematode community, by increasing the relative abundance of high trophic-level nematodes (i.e., omnivores and predators) and enhancing nematode diversity. Conclusion Our findings suggest that root traits could be reliable indicators of soil community structure and interactions, and provide new insights into soil biodiversity and functional maintenance.

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