brain development
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2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. 16-33
Author(s):  
Mehrin Kiani ◽  
Javier Andreu-Perez ◽  
Hani Hagras ◽  
Silvia Rigato ◽  
Maria Laura Filippetti

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Malalaniaina Rakotobe ◽  
Niels Fjerdingstad ◽  
Nuria Ruiz-Reig ◽  
Thomas Lamonerie ◽  
Fabien D'Autréaux

Abstract Experiencing stress during sensitive periods of brain development has a major impact on how individuals cope with later stress. Although many become more prone to develop anxiety or depression, some appear resilient. The mechanisms underlying these differences are unknown. Key answers may lie in how genetic and environmental stressors interact to shape the circuits controlling emotions. Here we studied the role of the habenulo-interpeducuncular system (HIPS), a critical node of reward circuits, in early stress-induced anxiety. We found that a subcircuit of this system, characterized by Otx2 expression, is particularly responsive to chronic stress during puberty, which induces HIPS hypersensitivity to later stress and susceptibility to develop anxiety. We further show that Otx2 deletion restricted to the HIPS counteracts these effects of stress. Together, these results demonstrate that Otx2 and stress interact, around puberty, to shape the HIPS stress-response, revealed here as a key modulator of susceptibility/resilience to develop anxiety.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Christopher J Playfoot ◽  
Shaoline Sheppard ◽  
Evarist Planet ◽  
Didier Trono

Transposable elements (TEs) contribute to the evolution of gene regulatory networks and are dynamically expressed throughout human brain development and disease. One gene regulatory mechanism influenced by TEs is the miRNA system of post-transcriptional control. miRNA sequences frequently overlap TE loci and this miRNA expression landscape is crucial for control of gene expression in adult brain and different cellular contexts. Despite this, a thorough investigation of the spatiotemporal expression of TE-embedded miRNAs in human brain development is lacking. Here, we identify a spatiotemporally dynamic TE-embedded miRNA expression landscape between childhood and adolescent stages of human brain development. These miRNAs sometimes arise from two apposed TEs of the same subfamily, such as for L2 or MIR elements, but in the majority of cases stem from solo TEs. They give rise to in silico predicted high-confidence pre-miRNA hairpin structures, likely represent functional miRNAs and have predicted genic targets associated with neurogenesis. TE-embedded miRNA expression is distinct in the cerebellum when compared to other brain regions, as has previously been described for gene and TE expression. Furthermore, we detect expression of previously non-annotated TE-embedded miRNAs throughout human brain development, suggestive of a previously undetected miRNA control network. Together, as with non-TE-embedded miRNAs, TE-embedded sequences give rise to spatiotemporally dynamic miRNA expression networks, the implications of which for human brain development constitute extensive avenues of future experimental research. To facilitate interactive exploration of these spatiotemporal miRNA expression dynamics, we provide the 'Brain miRTExplorer' web application freely accessible for the community.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Malalaniaina Rakotobe ◽  
Niels Fjerdingstad ◽  
Nuria Ruiz-Reig ◽  
Thomas Lamonerie ◽  
Fabien D'Autréaux

Abstract Experiencing stress during sensitive periods of brain development has a major impact on how individuals cope with later stress. Although many become more prone to develop anxiety or depression, some appear resilient. The mechanisms underlying these differences are unknown. Key answers may lie in how genetic and environmental stressors interact to shape the circuits controlling emotions. Here we studied the role of the habenulo-interpeducuncular system (HIPS), a critical node of reward circuits, in early stress-induced anxiety. We found that a subcircuit of this system, characterized by Otx2 expression, is particularly responsive to chronic stress during puberty, which induces HIPS hypersensitivity to later stress and susceptibility to develop anxiety. We further show that Otx2 deletion restricted to the HIPS counteracts these effects of stress. Together, these results demonstrate that Otx2 and stress interact, around puberty, to shape the HIPS stress-response, revealed here as a key modulator of susceptibility/resilience to develop anxiety.


2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Author(s):  
Matthew W. Pitts ◽  
Peter R. Hoffmann ◽  
Lutz Schomburg
Keyword(s):  

Biology Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Bilal M. Akhtar ◽  
Priyanka Bhatia ◽  
Shubhra Acharya ◽  
Sanjeev Sharma ◽  
Yojet Sharma ◽  
...  

Human brain development is a complex process where multiple cellular and developmental events are co-ordinated to generate normal structure and function. Alteration in any of these events can impact brain development, manifesting clinically as neurodevelopmental disorders. Human genetic disorders of lipid metabolism often present with features of altered brain function. Lowe syndrome (LS), is a X-linked recessive disease with features of altered brain function. LS results from mutations in OCRL1 that encodes a phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase enzyme. However, the cellular mechanisms by which loss of OCRL1 leads to brain defects remain unknown. Human brain development involves several cellular and developmental features not conserved in other species and understanding such mechanisms remains a challenge. Rodent models of LS have been generated, but failed to recapitulate features of the human disease. Here we describe the generation of human stem cell lines from LS patients. Further, we present biochemical characterization of lipid metabolism in patient cell lines and demonstrate their use as a “disease-in-a-dish” model for understanding the mechanism by which loss of OCRL1 leads to altered cellular and physiological brain development.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Libor Zavorka ◽  
Magnus Lovén Wallerius ◽  
Martin Kainz ◽  
Johan Höjesjö

Abstract Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) are key structural lipids and their dietary intake is essential for brain development of virtually all vertebrates. The importance of n-3 LC-PUFA has been demonstrated in clinical and laboratory studies, but little is known about how differences in availability of n-3 LC-PUFA in natural prey influence brain development of wild consumers. The numerous consumers foraging on the interface of aquatic and terrestrial food webs can differ substantially in their intake of n-3 LC-PUFA, which may lead to differences in brain development, yet, this hypothesis remains to be tested. Here we use the previously demonstrated shift towards higher reliance on n-3 LC-PUFA deprived terrestrial prey of native brown trout Salmo trutta living in sympatry with invasive brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis to explore this hypothesis. We found that the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in muscle tissues of brown trout decreased with increasing consumption of n-3 LC-PUFA deprived terrestrial prey. Brain volume was positively related to content of the n-3 LC-PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid, in muscle tissues of brown trout. Our study thus suggests that increased reliance on low quality diet of n-3 LC-PUFA deprived subsidies can have a significant negative impact on brain development of wild trout. Our findings are important, because ongoing global change is predicted to reduce the availability of dietary n-3 LC-PUFA across food webs and we showed here a first evidence of how brain of wild vertebrate consumers response to scarcity of n-3 LC-PUFA content in natural prey.


2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2110917119
Author(s):  
Zongyan Yu ◽  
Zhiwen Yang ◽  
Guoru Ren ◽  
Yingjie Wang ◽  
Xiang Luo ◽  
...  

Amino acids are essential for cell growth and metabolism. Amino acid and growth factor signaling pathways coordinately regulate the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) kinase in cell growth and organ development. While major components of amino acid signaling mechanisms have been identified, their biological functions in organ development are unclear. We aimed to understand the functions of the critically positioned amino acid signaling complex GAP activity towards Rags 2 (GATOR2) in brain development. GATOR2 mediates amino acid signaling to mTORC1 by directly linking the amino acid sensors for arginine and leucine to downstream signaling complexes. Now, we report a role of GATOR2 in oligodendrocyte myelination in postnatal brain development. We show that the disruption of GATOR2 complex by genetic deletion of meiosis regulator for oocyte development (Mios, encoding a component of GATOR2) selectively impairs the formation of myelinating oligodendrocytes, thus brain myelination, without apparent effects on the formation of neurons and astrocytes. The loss of Mios impairs cell cycle progression of oligodendrocyte precursor cells, leading to their reduced proliferation and differentiation. Mios deletion manifests a cell type–dependent effect on mTORC1 in the brain, with oligodendroglial mTORC1 selectively affected. However, the role of Mios/GATOR2 in oligodendrocyte formation and myelination involves mTORC1-independent function. This study suggests that GATOR2 coordinates amino acid and growth factor signaling to regulate oligodendrocyte myelination.


2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (2) ◽  
pp. e2112040119
Author(s):  
Daniel Gonzalez-Bohorquez ◽  
Isabel M. Gallego López ◽  
Baptiste N. Jaeger ◽  
Sibylle Pfammatter ◽  
Megan Bowers ◽  
...  

Fate and behavior of neural progenitor cells are tightly regulated during mammalian brain development. Metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, that are required for supplying energy and providing molecular building blocks to generate cells govern progenitor function. However, the role of de novo lipogenesis, which is the conversion of glucose into fatty acids through the multienzyme protein fatty acid synthase (FASN), for brain development remains unknown. Using Emx1Cre-mediated, tissue-specific deletion of Fasn in the mouse embryonic telencephalon, we show that loss of FASN causes severe microcephaly, largely due to altered polarity of apical, radial glia progenitors and reduced progenitor proliferation. Furthermore, genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of FASN in human embryonic stem cell–derived forebrain organoids identifies a conserved role of FASN-dependent lipogenesis for radial glia cell polarity in human brain organoids. Thus, our data establish a role of de novo lipogenesis for mouse and human brain development and identify a link between progenitor-cell polarity and lipid metabolism.


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