Ct Pulmonary Angiography
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2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Author(s):  
Zhongxing Zhang ◽  
Yan Zhang ◽  
Xiaohui Wang ◽  
Xiaoli Han ◽  
Xin Zhang ◽  
...  

This paper aimed to study the clinical characteristics of patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) with syncope (PE + S) based on the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction algorithm in computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography (CTPA). In this study, 857 patients with acute PE (APE) who were treated in hospital were selected as the research objects and divided into syncope group (group S) and nonsyncope group (group NS). The 3D reconstruction marching cubes (3DR-MC) algorithm was compared with the traditional MC (T-MC) algorithm and the mesh simplification MC (MMS-MC) algorithm, and the results proved that the running time of the 3DR-MC algorithm on the platform was shorter than that of the other two algorithms. The incidence of syncope in group S in women was higher than that in group NS (51.7% vs. 38.2%). The incidence of syncope classified as high risk in group S was higher than that in group NS, and the mortality rate of pulmonary embolism patients with syncope was higher, and the difference was statistically significant (χ2 = 113.332, P < 0.05 ). The incidence of syncope in group S was higher than that in group NS (χ2 = 4.074, P < 0.05 ). In short, hypertension was an independent risk factor for syncope. PE + S patients could be diagnosed and treated as early as possible based on the clinical characteristics, so as to reduce the adverse consequences of misdiagnosis.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ghufran Aref Saeed ◽  
Waqar Haider Gaba ◽  
Abd Al Kareem Mohd Adi ◽  
Reima Obaid Al Marshoodi ◽  
Safaa Saeed Al Mazrouei ◽  
...  

Purpose. Our aim is to identify the prevalence and distribution of pulmonary thromboembolism in COVID-19 infected patients in our hospital. Materials and Methods. Data of all patients with COVID-19 infection either on RT-PCR testing or non-contrast high resolution CT(HRCT) who had CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) from April to June 2020 were included. 133 patients were initially included in the study, 7 were excluded according to exclusion criteria, leaving a total number of 126 patients. Results. Twenty (15.8%) patients had evidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) on CTPA with mean age of 50 years (range 31-85) of which 95% were males. The mean D-dimer was 5.61mcg/mL among the PE-negative and 14.49 mcg/mL in the PE-positive groups respectively. Among the patients with evidence of pulmonary embolism on CTP, almost half required admission to intensive care unit in comparison to only one-fifth with negative CTPA. One-fourth died among the PE positive group with only 5% died among the PE negative group. There was a 33% reduction in the development of PE in the COVID-19 patients who had received low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) prior to their CTPA study versus those who had not. Conclusion. D-dimer correlates well with the incidence of pulmonary embolism among COVID-19 patients. Our data suggest that majority of our patients, developed pulmonary embolisms within 5 days into their hospital stay, accounting to almost two thirds of all positive cases diagnosed by CTPA. Those with PE among COVID-19 patients have high chances of ICU admission and mortality. Use of thromboprophylaxis early on might reduce the incidence of PE.


Author(s):  
Muhammad Farid Bin Mohd Fauad ◽  
Hazlyna Baharuddin ◽  
Mohd Arif Mohd Zim ◽  
Bushra Johari

Pulmonary embolism (PE) was reported in about 9% patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Seronegative APS is an entity which demonstrates clinical manifestations highly suggestive of APS but persistently negative APS antibodies. A 31-year-old lady presented with a two-month history of exertional dyspnoea. She had two consecutive miscarriages at 12 and 14 weeks, previously. Physical examination revealed a thin lady who was tachycardic, tachypneic, hypoxic but normotensive. There was a loud P2 without signs of heart failure. Investigations revealed a type 1 respiratory failure, sinus tachycardia with right ventricular strain pattern, cardiomegaly with normal lung fields, and dilated right atrium and right ventricle with increased in pulmonary arterial pressure of 70mmHg from echocardiography. CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) confirmed the presence of PE over bilateral pulmonary arteries. She continued to have exertional dyspnoea and was readmitted 9 months later with worsening dyspnoea. APS antibodies performed during both admissions were negative. Seronegative APS was diagnosed. Interestingly, two CTPAs performed at 6 months and 9 months after initial presentation revealed persistent bilateral pulmonary embolism. The provoking factors for PE should be sought because ‘unprovoked’ PE especially in young individuals need further attention. APS, including seronegative APS, should be considered. Persistence of symptoms of PE also warrants further attention as chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) may be the cause. Currently, there are available medical and surgical treatment of CTEPH, therefore establishing its diagnosis is important and it is best performed in pulmonary hypertension expert centre.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Supplementary Issue-2: 2021 Page: S25


2021 ◽  
pp. 20210699
Author(s):  
Ioannis Vlahos ◽  
Megan C Jacobsen ◽  
Myrna C Godoy ◽  
Konstantinos Stefanidis ◽  
Rick R Layman

Dual energy CT (DECT) imaging is a technique that extends the capabilities of CT beyond that of established densitometric evaluations. CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) performed with dual energy technique benefits from both the availability of low kVp CT data and also the concurrent ability to quantify iodine enhancement in the lung parenchyma. Parenchymal enhancement, presented as pulmonary perfused blood volume maps, may be considered a surrogate of pulmonary perfusion. These distinct capabilities have led to new opportunities in the evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases. Dual energy CTPA offers the potential for improvements in pulmonary emboli detection, diagnostic confidence, and most notably severity stratification. Furthermore, the appreciated insights of pulmonary vascular physiology conferred by DECT have resulted in increased use for the assessment of pulmonary hypertension, with particular utility in the subset of patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. With the increasing availability of dual energy-capable CT systems, dual energy CTPA is becoming a standard-of-care protocol for CTPA acquisition in acute PE. Furthermore, qualitative and quantitative pulmonary vascular DECT data heralds promise for the technique as a “one-stop shop” for diagnosis and surveillance assessment in patients with pulmonary hypertension. This review explores the current application, clinical value, and limitations of DECT imaging in acute and chronic pulmonary vascular conditions. It should be noted that certain manufacturers and investigators prefer alternative terms, such as spectral or multi energy CT imaging. In this review the term dual energy is utilised, although readers can consider these terms synonymous for purposes of the principles explained.


Author(s):  
Alessandra Mirabile ◽  
Nicola Maria Lucarelli ◽  
Enza Pia Sollazzo ◽  
Amato Antonio Stabile Ianora ◽  
Angela Sardaro ◽  
...  

Abstract Purpose To assess the percentage of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) procedures that could have been avoided by methodical application of the Revised Geneva Score (RGS) coupled with age-adjusted D-dimer cut-offs rather than only clinical judgment in Emergency Department patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Material and methods Between November 2019 and May 2020, 437 patients with suspected PE based on symptoms and D-dimer test were included in this study. All patients underwent to CTPA. For each patient, we retrospectively calculated the age-adjusted D-dimer cut-offs and the RGS in the original version. Finally, CT images were retrospectively reviewed, and the presence of PE was recorded. Results In total, 43 (9.84%) CTPA could have been avoided by use of RGS coupled with age-adjusted D-dimer cut-offs. Prevalence of PE was 14.87%. From the analysis of 43 inappropriate CTPA, 24 (55.81%) of patients did not show any thoracic signs, two (4.65%) of patients had PE, and the remaining patients had alternative thoracic findings. Conclusion The study showed good prevalence of PE diagnoses in our department using only physician assessment, although 9.84% CTPA could have been avoided by methodical application of RGS coupled with age-adjusted D-dimer cut-offs.


Author(s):  
Heba Ibrahim ◽  
Samar M. El-Maadawy

Abstract Background Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a critical medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to avoid serious morbidity and mortality risk. Multidetector CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is considered the first-line imaging modality for suspected acute PE. The presence of right heart strain, which supports the diagnosis, requires special attention. The aim of our retrospective study is to assess the reliability of CTPA hemodynamic indices in predicting patients’ outcome in cases of PE. Results Sixty patients were included in our study. CTPA parameters including main pulmonary artery (MPA) diameter, left ventricle (LV) diameter, right ventricle (RV)/LV ratio, and septal deviation had a clinical prognostic value for short-term 30-day mortality and ICU admission. Statistically significant relationship between MPA diameter > 29 mm, LV diameter, RV/LV ratio > 1, left-sided septal deviation and contrast reflux into the IVC/distal hepatic veins with ICU admission was observed with p values 0.031, 0.000, 0.000, 0.005 and 0.028 respectively. There was a statistically significant correlation between MPA diameter > 29 mm, LV diameter, RV/LV > 1 ratio and septal deviation with 30-day mortality with p values of < 0.001, 0.001, < 0.001 and 0.015 respectively. No significant correlation was found between 30-day mortality and contrast reflux to IVC with p value of 0.070. Conclusions CTPA measurements including MPA diameter, RV/LV ratio and septal deviation were found to be significantly correlated to ICU admission and 30-day mortality as predictors for PE severity. CT contrast reflux was found to be correlated to ICU admission; however, it was not significantly correlated to 30-day mortality.


Author(s):  
Sreenivasa Narayana Raju ◽  
Niraj Nirmal Pandey ◽  
Arun Sharma ◽  
Amarinder Singh Malhi ◽  
Siddharthan Deepti ◽  
...  

AbstractPulmonary artery dilatation comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders. Early diagnosis is important as the presentation may be incidental, chronic, or acute and life threatening depending upon the etiology. Cross-sectional imaging plays an important role, with CT pulmonary angiography being regarded as the first line investigation in the evaluation of pulmonary artery pathologies. Moreover, effects of pulmonary artery lesions on proximal and distal circulation can also be ascertained with the detection of associated conditions. Special attention should also be given to the left main coronary artery and the trachea-bronchial tree as they may be extrinsically compressed by the dilated pulmonary artery. In context of an appropriate clinical background, CT pulmonary angiography also helps in treatment planning, prognostication, and follow-up of these patients. This review mainly deals with imaging evaluation of the pulmonary arterial dilatations on CT with emphasis on the gamut of etiologies in the adult as well as pediatric populations.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Meng Yuan ◽  
XinYuan Cui ◽  
ChunXue Yang ◽  
XinYang Zhang ◽  
DeLi Zhao ◽  
...  

Abstract Background To evaluate the value of CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in evaluating the therapeutic efficacy of pulmonary embolism (PE) through the study of CT pulmonary artery obstruction index (PAOI),right ventricular function parameters and some clinical indexes related to coagulation function and cardiac function injury.Materials and methods Select 30 patients with pulmonary embolism who underwent CTPA examination before and after treatment in our hospital, sort out their CTPA images before and after treatment, and obtain PAOI and right heart function parameters, including ascending aorta diameter (AAd), main pulmonary artery diameter (MPAd), ratio of main pulmonary artery diameter to ascending aorta diameter (MPAd/AAd), right pulmonary artery trunk diameter (RPAd), left pulmonary artery trunk diameter (LPAd), the ratio of the maximum short axis diameter of the right ventricle to the maximum short axis diameter of the left ventricle (RVd/LVd), and calculate the pulmonary artery obstruction index (PAOI).At the same time obtain the required clinical indicators, including serum D-dimer, N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide precursor (NT-proBNP), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), myocardial enzyme profile (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK)).Results MPAd, RPAd, LPAd, RVd / LVd, PAOI, D-dimer, cTnI, CK, LDH, AST had significant changes after treatment (P < 0.05), while the other parameters and indexes had no significant differences before and after treatment (P > 0.05). PAOI is positively correlated with RVd/LVd, MPAd, D-dimer. The correlation coefficient ranges from 0.281 to 0.423, among which, the correlation with D-dimer is the closest, with a correlation coefficient of 0.423. There was no significant correlation between other parameters and PAOI (P < 0.05).Conclusion CTPA is of great significance in evaluating the severity of pulmonary embolism, right heart function and therapeutic efficacy.


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