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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 450
Jaesik Park ◽  
Sung Un Kim ◽  
Ho Joong Choi ◽  
Sang Hyun Hong ◽  
Min Suk Chae

This study aimed to determine the association between serum D-dimer levels and the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Clinical data of 675 patients undergoing LDLT were retrospectively analyzed. The exclusion criteria included a history of kidney dysfunction, emergency cases, and missing data. The final study population of 617 patients was divided into the normal and high D-dimer groups (cutoff: 0.5 mg/L). After LDLT, 145 patients (23.5%) developed AKI. A high D-dimer level (>0.5 mg/L) was an independent predictor of postoperative development of AKI in the multivariate analysis when combined with diabetes mellitus [DM], platelet count, and hourly urine output. AKI was significantly higher in the high D-dimer group than in the normal D-dimer group (odds ratio [OR], 2.792; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.227–6.353). Patients with a high D-dimer exhibited a higher incidence of early allograft dysfunction, longer intensive care unit stay, and a higher mortality rate. These results could improve the risk stratification of postoperative AKI development by encouraging the determination of preoperative D-dimer levels in patients undergoing LDLT.

2022 ◽  
Na Cui ◽  
Chunguo Jiang ◽  
Chenlu Yang ◽  
Liming Zhang ◽  
Xiaokai Feng

Abstract Background: High incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) has been observed in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by COVID-19 and those by bacterial pneumonia. However, it is also important to differentiate between these two groups of patients. Study Design and Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study to investigate the difference of DVT between the two independent cohorts of ARDS and eventually enrolled 240 patients, 105 of whom with ARDS caused by COVID-19 and 135 by bacterial pneumonia. We analyzed demographics and clinical characteristics for patients with and without DVT in these two cohorts and explored the main differences and similarities between them.Results: The 28-days incidence of DVT in COVID-19 cohort was higher than that in bacterial pneumonia cohort (57.1% vs 41.5%, P=0.016). Taking death as competitive risk, Fine-Gray test showed no significant difference in 28-day cumulative incidence of DVT between these two groups (P=0.220). Fine-Gray competing risk analysis showed an association between CK (creatine kinase isoenzyme)-MB levels, PaO2 (partial pressure of arterial oxygen)/FiO2 (fraction of inspired oxygen) ratios, D-dimer levels and DVT in COVID-19 cohort and an association between serum creatinine levels, IMV, and DVT in bacterial pneumonia cohort. The sensitivity and specificity of corresponding receiver operating characteristic curve originating from the combination of CK-MB levels, PaO2/FiO2 ratios and D-dimer levels ≥ 0.5 µg/mL was not inferior to those of the Padua prediction score and the Wells score for screening for DVT in COVID-19 cohort.Conclusions: Compared with patients with ARDS caused by bacterial pneumonia, the incidence of DVT is higher by logistic model in patients with ARDS caused by COVID-19, and the risk factors for DVT are completely different. Our novel prediction model can aid early identifying patients with high risk for DVT.

F1000Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 1246
Darmadi Darmadi ◽  
Cennikon Pakpahan ◽  
Riska Habriel Ruslie ◽  
Andri Rezano

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) remains a global health problem. COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia have a higher risk for critical illness, mostly complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome. The inflammatory response is critical, and the cytokine storm increases the severity of COVID-19. Many factors could be associated with a cytokine storm but they are incompletely understood. This study presents characteristics of COVID-19 patients and explore the clinical and inflammatory parameters of severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in all severe COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. Peripheral blood was taken for laboratory examination within 24 hours of admission. Haematologic parameters, serum electrolyte, renal function, liver function, pancreas enzyme, D-dimer, inflammatory cytokines interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed in this study. Comparative analyses were done between sex, existing comorbidities, body mass index (BMI), and COVID-19 vaccination status. Results: A total of 80 subjects were included in the study. The most frequent comorbidities found among the subjects were obesity (36.35%) and diabetes (22.5%). Only 13.75% of subjects were vaccinated. Laboratory results indicated leucocytosis and neutrophilia, with a neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio (NLR) of 7. The mean inflammatory findings (IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, MCP-1), D-dimer, CRP, and lipase increased. Lipase levels were higher in men (p = 0.003) and in comorbidity groups. No significant differences were found among different BMI groups. Lipase, IL-6, and MCP-1 levels were significantly higher (p=0.019, <0.0001, and 0.03, respectively) in the non-vaccinated group. Conclusions: Most patients with severe COVID-19 have comorbidities and increased inflammatory markers.

2022 ◽  
Vol 509 (2) ◽  
Nguyễn Thị Minh Phương ◽  
Đỗ Ngọc Sơn ◽  
Trần Thị Kiều My

Mục tiêu: Mô tả sơ bộ tình trạng đông máu nội quản rải rác trên bệnh nhân sốc nhiễm khuẩn. Đánh giá vai trò của fibrinmonomer hòa tan trong chẩn đoán đông máu nội quản rải rác trên bệnh nhân sốc nhiễm khuẩn thu thập được tại trung tâm cấp cứu A9 bệnh viện Bạch Mai trong thời gian từ  tháng 6 năm 2020 đến tháng 4 năm 2021. Đối tượng và phương pháp nghiên cứu: 61 bệnh nhân được lấy theo phương pháp chọn mẫu thuận tiện,đáp ứng tiêu chuẩn lựa chọn và không có tiêu chuẩn loại trừ, nghiên cứu sử dụng thang điểm chẩn đoán đông máu nội quản rải rác(DIC) của ISTH 2001, tiêu chuẩn chẩn đoán sốc nhiễm khuẩn theo Sepsis-3. Kết quả: 61 bệnh nhân sốc nhiễm khuẩn được lấy vào nghiên cứu có độ tuổi trung bình 59.95 ± 12.23, nam giới chiếm 73.8%. Nguyên nhân hàng đầu là từ hô hấp đến ổ bụng, tiết niệu. Có 34 bệnh nhân được chẩn đoán DIC toàn thể chiếm 55.8%. Fibrinmonomer có vai trò trong chẩn đoán DIC với diện tích dưới đường cong ROC, độ đặc hiệu, giá trị dự báo âm tính, giá trị dự báo dương tính cao hơn  D-Dimer.

Fatimah Baqer Alqubbanchi ◽  
Fadya Yaqoob Al-Hamadani

Abstract Background: The novel coronavirus 2 (SARS?CoV?2) pandemic is a pulmonary disease, which leads to cardiac, hematologic, and renal complications. Anticoagulants are used for COVID-19 infected patients because the infection increases the risk of thrombosis. The world health organization (WHO), recommend prophylaxis dose of anticoagulants: (Enoxaparin or unfractionated Heparin for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 disease. This has created an urgent need to identify effective medications for COVID-19 prevention and treatment. The value of COVID-19 treatments is affected by cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) to inform relative value and how to best maximize social welfare through evidence-based pricing decisions. Objective: compare the clinical outcome and the costs of two anticoagulants (heparin and (enoxaparin)) used to treat hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection. Patients and method: The study was a retrospective review of medical records of adult, non-pregnant, COVID-19 infected hospitalized patients who had baseline and last outcome measurements at Alamal Epidemiology Center, Al-Najaf city from (Augast 2020 to June 2021). The outcome measures included D-dimer, length of stay (LOS), and mortality rate. Only the cost of the medical treatment was considered in the analysis. The pharmacoeconomics analysis was done in three different cost-effectiveness analysis methods. Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (SPSS), was used to conduct statistical analysis. Kaplan Meier test was used to compare the mortality rate. T-TEST was used to compare the outcomes of the two groups. Results and discussion: two groups were compared, the first group consists of 72 patients who received heparin, and the second group consists of 72 patients who received enoxaparin. COVID-19 infected patients had a higher abnormal average D-dimer (2534.675 ng/dl). No significant differences between both genders with regards to the basal average D-dimer (males= 2649.95 ng/dl, females= 2374.1mg/dl, P-value>0.05). There was a significant difference between patient's ages 60 years and patients <60. (3177.33 ng/dl, 1763.06 ng/dl, P-value <0.05). It seems that, higher D-dimer levels were associated with a higher mortality rate (died=3166.263 ng/dl, survived= 1729.94 ng/dl, P-value <0.05). Heparin was more effective in decreasing D-dimer levels than enoxaparin which inversely increased the D-dimer levels (-24.4 ng/dl/day, +154.701 ng/dl/day, P-value <0.05). Additionally, heparin was more effective in increasing the survival rate compared to enoxaparin (55% vs, 35%, P-value<0.05). Heparin was associated with a longer duration of stay in hospital than enoxaparin but with no significant difference (13.7 days, 12.3 days, P-value >0.05). Concerning the cost, treatment with heparin cost less than enoxaparin (2.08 U.S $, 9.44 U.S $)/per patient/per day. Conclusion: Originator heparin was a more cost-effective anticoagulant therapy compared to originator enoxaparin, it was associated with a lower cost and better effect, treatment with Heparin resulted in positive INB= 11.3, where a positive result means that heparin is more cost-effective than Enoxaparin. All three methods of pharmacoeconomic analysis decide that heparin was more cost-effective than enoxaparin in treating COVID-19 infected patients.

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 176
Flavio Maria Ceci ◽  
Marco Fiore ◽  
Francesca Gavaruzzi ◽  
Antonio Angeloni ◽  
Marco Lucarelli ◽  

Background. COVID-19 is a severe acute respiratory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus belonging to the Coronaviridae family. This disease has spread rapidly around the world and soon became an international public health emergency leading to an unpredicted pressure on the hospital emergency units. Early routine blood biomarkers could be key predicting factors of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality as suggested for C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, prothrombin and D-dimer. This study aims to identify other early routine blood biomarkers for COVID-19 severity prediction disclosed directly into the emergency section. Methods. Our research was conducted on 156 COVID-19 patients hospitalized at the Sapienza University Hospital “Policlinico Umberto I” of Rome, Italy, between March 2020 and April 2020 during the paroxysm’s initial phase of the pandemic. In this retrospective study, patients were divided into three groups according to their outcome: (1) emergency group (patients who entered the emergency room and were discharged shortly after because they did not show severe symptoms); (2) intensive care unit (ICU) group (patients who attended the ICU after admission to the emergency unit); (3) the deceased group (patients with a fatal outcome who attended the emergency and, afterward, the ICU units). Routine laboratory tests from medical records were collected when patients were admitted to the emergency unit. We focused on Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Creatine kinase (CK), Myoglobin (MGB), Ferritin, CRP, and D-dimer. Results. As expected, ANOVA data show an age morbidity increase in both ICU and deceased groups compared with the emergency group. A main effect of morbidity was revealed by ANOVA for all the analyzed parameters with an elevation between the emergency group and the deceased group. Furthermore, a significant increase in LDH, Ferritin, CRP, and D-dimer was also observed between the ICU group and the emergency group and between the deceased group and ICU group. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses confirmed and extended these findings. Conclusions. This study suggests that the contemporaneous presence of high levels of LDH, Ferritin, and as expected, CRP, and D-dimer could be considered as potential predictors of COVID-19 severity and death.

2022 ◽  
Vol 509 (1) ◽  
Trần Văn Giang ◽  
Nguyễn Thị Ngọc

Mục tiêu: Mô tả đặc điểm lâm sàng, cận lâm sàng ở 258 bệnh nhân viêm phổi do COVID-19 điều trị tại Bệnh viện Bệnh nhiệt đới Trung Ương. Đối tượng & phương pháp: Mô tả cắt ngang 258 bệnh nhân viêm phổi do COVID-19. Kết quả: Các triệu chứng thường gặp của viêm phổi do COVID-19 gồm: ho (87,6%), sốt (81,8%), khạc đờm (31,4%), mệt mỏi (41,1%), khó thở (24,8%), đau họng (33,3%), tiêu chảy (26,0%). Các xét nghiệm: số lượng tế bào CD4 thấp hơn có ý nghĩa thống kê (p < 0,05) trong các trường hợp viêm phổi nặng do COVID-19; ngược lại AST, CRP, LDH, Ferrtin, D-dimer lại tăng cao có ý nghĩa ở các bệnh nhân viêm phổi nặng do COVID-19. Đa số tổn thương CT phổi gặp ở nhiều thùy phổi (83,7%) tập trung chủ yếu thùy dưới phổi 2 bên với hình ảnh hay gặp là kính mờ (74,4%) và tổn thương mô kẽ (36,8%).

2022 ◽  
Xiaoqing Jia ◽  
Xiaoting Zhang ◽  
Dalong Sun ◽  
Rong Li ◽  
Na Yang ◽  

Abstract BackgroundThis study aims to evaluate the relationship between D-dimer and dyslipidemia, especially triglyceride to HDL-C ratio (TG/HDL-C) in different types of pancreatitis. We analyzed the D-dimer and dyslipidemia levels in acute pancreatitis (AP), recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP). Material and MethodsA single-centered retrospective study was conducted on 1013 patients diagnosed with AP, RAP or CP. Only patients hospitalized within 24 h of onset were included, and 204 patients were enrolled in pancreatitis groups. 68 normal persons without pancreatitis, malignant diseases, pregnancy, or organ failure, who had health check-ups, were enrolled in the control group. Blood samples were taken within 24h of admission. The epidemiology and etiology were analyzed. D-dimer and dyslipidemia levels were compared between different types of pancreatitis. Furthermore, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to estimate the validity of the predictor and to define optimal cut-off points for prediction.ResultsWe found that D-dimer and TG/HDL-C ratio could distinguish mild AP (MAP) and non-MAP in AP and RAP patients. The D-dimer level was related to TG/HDL-C ratio and severity of pancreatitis, with the coefficient correlation of 0.379 and 0.427(p<0.01), respectively. TG/HDL-C was related to D-dimer in different types of pancreatitis. Multivariate analysis was conducted in the parameters at admission like alcohol abuse, dyslipidemia and coagulation disturbance in distinguishing AP and RAP groups from the control group, and the parameter like diabetes in RAP and CP groups significantly increased compared with that of the control group. ConclusionsThe value of D-dimer level and TG/HDL-C ratio in predicting the severity of AP and RAP was confirmed but there was no significant difference between CP group and the control group. The D-dimer level was related to dyslipidemia and TG/HDL-C ratio.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (6) ◽  
pp. 908-915
I. S. Yavelov

This review discusses reasons for prolonged use of anticoagulants after discharge of patients with COVID-19 without additional indication for anticoagulation. Data regarding rate of thrombotic and thromboembolic complications in patients with COVID-19 after discharge from the hospital are presented. Large randomized controlled trials EXCLAIM, ADOPT, MAGELLAN, APEX  and MARINER with prolonged use of anticoagulants in patients hospitalized  with acute nonsurgical diseases  before pandemia  of COVID-19 are discussed.  The first prospective  randomized controlled  trial MICHELLE with direct oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban in a dose 10 mg once daily after discharge of patients with COVID-19 with high risk at least venous thromboembolism are analyzed. It seems that the most relevant approach  for the determination  of indications for prolonged use of anticoagulants in doses dedicated for primary prevention of venous thromboembolism after discharge of patients with COVID-19 without apparent indication for anticoagulation is a modified IMPROVE VTE risk score with the addition of elevated in-hospital D-dimer  level. And the most well-studied approach  for anticoagulation in these patients is a direct peroral anticoagulant rivaroxaban 10 mg once daily for 35 (and  possibly up to 45) days after discharge.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (4) ◽  
pp. 87-94
I. A. Tikhomirova ◽  
M. M. Ryabov

Introduction. Clinical experience in managing patients with a new coronavirus infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 allowed to identify specific hemostasis disorders, and enables to introduce the concept of COVID-associated coagulopathy. The aim of the study was to assess the direction of coagulogram parameter changes, whole blood clotting parameters and characteristics of platelet and plasma hemostasis in patients with severe COVID-19. Materials and methods. The parameters of the hemostasis system were assessed using venous blood of 12 patients with severe COVID-19 and 16 healthy volunteers. The whole blood clotting process was investigated by low-frequency piezothromboelastography. The platelet count and indicators of spontaneous and ADP-induced platelet aggregation were estimated with the help of a laser platelet aggregation analyzer. Fibrinolytic activity of plasma, plasminogen activity, content of fibrinogen, D-dimer, PTT, APTT, PTI and INR were assessed. Results. An increased level of fibrinogen, a 6-fold increased D-dimer level, and increased PTT were found in patients with severe COVID-19. The patient platelets count was reduced by 51 % (p <0.05), spontaneous platelet aggregation remained at nearly normal level. Almost complete inhibition of ADP-induced platelet reactivity and inhibition of XIIa-dependent fibrinolysis was revealed, despite an increased by 19.3 % (p <0.05) plasminogen activity. Parameters of the whole blood coagulation process pointed a pronounced activation of platelet hemostasis, a significant intensification of the polymerization stage of clot formation and an increased intensity of clot lysis and retraction. Conclusion. The significant increase of D-dimer level and paradoxical inhibition of plasma fibrinolytic activity revealed by test of XIIa-dependent fibrinolysis (in contrast to the increased intensity of clot lysis when assessing the coagulation of whole blood) indicate the complex pathogenic mechanisms of coagulopathy caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the involvement of blood cells and the vascular wall in the process of pathological thrombus formation.

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