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2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 736-740
Megha R Kotecha ◽  
Radhika R Paranjpe ◽  
Varsha V Manade ◽  
Sarang S Gotecha

To study the clinical correlation between pterygium and dry eye and to evaluate the status of tear film in patients with pterygium.100 eyes with pterygium were compared with 100 control eyes without pterygium. Patients between 20–70 years were included in the study. Detailed history was taken and Schirmer’s test and TBUT were performed on all to evaluate the status of dry eye. Schirmer’s test ˂10 mm and TBUT ˂10 seconds was considered abnormal. Maximum number (52) of patients affected with dry eye in both the groups were in the age group 31-40 years which statistically showed age as a significant factor of association for both pterygium and dry eye (P<0.01). Schirmer’s test was slightly reduced in patients with pterygium(18.73±5.69 mm). TBUT was significantly reduced in the case group (12.26±2.24sec). TBUT decreased maximally in 51-60 yrs age group (13.00±2.77sec) with pterygium showing a tear film unstability. On comparison of pterygia and controls with normal and abnormal tear film, Odd’s Ratio was 1.14 showing risk of dry eye in pterygia patients to be 1.14 times higher than controls. A close relationship exists between ocular irritation symptoms and functional evidence of tear instability. Schirmer’s test and TBUT should routinely be used in the outpatient department to diagnose dry eye in patients with pterygium and these patients should be promptly treated to prevent any sight threatening complications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 672-675
Poorva Shrivastava ◽  
Lalit Shrivastava

The present study aimed to study the effectiveness of B scan in assessing the posterior segment in patients with ocular trauma, so that further treatment plan can be decided and prognosis can be improved. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional study at tertiary care centre during the study period of 1 year on 42 patients presenting with history of ocular trauma. Patients were subjected to detailed history and ocular examination followed by B scan ultrasonography for ruling out posterior segment pathology. Mean age of 42.7±20.2 years and 45.2% patients belonged to 41 to 60 years of age. About 54.8% cases were females. About 50% cases had one or the other posterior segment finding. Retinal detachment followed by vitreous hemorrhage were the most common findings, observed in 19% and 11.9% cases respectively. Avulsion of optic nerve was the least common finding (2.4%). B scan ultrasonography plays an important role in management of patients with ocular trauma for the detection of hidden posterior segment lesions. B scan must be performed routinely in all the cases of ocular trauma for early diagnosis and appropriate management of each case and to reduce the ocular morbidities.

Komal Saeed ◽  
Farid Ahmad Khan ◽  
Saad Bin Abdul Qudus ◽  
Sundas Javed

Autologous fat grafting (AFG) is an emerging therapeutic option for wounds that are not ready for grafting. The regenerative potential of autologous fat lies in the adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) contained within the stromal vascular fraction (SVF), which are capable of differentiating into multiple cell lineages. However to date, there has been no comprehensive evaluation of its efficacy in acute complicated wounds. This study aims to critically evaluate the efficacy and safety of AFG in cutaneous wound healing. Materials and Methods: This prospective, quasi experimental study was conducted in the Department Of Plastic Surgery, SIMS, Lahore, between June 2020 and June 2021. Thirty patients with pale granulation, not ready for grafting with no vital structure exposed were included in the study after detailed history, examination and were photographed pre and postoperatively. The procedure was performed under local anaesthesia. 40 to 80 ml fat was harvested from lower abdomen and after emulsification, placed over the wound wrapped in sufra tulle dressing. The dressing was changed on third postoperative day and outcome was assessed on clinical grounds. Results: Thirty patients (M:F Ratio 1.75:1) with mean age 30 years (Range 13-45 years) were included in this study with post traumatic (n = 23) and post infective (n = 7). Of 27 patients who completed their follow up, all had healthy granulation tissue which was later on grafted. Mean number of fat dressing sessions were 2 (Range 1-3). Conclusion: Autologous fat grafting has shown promising results for cutaneous wounds without any unacceptably high complication rates reported so far. Randomised controlled trials should be done on a larger scale to prove its efficacy in the management of complicated wounds.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
pp. 120-127 ◽  
Anand Ramchandra Kapse ◽  
Manali Kirti Jain ◽  
Harshla S. Sarvagod

This case report focuses on 50-year-old woman who was diagnosed with dysthymia and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). After reviewing her detailed history, she was prescribed homoeopathic medicine Natrum Carb considering the grief after death of her middle daughter, suppression of emotions since her childhood and her characteristic mental state of desiring to be alone and weeping when alone; her characteristic physical generals and dispositional qualities were also considered. After taking homoeopathic medicine, significant improvement occurred in her subjective symptoms such as paraesthesia as well as in the objective CTS-related signs such as the Tinel sign and Phalen test. Her anger, weeping spells, sleep disturbances and sadness were ameliorated as well. Homoeopathic medicine was found to be effective in relieving CTS and dysthymia in this case. Further research is needed to prove the efficacy of this treatment method in this disease.

Varun Dogra ◽  
Silvi Sandhu ◽  
Ishfaq Ahmad Gilkar ◽  
Umer Mushtaq ◽  
Shyam Gupta

Background: Esophageal cancer is considered to be a one of the most lethal malignancy. Indian population have seen a lot of changes in the epidemiology of this deadly cancer. However very few studies have been done from northern India regarding the epidemiology and etiopathogenesis of this disease. Majority of esophageal cancers (about 90%) are either squamous cell or Adenocarcinoma. Any factor that causes chronic irritation and inflammation of the esophageal mucosa appears to increase the incidence of the esophageal. The aim of the study was to perform an epidemiological study and determine the various factors that are implicated in the pathogenesis of carcinoma esophagus.Methods: This study was conducted in the department of general surgery, Government Medical College, Jammu, as an observational prospective study. It took into account the patients from 2015 to 2020. A total of 23 patients of carcinoma oesophagus who presented to Outdoor patient wing of department of surgery were included in the study. After detailed history, examination and investigations, the various variables were extracted and data was processed.Results: In this study, the majority of people were from rural areas in their seventh decade of life with males: female ratio of 3:1. The majority of people complained of dysphagia and weight loss. The site of tumor was Gastroesophageal junction.Conclusions: This study emphasised the need of health education in our population, especially in young adults to lessen the risk factors for carcinoma esophagus.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 75-81
Muhammad Bilal ◽  
Shafqat Ali Shah ◽  
Marina Murad ◽  
Saad Ali ◽  
Ammad Ali ◽  

OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of complications following cataract surgery in diabetic patients admitted in the ophthalmology unit. METHODOLOGY: A prospective descriptive interventional case series study was conducted after approval of the ethical committee, from June 2017-June 2020 at the Ophthalmology department MTI-MMC. A total of 129 patients from either gender were enrolled in study. All the study patients went through detailed history and complete ocular examination. After necessary investigations, surgical procedure was carried out. Results were analyzed through the SPSS-24 version. RESULTS: Out of the total 129 eyes of the diabetic patients, fifty-nine (45.7%) were males and seventy (54.3%) were females with a ratio of 1:1.2. Uveitis leads the chart in complications found in twenty (15.50%) eyes while PODR being the least common found in only ten (7.75%) eyes. Worse visual acuity was observed in fourteen (10.85%) eyes. Striate keratopathy and posterior capsule opacification were found in sixteen (12.40%) and fifteen (11.62%) eyes respectively. Among the patients, 15.7% were having more than one complication during follow-up visits and eighty-eight (68.2%) eyes were found to have none complication. The age group 51-60 years observed frequent complications as compared to other groups. Similarly female gender (38.57%) has frequent complications as compared to males (2.7%). CONCLUSION: The study concludes Uveitis as the most common complication observed in 15.50% 0f the eyes while worse visual acuity (10.85%) and progression of diabetic retinopathy (7.75%) being the least common. Striate keratopathy was found in 12.40% while posterior capsule opacification in 11.62% of the eyes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Huimin Yu ◽  
Jinfu Sun ◽  
Huan Luo ◽  
Zhitao Wang ◽  
Xufang Sun

Purpose: To investigate the association between perforating scleral vessel (PSV) and different types of myopic maculopathy (MM) in a highly myopic population.Methods: In total, 188 highly myopic eyes (117 participants) were enrolled. Each participant underwent detailed history taking and ocular examinations. Based on fundus photographs and optical coherence tomography, patients were subdivided into the non-MM group and MM group. Based on a new classification system (ATN), MM cases were classified as myopic atrophy maculopathy (MAM), myopic tractional maculopathy (MTM), and myopic neovascular maculopathy (MNM). The number of PSV and the macular choroidal thickness (mChT) were measured.Results: Compared with non-MM group, MM group was characterized by relatively larger age (48.40 vs. 32.34; p < 0.001), longer axial length (AL, 29.72 vs. 27.75, p < 0.001), thinner mChT (52.90 vs. 122.52; p < 0.001), and lower PSV counts (6.73 vs. 9.47, p ≤ 0.001). The non-MM group had higher PSV counts in total area (0–9 mm, 9.47 vs. 6.73, p < 0.001) and perifovea area (3–9 mm, 7.25 vs. 4.71, p < 0.001) compared to the MM group. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that PSV count had no association with MAM (p = 0.2419) and MTM (p = 0.5678). Total PSV count [odds ratio (OR) 0.78, 95% CI 0.64–0.95, p = 0.0149] and perifovea PSV count (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.65–0.98, p = 0.0299) were both protective factors for MNM. The stratified analysis revealed that in groups with AL <28 mm, or mChT <50 μm, or mChT ≥100 μm, or eyes with cilioretinal artery, PSV count had no significant association with MNM.Conclusion: Higher PSV counts in perifovea area (3–9 mm centered fovea) and total area (0–9 mm centered fovea) were protective factors for MNM, whereas PSV count had no association with MAM and MTM. These findings may provide novel insights into the mechanisms of pathologic myopia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-03
Fatimah Lateef

This is a case of migraine, presenting with the interesting visual aura of a ‘kaleidoscope’: waves with flickering movements made up of a variety of colors (red, blue, green, yellow), commencing laterally and spreading superiorly in the visual field of the left eye. This description is quite similar to a fortification spectrum, which usually expands and spreads in a C-shape fashion over one side of the visual field. Several different possible pathophysiological explanation are shared as well as the common differential diagnoses. In the work up of a patient with visual aura migraine, a comprehensive and detailed history is important, together with the appropriate investigations, in order not to miss any serious syndromes, including stroke syndromes and epilepsy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Amal M. El-Sisi ◽  
Sonia A. El-Saiedi ◽  
Rasha Ammar ◽  
Asmaa Abdelhameed ◽  
Ziyad M. Hijazi ◽  

Objectives. To assess the long-term safety and efficacy of the Occlutech® ACCELL® Flex II device used for atrial septal defect (ASD) closure. This device differs from the regular device by having two very thin patches that are made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). These patches enhance faster sealing of the defect. Background. Transcatheter closure has become the method of choice to manage most patients with secundum ASDs. There are different types of devices. The regular Occlutech device used to close an ASD is called the Occlutech Figulla Flex II. A newer modification of this device (Occlutech® ACCELL® Flex II) has been designed to eliminate/reduce thrombus formation and to enhance faster sealing. Methods. Thirty patients were followed up after occlusion of secundum ASD using the Occlutech® ACCELL® Flex II Device. The follow-up period ranged from 5.2–5.5 years with median of 5.3 years. Detailed history and full clinical examination, twelve-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), plain chest radiograph, and full 2D transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) were performed at discharge, at one month, six months, and yearly thereafter. Results. The mean age of the study group at the last follow-up was 10.4 ± 4.6 years, with 63.3% (nineteen patients) females. There were no residual shunts or complications encountered immediately after the procedure and at the latest follow-up. Conclusion. This study confirmed the transcatheter closure (TCC) of secundum ASDs using the Occlutech® ACCELL® Flex II device to be safe and effective with no complications detected in children and adolescents.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 16-21
Vikash Paudel ◽  
Deepa Chudal ◽  
Upama Paudel ◽  
Dwarika Prasad Shrestha

Background: Non-venereal genital dermatoses are the conditions of the genitalia that are not transmitted sexually. They may be confused with venereal diseases and be responsible for concerns among patients as well as diagnostic dilemmas for physicians. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and describe the patterns of non-venereal genital conditions. Methods: This was a hospital-based, cross-sectional, prospective study conducted in a tertiary center in Kathmandu, Nepal, over a period of one year. Non-probability purposive sampling was employed to select the samples. Two hundred patients were enrolled in the study. Ethical approval was taken prior to the study. Detailed history taking along with a complete cutaneous examination were conducted for all patients and recorded in a preformed proforma. Results: Among 21366 patients, two hundred patients had non-venereal genital dermatoses. The prevalence of non-venereal dermatoses was 0.93 %. The mean age of the patient was 29.5 ± 15 years, ranging from 2 months to 81 years. The male-to-female ratio was 2.7:1. Itching was the most common presentation (46%). Fifty-four different types of non-venereal diseases were encountered and classified into inflammatory lesions (n = 84; 42%), infections and infestations (n = 43; 21.5%), normal variants and benign abnormalities (n = 41; 20.5%), and miscellaneous (n = 21; 10.5%). The most common were, among inflammatory dermatoses, drug reactions (11.5%) and eczema (6.5%) and, among infections and infestations, scabies (9.5%) and fungal infections (7.5%). Conclusion: Non-venereal genital dermatoses are important yet less common dermatological conditions. A number of patients have misconceptions about them as venereal. A comprehensive study of non-venereal dermatological genital conditions is required for careful management to minimize morbidity.

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