Natural Disasters
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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jesús Manuel Núñez-López ◽  
Brenda Cansino-Loeza ◽  
Xaté Geraldine Sánchez Zarco ◽  
José María Ponce-Ortega

Abstract The proper planning of the water-energy-food nexus is key for urban sustainability. However, the security of water, energy, and food is posed at risk due to uncertain events such as natural disasters. The quantification of resilience in water-energy-food systems has gained relevance in recent years and has served as a key tool to identify vulnerable areas. This work presents a systematic approach to assessing the resilience of the water-energy-food nexus in arid/semiarid regions that present low availability of resources. A methodology for assessing the resilience of the water-energy-food nexus of an arid region is presented, which allows evaluating the system under the disturbances of natural disasters such as hurricanes, low-temperature events, and droughts. The events in which failures in functional services may occur are analyzed using penalty costs. To apply the proposed approach, scenarios corresponding to past conditions and future projections were evaluated for two Mexican arid cities. The results show that it is possible to identify vulnerable areas related to the existence of natural disasters and thereby look for alternatives to maintain the security of the nexus. The proposed approach is general, and it can be applied to other regions with similar characteristics.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Wen-Tsai Sung ◽  
Ihzany Vilia Devi ◽  
Sung-Jung Hsiao

Abstract According to data from the Earth's Volcano and Geological Disaster Reduction Center, a country like Indonesia has experienced many natural disasters, one of which is flooding. Floods are an annual natural disaster, especially on mountain slopes. Mountainous areas experience more dangerous than floods than the urban areas because they can cause other natural disasters, such as landslides and damage the hiking trails. The steep and winding roads minimize and limit the number of officers working in the mountains. Therefore, flood detection and monitoring equipment is needed. The proposed system based on AIoT technology provides real-time flood analysis so that the authorities can monitor residents around mountainous areas and provide early warning. This research focuses on the flood observation system as an early warning system to effectively monitor the flood-prone mountain slopes in real time while taking into account the cost, time efficiency, and safety measurement. The proposed system design includes the integration of sensors into the microcontroller, and the communication between the posts using LoRa and SIM900 sends data to the cloud server via the Internet. All sensor readings for each post are displayed on the app, and alerts are sent via SMS and the app.


Drones ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (3) ◽  
pp. 97
Author(s):  
Flavio Furukawa ◽  
Lauretta Andrew Laneng ◽  
Hiroaki Ando ◽  
Nobuhiko Yoshimura ◽  
Masami Kaneko ◽  
...  

The development of UAV technologies offers practical methods to create landcover maps for monitoring and management of areas affected by natural disasters such as landslides. The present study aims at comparing the capability of two different types of UAV to deliver precise information, in order to characterize vegetation at landslide areas over a period of months. For the comparison, an RGB UAV and a Multispectral UAV were used to identify three different classes: vegetation, bare soil, and dead matter, from April to July 2021. The results showed high overall accuracy values (>95%) for the Multispectral UAV, as compared to the RGB UAV, which had lower overall accuracies. Although having lower overall accuracies, the vegetation class of the RGB UAV presented high producer’s and user’s accuracy over time, comparable to the Multispectral UAV results. Image quality played an important role in this study, where higher accuracy values were found on cloudy days. Both RGB and Multispectral UAVs presented similar patterns of vegetation, bare soil, and dead matter classes, where the increase in vegetation class was consistent with the decrease in bare soil and dead matter class. The present study suggests that the Multispectral UAV is more suitable in characterizing vegetation, bare soil, and dead matter classes on landslide areas while the RGB UAV can deliver reliable information for vegetation monitoring.


Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (18) ◽  
pp. 6002
Author(s):  
Jakub Nalepa

Current advancements in sensor technology bring new possibilities in multi- and hyperspectral imaging. Real-life use cases which can benefit from such imagery span across various domains, including precision agriculture, chemistry, biology, medicine, land cover applications, management of natural resources, detecting natural disasters, and more. To extract value from such highly dimensional data capturing up to hundreds of spectral bands in the electromagnetic spectrum, researchers have been developing a range of image processing and machine learning analysis pipelines to process these kind of data as efficiently as possible. To this end, multi- or hyperspectral analysis has bloomed and has become an exciting research area which can enable the faster adoption of this technology in practice, also when such algorithms are deployed in hardware-constrained and extreme execution environments; e.g., on-board imaging satellites.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Cem Kilicoglu

Abstract In addition to population growth throughout the world due to migration from rural to urban areas, population density is constantly increasing in certain regions, thereby necessitating the introduction of new settlements in these regions. However, in the selection of settlement areas, no sufficient preliminary examinations are conducted; consequently, various natural disasters may cause significant life and property losses. Herein, the most suitable settlement areas were determined using multicriteria decision analysis in Canik District, where the population is constantly increasing. Therefore, this study is aimed to incorporate a new perspective to the studies on this subject. Within the scope of the study, landslide and flood risks, which are among the most important natural disasters in the region, were primarily evaluated, and risky areas were determined. Thereafter, suitable and unsuitable areas in terms of biocomfort, which affect people’s health, peace, comfort, and psychology, and which are also significant in terms of energy efficiency, were determined. At the last stage of the study, the most suitable settlement areas that are suitable in terms of both biocomfort and low level of landslide and flood risks were determined; the calculated proportion of such areas to the total study area is only 2.1%. Therefore, because these areas are insufficient for the establishment of new settlements, areas with low landslide and flood risks but unsuitable for biocomfort were secondarily determined; the ratio of these areas was calculated as 56.8%. The remaining areas are inconvenient for the establishment of settlements owing to the risk of landslides and floods; the ratio of these areas was calculated as 41.1%. The study is exemplary in the respect that the priority for the selection of settlement areas is specified, which can be applied for selecting new settlements for each region considering different criteria.


Author(s):  
Stephanie Manzo ◽  
E. Griffin Nicholson ◽  
Zachary Devereux ◽  
Robert N. Fisher ◽  
Chris W. Brown ◽  
...  

Accurate status assessments of long-lived, widely distributed taxa depend on the availability of long-term monitoring data from multiple populations. However, monitoring populations across large temporal and spatial scales is often beyond the scope of any one researcher or research group. Consequently, wildlife managers may be tasked with utilizing limited information from different sources to detect range-wide evidence of population declines and their causes. When assessments need to be made under such constraints, the research and management communities must determine how to extrapolate from variable population data to species-level inferences. Here, using three different approaches, we integrate and analyze data from the peer-reviewed literature and government agency reports to inform conservation for northwestern pond turtles (NPT) Actinemys marmorata and southwestern pond turtles (SPT) Actinemys pallida. Both NPT and SPT are long-lived freshwater turtles distributed along the west coast of the United States and Mexico. Conservation concerns exist for both species; however, SPT may face more severe threats and are thought to exist at lower densities throughout their range than NPT. For each species, we ranked the impacts of 13 potential threats, estimated population sizes, and modeled population viability with and without long-term droughts. Our results suggest that predation of hatchlings by invasive predators, such as American bullfrogs Lithobates catesbeianus and Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides, is a high-ranking threat for NPT and SPT. Southwestern pond turtles may also face more severe impacts associated with natural disasters (droughts, wildfires, and floods) than NPT. Population size estimates from trapping surveys indicate that SPT have smaller population sizes on average than NPT (p = 0.0003), suggesting they may be at greater risk of local extirpation. Population viability analysis models revealed that long-term droughts are a key environmental parameter; as the frequency of severe droughts increases with climate change, the likelihood of population recovery decreases, especially when census sizes are low. Given current population trends and vulnerability to natural disasters throughout their range, we suggest that conservation and recovery actions first focus on SPT to prevent further population declines.


2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Nadeera Ranabahu ◽  
Farzana Aman Tanima

PurposeThe purpose of this study is to explore how vulnerabilities arising from physical impairments, age, widowhood, forced displacement due to war or natural disasters and sexual orientation affect women’s microfinance-related entrepreneurial activities and economic empowerment.Design/methodology/approachThis paper is a structured literature review and uses preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) method. The paper also uses agency, resources and achievement dimensions of empowerment to assess the findings.FindingsThis study reveals that although microfinance services promote women entrepreneurship, they also exacerbate exclusion and further discrimination. Individual-, household-, institutional- and community-level structures shape women’s agencies to access and use loans and conduct entrepreneurial activities; hence, ultimately economic empowerment.Originality/valueThe originality of this paper arises from the conceptual model we synthesised from our review which illustrates how vulnerable women’s agency is shaped by resources and how it affects their achievements in relation to entrepreneurial activities.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jhorland Ayala-García ◽  
Sandy Dall’Erba

Extreme rainfall events are expected to become more frequent and more intense in the future. Because their mitigation is a challenge and their cost to human life is large, this paper studies the impact of preemptive investment against natural disasters on the future occurrence of landslides and the losses associated with it. Based on a panel of 746 Colombian municipalities with medium and high risk of landslides and an instrumental variable approach, we find that preemptive public investment can reduce the number of landslides, the number of people who die, are injured, or disappear after a landslide, as well as the number of people affected. However, we do not find any effect on the number of houses destroyed. The results reveal that local governments focus their preventive measures on saving the lives and the physical integrity of their citizens, but they pay less attention to the direct market losses of natural disasters. These results are relevant in the presence of imperfect private insurance markets and increased informal settlements.


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