natural disasters
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2022 ◽  
Vol 151 ◽  
pp. 105748
Shishir Shakya ◽  
Subuna Basnet ◽  
Jayash Paudel

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Brian Alstadt ◽  
Anthony Hanson ◽  
Austin Nijhuis

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 616
Karmen Margeta ◽  
Zvonimir Glasnovic ◽  
Nataša Zabukovec Zabukovec Logar ◽  
Sanja Tišma ◽  
Anamarija Farkaš

Considering that more than half of the world’s population today lives in cities and consumes about 80% of the world’s energy and that there is a problem with drinking water supply, this paper presents a way to solve the problem of the sustainability of cities by enabling their complete independence from external sources of energy and drinking water. The proposed solution entails the use of Seawater Steam Engine (SSE) technology to supply cities with electricity, thermal energy and drinking water. The system would involve the seasonal storage of electricity and thermal energy, supported by geothermal heat pumps. The strategy of the distribution network would be based on the original concept of the “loop”. In cities that do not have enough space, SSE collectors would be placed above the lower parts of the city like “canopies”. The city of Zagreb (Croatia) was selected as a case study due to its size, climate and vulnerability to natural disasters. The results show that Zagreb could become sustainable in 30 years with the allocation of less than 2% of GDP and could become a paradigm of sustainability for cities worldwide. This paper encourages the development of the “Philosophy of Sustainability” because the stated goals cannot be achieved without a change in consciousness.

2022 ◽  
pp. 001041402110474
Alicia Cooperman

Emergency spending is often exempt from campaign period restrictions and procurement guidelines, making it attractive for opportunistic politicians, but natural disasters are seen as outside political business cycles. However, droughts are frequent but challenging to measure, so politicians can leverage discretion for electoral gain. This paper analyzes electoral cycles, term limits, and partisan targeting around municipal drought declaration in Northeast Brazil. Two sources of exogeneity (rainfall shocks, electoral calendar) isolate the effect of non-climatic factors on drought declarations. I find that drought declarations, which trigger relief, are more likely in mayoral election years. Incumbents are more likely to win re-election if they declare a drought in the election year, during below or even above average rainfall. The results are consistent with interviews suggesting voters reward competent mayors and mayors trade relief for votes. This study highlights the interaction between distributive and environmental politics, which has increasing consequences due to climate change.

2022 ◽  
Adam Sundberg

By the early eighteenth century, the economic primacy, cultural efflorescence, and geopolitical power of the Dutch Republic appeared to be waning. The end of this Golden Age was also an era of natural disasters. Between the late seventeenth and the mid-eighteenth century, Dutch communities weathered numerous calamities, including river and coastal floods, cattle plagues, and an outbreak of strange mollusks that threatened the literal foundations of the Republic. Adam Sundberg demonstrates that these disasters emerged out of longstanding changes in environment and society. They were also fundamental to the Dutch experience and understanding of eighteenth-century decline. Disasters provoked widespread suffering, but they also opened opportunities to retool management strategies, expand the scale of response, and to reconsider the ultimate meaning of catastrophe. This book reveals a dynamic and often resilient picture of a society coping with calamity at odds with historical assessments of eighteenth-century stagnation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 163-183
Bea Bringas ◽  
Lance Jared Bunyi ◽  
Carlos L. Manapat

Over the past century, natural disasters have been terrorizing the economy by causing human fatalities and damaging infrastructure and production inputs. The Solow growth model suggests that natural disasters adversely affect gross domestic product (GDP) since these disrupt the production of inputs. On the contrary, the Schumpeterian growth theory provides an explanation behind the positive effect of natural disasters on economic growth. This study analyzed the relationship between natural disasters (i.e. earthquake, flood, and storm), economic activities (i.e. foreign aid and foreign direct investment) and GDP per capita income in the Philippines from 1990 to 2019. This study employed a multivariate analysis, time series regression, and autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach. The results revealed a complex relationship between GDP per capita and the regressors. In the short run, the independent variables have a negative and significant relationship with the country’s per capita income. On the contrary, only FDI has a significant long-run relationship with the economy of the Philippines. The results highlight the Philippines’ need for comprehensive disaster plans and to lessen its dependence on foreign and external factors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 837
Melissa A. Wheeler ◽  
Timothy Bednall ◽  
Vlad Demsar ◽  
Samuel G. Wilson

Responding to disruptions and crises are challenges public leaders face as they strive to lead responsibly for the good of the community. The last two years have been especially challenging for public leaders and institutions. In Australia, the federal government battled natural disasters (bushfires) and COVID-19 within the span of only a few months, beginning in late 2019. These events provided the opportunity for a natural experiment to explore public perceptions of leadership in times of crises, with both a natural disaster and health crisis in quick succession. In this study, we develop, validate, and test a scale of perceptions of leadership for the greater good, the Australian Leadership Index, throughout different crisis contexts. We hypothesize and find support for the drivers of perceptions of public leadership and shifts in these perceptions as a function of the bushfire disaster response, a negative shift, and the initial COVID-19 response, a positive shift. Comparisons of the crisis periods against a period of relative stability are made. We discuss the implications of differential media coverage, how the crises were managed, and the resulting public perceptions of leadership for the greater good.

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