climatic factors
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
S. Shah ◽  
J. Yu ◽  
Q. Liu ◽  
G. Zhou ◽  
G. Yan ◽  

Abstract Climatic factors play an essential role in the growth of tree ring width. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the correlation between climatic variables and tree-ring growth characteristics of Pinus sibirica in Altai mountains, northwestern China. This study being is first of its kind on climate growth analysis of Pinus sibirica in northwestern China. The study showed great potential to understand the species growing under the specific climatic conditions. Total of 70 tree cores collected from three sites in the sampling area, out of which 63 tree cores considered for this study. The effect of climatic variables which was studied include precipitation, temperature and PDSI. Our results showed that Tree Ring Width chronology has a significantly positive correlation with the late winter (March) temperature and significant negative correlation with the July temperatures. A significant correlation was observed with the late summer precipitation whereas no significant relation found with the Palmer Drought Severity Index. These significant correlations with temperature and precipitation suggested that this tree species had the potential for the reconstruction of the past climate in the area.

2022 ◽  
pp. 001041402110474
Alicia Cooperman

Emergency spending is often exempt from campaign period restrictions and procurement guidelines, making it attractive for opportunistic politicians, but natural disasters are seen as outside political business cycles. However, droughts are frequent but challenging to measure, so politicians can leverage discretion for electoral gain. This paper analyzes electoral cycles, term limits, and partisan targeting around municipal drought declaration in Northeast Brazil. Two sources of exogeneity (rainfall shocks, electoral calendar) isolate the effect of non-climatic factors on drought declarations. I find that drought declarations, which trigger relief, are more likely in mayoral election years. Incumbents are more likely to win re-election if they declare a drought in the election year, during below or even above average rainfall. The results are consistent with interviews suggesting voters reward competent mayors and mayors trade relief for votes. This study highlights the interaction between distributive and environmental politics, which has increasing consequences due to climate change.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Andreea Maria Iordache ◽  
Constantin Nechita ◽  
Cezara Voica ◽  
Tomáš Pluháček ◽  
Kevin A. Schug

AbstractThe relationship between metal levels in the Olt River ecosystem in southern Romania (measured during 2018‒2019, with 1064 sediment and water samples) and daily climate data were explored to assess the need for targeted source identification and mitigation strategies. In 2018, there was a strong relationship between the sediment Pb, As, Cd, and Hg contents and temperature (r > 0.8, p < 0.001). Mercury in sediments had a positive correlation with precipitation, and Hg in the water correlated with minimum temperature in May 2018 (p < 0.01). In July 2019, heavy metals were positively correlated with precipitation and negatively correlated with temperature. According to nonsymmetrical correspondence analysis, the four climate parameters analyzed were linearly correlated with the frequency of metal detection (p < 0.001) in both years. The statistical analysis showed strong relationships between heavy metal levels and climatic factors and attributed the discrepancies in elemental concentrations between 2018 and 2019 to climate warming.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 366
Fangfang Kang ◽  
Xuejian Li ◽  
Huaqiang Du ◽  
Fangjie Mao ◽  
Guomo Zhou ◽  

Carbon flux is the main basis for judging the carbon source/sink of forest ecosystems. Bamboo forests have gained much attention because of their high carbon sequestration capacity. In this study, we used a boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) model to simulate the gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) of bamboo forests in China during 2001–2018, and then explored the spatiotemporal evolution of the carbon fluxes and their response to climatic factors. The results showed that: (1) The simulated and observed GPP values exhibited a good correlation with the determination coefficient (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), and absolute bias (aBIAS) of 0.58, 1.43 g C m−2 day−1, and 1.21 g C m−2 day−1, respectively. (2) During 2001–2018, GPP and NPP showed fluctuating increasing trends with growth rates of 5.20 g C m−2 yr−1 and 3.88 g C m−2 yr−1, respectively. The spatial distribution characteristics of GPP and NPP were stronger in the south and east than in the north and west. Additionally, the trend slope results showed that GPP and NPP mainly increased, and approximately 30% of the area showed a significant increasing trend. (3) Our study showed that more than half of the area exhibited the fact that the influence of the average annual precipitation had positive effects on GPP and NPP, while the average annual minimum and maximum temperatures had negative effects on GPP and NPP. On a monthly scale, our study also demonstrated that the influence of precipitation on GPP and NPP was higher than that of the influence of temperature on them.

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 99
Jiachuan Wang ◽  
Shuheng Li ◽  
Yili Guo ◽  
Qi Yang ◽  
Rui Ren ◽  

Larix principis-rupprechtii is an important afforestation tree species in the North China alpine coniferous forest belt. Studying the correlations and response relationships between Larix principis-rupprechtii radial growth and climatic factors at different elevations is helpful for understanding the growth trends of L. principis-rupprechtiind its long-term sensitivity and adaptability to climate change. Pearson correlation, redundancy (RDA), and sliding analysis were performed to study the correlations and dynamic relationships between radial growth and climatic factors. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The three-elevation standard chronologies all exhibited high characteristic values, contained rich climate information and were suitable for tree-ring climatological analyses. (2) Both temperature and precipitation restricted low-elevation L. principis-rupprechtii radial growth, while monthly maximum temperatures mainly affected mid-high-elevation L. principis-rupprechtii radial growth. (3) Mid-elevation L. principis-rupprechtii radial growth responded to climate factors with a “lag effect” and was not restricted by spring and early summer drought. (4) Long-term sliding analysis showed that spring temperatures and winter precipitation were the main climatic factors restricting L. principis-rupprechtii growth under warming and drying climate trends at different elevations. The tree-ring width index and Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) were positively correlated, indicating that L. principis-rupprechtii growth is somewhat restricted by drought. These results provide a reference and guidance for L. principis-rupprechtii management and sustainable development in different regions under warming and drying background climate trends.

Yanmin Jiang ◽  
Anning Huang ◽  
Haomin Wu ◽  
Xindan Zhang

Abstract To develop a climatic suitability index and conduct the cultivation division of loquat in Lishui, Zhejiang province of China, we introduced the multi-indicator comprehensive risk assessment method to combine with the hazard factor model, necessary climatic elements during the growing season of loquat and geographic information elements. Results show that the annual active accumulated temperature (rainfall ) over most Lishui is more than 4500°C (1600mm). The two climatic factors above can well meet the needs of loquat growth. The frozen injury days over most Lishui during the young fruit period of loquat are more than 10.0 days, which are higher than those during the flowering period. The annual mean number of continuous overcast rain occurrences is less than 4.5. The climatic mean annual occurrence of persistent abnormal high temperature weather is less than 1. Overall, the most suitable area for the cultivation of loquat mainly located over the relatively flat areas such as river valleys and basins, especially the banks of the Oujiang River in Qingtian and Xiaoxi River valley in Jingning. The excellent combinations of light, heat and water with relatively few meteorological disasters just like frozen injury, continuous rain and high temperature provide a good climatic conditions of the high-quality of loquat planting.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 184
Jamila Ngondo ◽  
Joseph Mango ◽  
Joel Nobert ◽  
Alfonse Dubi ◽  
Xiang Li ◽  

The evaluation of the hydrological responses of river basins to land-use and land-cover (LULC) changes is crucial for sustaining water resources. We assessed the impact of LULC changes (1990–2018) on three hydrological components (water yield (WYLD), evapotranspiration (ET), and sediment yield (SYLD)) of the Wami–Ruvu Basin (WRB) in Tanzania, using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The 1990 LULC imagery was used for SWAT simulation, and imagery from 2000, 2010, and 2018 was used for comparison with modelled hydrological parameters. The model was calibrated (1993–2008) and validated (2009–2018) in the SWAT-CUP after allowing three years (1990–1992) for the warm-up period. The results showed a decrease in WYLD (3.11 mm) and an increase in ET (29.71 mm) and SYLD (from 0.12 t/h to 1.5 t/h). The impact of LULC changes on WYLD, ET, and SYLD showed that the increase in agriculture and built-up areas and bushland, and the contraction of forest led to the hydrological instability of the WRB. These results were further assessed with climatic factors, which revealed a decrease in precipitation and an increase in temperature by 1°C. This situation seems to look more adverse in the future, based on the LULC of the year 2036 as predicted by the CA–Markov model. Our study calls for urgent intervention by re-planning LULC and re-assessing hydrological changes timely.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Girma Ayele Bedane ◽  
Gudina Legese Feyisa ◽  
Feyera Senbeta

Abstract Background The need for understanding spatial distribution of forest aboveground carbon density (ACD) has increased to improve management practices of forest ecosystems. This study examined spatial distribution of the ACD in the Harana Forest. A grid sampling technique was employed and three nested circular plots were established at each point where grids intersected. Forest-related data were collected from 1122 plots while the ACD of each plot was estimated using the established allometric equation. Environmental variables in raster format were downloaded from open sources and resampled into a spatial resolution of 30 m. Descriptive statistics were computed to summarize the ACD. A Random Forest classification model in the R-software package was used to select strong predictors, and to predict the spatial distribution of ACD. Results The mean ACD was estimated at 131.505 ton per ha in this study area. The spatial prediction showed that the high class of the ACD was confined to eastern and southwest parts of the Harana Forest. The Moran’s statistics depicted similar observations showing the higher clustering of ACD in the eastern and southern parts of the study area. The higher ACD clustering was linked with the higher species richness, species diversity, tree density, tree height, clay content, and SOC. Conversely, the lower ACD clustering in the Harana Forest was associated with higher soil cation exchange capacity, silt content, and precipitation. Conclusions The spatial distribution of ACD in this study area was mainly influenced by attributes of the forest stand and edaphic factors in comparison to topographic and climatic factors. Our findings could provide basis for better management and conservation of aboveground carbon storage in the Harana Forest, which may contribute to Ethiopia’s strategy of reducing carbon emission.

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