executive functioning
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Antonina Luca ◽  
Roberto Monastero ◽  
Calogero Edoardo Cicero ◽  
Roberta Baschi ◽  
Giulia Donzuso ◽  

AbstractThe association between dyslipidemia and cognitive performance in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients still needs to be clarified. Aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of possible associations between serum lipids fractions and executive dysfunction also exploring the sex-specific contribute of lipids level on cognition. Patients from the PACOS cohort, who underwent a complete serum lipid profile measures (total cholesterol-TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-LDL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol-HDL and triglycerides-TG) were selected. Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines of the National Cholesterol Education Program were used to classify normal/abnormal lipid fractions. Executive functioning was assessed with the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB). Logistic regression was performed to assess associations between lipids fractions and FAB score. Correlations between lipids fractions and FAB score were explored. Sex-stratified analysis was performed. Three hundred and forty-eight PD patients (148 women; age 66.5 ± 9.5 years; disease duration 3.9 ± 4.9 years) were enrolled. Women presented significantly higher TC, LDL and HDL than men. In the whole sample, any association between lipid profile measures and FAB score was found. Among women, a positive association between hypertriglyceridemia and FAB score under cutoff was found (OR 3.4; 95%CI 1.29–9.03; p value 0.013). A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the FAB score and triglyceride serum levels (r = − 0.226; p value 0.005). Differently, among men, a statistically significant negative association between hypercholesterolemia and FAB score under cutoff (OR 0.4; 95%CI 0.17–0.84; p value 0.018) and between high LDL levels and FAB score under cutoff (OR 0.4; 95%CI 0.18–0.90; p value 0.027) were found. Our data suggest a sex-specific different role of lipids in executive functioning.

2022 ◽  
pp. 142-166
Emily Kircher-Morris

2022 ◽  
Kelley Gunther ◽  
Daniel Petrie ◽  
Alaina Pearce ◽  
Bari Fuchs ◽  
Koraly Perez-Edgar ◽  

The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a key brain area in considering adaptive regulatory behaviors. This includes regulatory projections to regions of the limbic system such as the amygdala, where the nature of functional connections may confer lower risk for anxiety disorders. The PFC is also associated with behaviors like executive functioning. Inhibitory control is a behavior encompassed by executive functioning, and is generally viewed favorably for adaptive socioemotional development. Yet, some research suggests that high levels of inhibitory control may actually be a risk factor for some maladaptive developmental outcomes, like anxiety disorders. In a sample of 51 children ranging from 7-9 years old, we examined resting state functional connectivity between regions of the PFC and the amygdala. We used Subgrouping Group Iterative Multiple Model Estimation (S-GIMME) to identify and characterize data-driven subgroups of individuals with similar networks of connectivity between these brain regions. Generated subgroups were collapsed into children characterized by the presence or absence of recovered connections between the PFC and amygdala. We then tested whether inhibitory control, as measured by a stop signal task, moderated the relation between these subgroups and child-reported anxiety symptoms. We found an inverse relation between stop-signal reaction times and reported count of anxiety symptoms when controlling for connectivity group, suggesting that greater inhibitory control was actually related to greater anxiety symptoms, but only when accounting for patterns of PFC-amygdala connectivity. These data suggest that there is a great deal of heterogeneity in the nature of functional connections between the PFC and amygdala during this stage of development. The findings also provide support for the notion of high levels of inhibitory control as a risk factor for anxiety, but trait-level biopsychosocial factors may be important to consider in assessing the nature of risk.

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