executive dysfunction
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Antonina Luca ◽  
Roberto Monastero ◽  
Calogero Edoardo Cicero ◽  
Roberta Baschi ◽  
Giulia Donzuso ◽  

AbstractThe association between dyslipidemia and cognitive performance in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients still needs to be clarified. Aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of possible associations between serum lipids fractions and executive dysfunction also exploring the sex-specific contribute of lipids level on cognition. Patients from the PACOS cohort, who underwent a complete serum lipid profile measures (total cholesterol-TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-LDL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol-HDL and triglycerides-TG) were selected. Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines of the National Cholesterol Education Program were used to classify normal/abnormal lipid fractions. Executive functioning was assessed with the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB). Logistic regression was performed to assess associations between lipids fractions and FAB score. Correlations between lipids fractions and FAB score were explored. Sex-stratified analysis was performed. Three hundred and forty-eight PD patients (148 women; age 66.5 ± 9.5 years; disease duration 3.9 ± 4.9 years) were enrolled. Women presented significantly higher TC, LDL and HDL than men. In the whole sample, any association between lipid profile measures and FAB score was found. Among women, a positive association between hypertriglyceridemia and FAB score under cutoff was found (OR 3.4; 95%CI 1.29–9.03; p value 0.013). A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the FAB score and triglyceride serum levels (r = − 0.226; p value 0.005). Differently, among men, a statistically significant negative association between hypercholesterolemia and FAB score under cutoff (OR 0.4; 95%CI 0.17–0.84; p value 0.018) and between high LDL levels and FAB score under cutoff (OR 0.4; 95%CI 0.18–0.90; p value 0.027) were found. Our data suggest a sex-specific different role of lipids in executive functioning.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Yasmin S. El Dabagh ◽  
Benjamin Asschenfeldt ◽  
Benjamin Kelly ◽  
Lars Evald ◽  
Vibeke E. Hjortdal

Abstract Background: Adults with simple congenital heart defects (CHD) have increased risk of neurodevelopmental challenges including executive dysfunction. It is unknown if the executive dysfunction is universal or if it is driven by dysfunction in specific clinical subscales and how it might affect psychosocial aspects of everyday life. Methods: The self-reported and informant-reported executive function of adults with an average age of 26 ± 5 (range 18–41) who underwent childhood surgery for atrial septal defects (n = 34) or ventricular septal defects (n = 32) and matched controls (n = 40) were evaluated using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions - Adult version (BRIEF-A). Results: The CHD group reported having more executive dysfunction than controls in all BRIEF-A clinical subscales (p < 0.020) and more than their informants reported on their behalf (p < 0.006). The CHD group had received three times more special teaching (44% compared to 16%) and pedagogical psychological counselling (14% compared to none) and had a three times higher occurrence of psychiatric disorders than controls (33% compared to 11%). Lower educational levels and psychiatric disorders were associated with higher BRIEF-A scores (p < 0.03). Conclusions: Adults operated for septal defects in childhood report more challenges with all aspects of the executive functions than controls and more than relatives are aware of.

2022 ◽  
Sophia Dominguez Perez ◽  
Jeffrey S Phillips ◽  
Catherine Norise ◽  
Nikolas G Kinney ◽  
Prerana Vaddi ◽  

An understudied non-amnestic variant of Alzheimer's disease (AD), behavioral variant AD (bvAD) is associated with progressive personality, behavior, or executive dysfunction and frontal atrophy. This study characterizes the neuropsychological and neuroanatomical features associated with bvAD by comparing it to behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), amnestic AD (aAD), and subjects with normal cognition. Subjects included 16 bvAD, 67 bvFTD, and 18 aAD patients, and 26 healthy controls. Compared to bvFTD, bvAD showed more significant visuospatial impairments (Rey Figure copy and recall), more irritability (Neuropsychological Inventory), and equivalent verbal memory (Philadelphia Verbal Learning Test). Compared to aAD, bvAD indicated more executive dysfunction (F-letter fluency) and better visuospatial performance. Neuroimaging analysis found that bvAD showed cortical thinning relative to bvFTD posteriorly in left temporal-occipital regions; bvFTD had cortical thinning relative to bvAD in left inferior frontal cortex. bvAD had cortical thinning relative to aAD in prefrontal and anterior temporal regions. All patient groups had lower volumes than controls in both anterior and posterior hippocampus. However, bvAD patients had higher average volume than aAD patients in posterior hippocampus and higher volume than bvFTD patients in anterior hippocampus after adjustment for age and intracranial volume. Findings demonstrated that underlying pathology mediates disease presentation in bvAD and bvFTD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Maria Chiara Piani ◽  
Eleonora Maggioni ◽  
Giuseppe Delvecchio ◽  
Adele Ferro ◽  
Davide Gritti ◽  

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a disabling illness affecting more than 5% of the elderly population. Higher female prevalence and sex-specific symptomatology have been observed, suggesting that biologically-determined dimensions might affect the disease onset and outcome. Rumination and executive dysfunction characterize adult-onset MDD, but sex differences in these domains and in the related brain mechanisms are still largely unexplored. The present pilot study aimed to explore any interactions between adult-onset MDD and sex on brain morphology and brain function during a Go/No-Go paradigm. We hypothesized to detect diagnosis by sex effects on brain regions involved in self-referential processes and cognitive control. Twenty-four subjects, 12 healthy (HC) (mean age 68.7 y, 7 females and 5 males) and 12 affected by adult-onset MDD (mean age 66.5 y, 5 females and 7 males), underwent clinical evaluations and a 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) session. Diagnosis and diagnosis by sex effects were assessed on regional gray matter (GM) volumes and task-related functional MRI (fMRI) activations. The GM volume analyses showed diagnosis effects in left mid frontal cortex (p &lt; 0.01), and diagnosis by sex effects in orbitofrontal, olfactory, and calcarine regions (p &lt; 0.05). The Go/No-Go fMRI analyses showed MDD effects on fMRI activations in left precuneus and right lingual gyrus, and diagnosis by sex effects on fMRI activations in right parahippocampal gyrus and right calcarine cortex (p &lt; 0.001, ≥ 40 voxels). Our exploratory results suggest the presence of sex-specific brain correlates of adult-onset MDD–especially in regions involved in attention processing and in the brain default mode–potentially supporting cognitive and symptom differences between sexes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Anita K. Chisholm ◽  
Kristina M. Haebich ◽  
Natalie A. Pride ◽  
Karin S. Walsh ◽  
Francesca Lami ◽  

Abstract Background Existing research has demonstrated elevated autistic behaviours in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), but the autistic phenotype and its relationship to other neurodevelopmental manifestations of NF1 remains unclear. To address this gap, we performed detailed characterisation of autistic behaviours in children with NF1 and investigated their association with other common NF1 child characteristics. Methods Participants were drawn from a larger cross-sectional study examining autism in children with NF1. The population analysed in this study scored above threshold on the Social Responsiveness Scale-Second Edition (T-score ≥ 60; 51% larger cohort) and completed the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and/or the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Edition (ADOS-2). All participants underwent evaluation of their intellectual function, and behavioural data were collected via parent questionnaires. Results The study cohort comprised 68 children (3–15 years). Sixty-three per cent met the ADOS-2 ‘autism spectrum’ cut-off, and 34% exceeded the more stringent threshold for ‘autistic disorder’ on the ADI-R. Social communication symptoms were common and wide-ranging, while restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRBs) were most commonly characterised by ‘insistence on sameness’ (IS) behaviours such as circumscribed interests and difficulties with minor changes. Autistic behaviours were weakly correlated with hyperactive/impulsive attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms but not with inattentive ADHD or other behavioural characteristics. Language and verbal IQ were weakly related to social communication behaviours but not to RRBs. Limitations Lack of genetic validation of NF1, no clinical diagnosis of autism, and a retrospective assessment of autistic behaviours in early childhood. Conclusions Findings provide strong support for elevated autistic behaviours in children with NF1. While these behaviours were relatively independent of other NF1 comorbidities, the importance of taking broader child characteristics into consideration when interpreting data from autism-specific measures in this population is highlighted. Social communication deficits appear similar to those observed in idiopathic autism and are coupled with a unique RRB profile comprising prominent IS behaviours. This autistic phenotype and its relationship to common NF1 comorbidities such as anxiety and executive dysfunction will be important to examine in future research. Current findings have important implications for the early identification of autism in NF1 and clinical management.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Lauren M. Schmitt ◽  
Kelli C. Dominick ◽  
Rui Liu ◽  
Ernest V. Pedapati ◽  
Lauren E. Ethridge ◽  

Over 200 Cytosine-guanine-guanine (CGG) trinucleotide repeats in the 5′ untranslated region of the Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene results in a “full mutation,” clinically Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), whereas 55 – 200 repeats result in a “premutation.” FMR1 premutation carriers (PMC) are at an increased risk for a range of psychiatric, neurocognitive, and physical conditions. Few studies have examined the variable expression of neuropsychiatric features in female PMCs, and whether heterogeneous presentation among female PMCs may reflect differential presentation of features in unique subgroups. In the current pilot study, we examined 41 female PMCs (ages 17–78 years) and 15 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched typically developing controls (TDC) across a battery of self-report, eye tracking, expressive language, neurocognitive, and resting state EEG measures to determine the feasibility of identifying discrete clusters. Secondly, we sought to identify the key features that distinguished these clusters of female PMCs. We found a three cluster solution using k-means clustering. Cluster 1 represented a psychiatric feature group (27% of our sample); cluster 2 represented a group with executive dysfunction and elevated high frequency neural oscillatory activity (32%); and cluster 3 represented a relatively unaffected group (41%). Our findings indicate the feasibility of using a data-driven approach to identify naturally occurring clusters in female PMCs using a multi-method assessment battery. CGG repeat count and its association with neuropsychiatric features differ across clusters. Together, our findings provide important insight into potential diverging pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors for each female PMC cluster, which may ultimately help provide novel and individualized targets for treatment options.

2022 ◽  
Peter A Hall ◽  
Gang Meng ◽  
Anna Hudson ◽  
Mohammad Nazmus Sakib ◽  
Sara C Hitchman ◽  

Objective: To determine whether SRS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 symptom severity are associated with executive dysfunction among members of the general population, including those not hospitalized or exposed to intubation. Design: Cross-sectional observation study with data from an ongoing national cohort study of young and middle-aged adults. The Canadian COVID-19 Experiences Project (CCEP) survey involves 1,958 adults with equal representation of vaccinated and vaccine hesitant adults between the ages of 18 and 54 years. Setting: Population-based survey of community dwelling adults, representative of the broader Canadian population. Participants: Men and women between 18 and 54 years of age from English and French speaking provinces. The sample comprised 1,958 adults with a mean age of 37 years (SD=10.4); 60.8% were female. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection with COVID-19 symptoms of any severity, ranging from negligeable to life-threatening infection requiring hospitalization. Primary Outcome: Symptoms of cognitive dysfunction assessed via an abbreviated form of the Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale (BDEFS). Results: Those who reported a prior SARS-CoV-2 infection regardless of COVID-19 symptom severity (Madj=1.89, SE=0.08, CI: 1.74, 2.04; n=175) reported a significantly higher number of symptoms of executive dysfunction than their non-infected counterparts (Madj=1.63, SE=0.08, CI: 1.47,1.80; n=1,599; β=0.26, p=.001). Among those infected, there was a dose-response relationship between COVID-19 symptom severity and level of executive dysfunction, with moderate (β=0.23, CI: 0.003-0.46) and very/extremely severe (β= 0.69, CI: 0.22-1.16) COVID-19 symptoms being associated with significantly greater dysfunction, compared to asymptomatic. These effects remained reliable and of similar magnitude after removing those who had been received intubation and when controlling for vaccination status. Conclusions: Positive SARS-CoV-2 infection history and COVID-19 symptom severity are associated with executive dysfunction among young and middle-aged adults with no history of medically induced coma.

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