stage of development
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2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (6) ◽  
pp. 0-0

How to balance resources, environment, and economic growth to achieve sustainable development is a challenge for developing countries. In 2013, China implemented a high-stringency environmental regulation—the Clean Air Action, which has effectively controlled air pollution. To explore the economic cost of environmental regulation, this paper investigates the policy effect on employment in the industrial sector. However, there are still controversies about whether environmental regulations impact employment. Based on the city-level data and firm-level data, this study applied a quasi-natural experiment for policy evaluation and used the mediating effect model for mechanism analysis. The difference-in-difference estimation results show that environmental regulation has a significant impact on employment. The mechanism analysis verifies that output adjustment, capital input, and green innovation are the main channels, by which environmental regulation distresses employment. The findings of this paper could be extended to other countries at a similar stage of development.

Алена Владимировна Искрина

В статье рассматриваются особенности формирования социальной стратификации Древней Руси на раннем этапе развития, этапы появления различных страт в зависимости от социально-политических событий с X по XII вв. Предметом исследования является процесс образования социальных страт в древнерусском государстве. Цель статьи - рассмотреть социальное устройство Древней Руси, определить и описать стратификацию и взаимодействие страт между собой, историю изучения данного вопроса, политические события, влияющие на данные процессы. Основным вопросом исследования явились исторические события, оказавшие влияние на формирование социальных страт с X по XII вв., появление социальных страт в данный исторический период и формы их взаимодействия. Отвечая на данный вопрос, автор приходит к выводу, что разложение патриархально-общинного строя, формирование феодального вассалитета, принципа майората, княжеской дружины и другие внутриполитические события повлияли на формирование социальных страт государства. В связи с данными историческими событиями удается проследить этапы происхождения социальных слоев населения, их состав, социальные функции в обществе и государстве. The paper examines the features of the social stratification of the Ancient system at an early stage of development, the stages of the emergence of various strata depending on political events from the 10th to the 12th centuries. The subject of this research is the process of the formation of social strata in the ancient European state. The purpose of the publication is to consider the social structure of Ancient Rus, to determine and describe the stratification and interaction of strata with each other, to study this issue, political events that affect these processes. The main research issue was the historical events that influenced the formation of social strata from the 10th to the 12th centuries, the emergence of social strata in a given historical period and the forms of their interaction. Answering this question, the author arrives at the conclusion that the disintegration of the patriarchal-communal system, the formation of a feudal vassalage, the principle of primacy, the princely squad and other internal political events influenced the formation of social strata of the state. In connection with these historical events, it is possible to trace the stages of the origin of social strata of the population, their composition, social functions in society and the state.

2022 ◽  
Magda Vodrážková ◽  
Irena Šetlíková ◽  
Josef Navrátil ◽  
Michal Berec

The presence of a predator affects prey populations either by direct predation or by modifying various parts of their life history. We investigated whether the hatching time, developmental stage, and body size at hatching of common frog (Rana temporaria) embryos would be altered in the presence of a red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) as a predator. The presence of a predator affected all factors examined. We found that in the absence of the slider, the embryos hatched in 12 days, while hatching was accelerated by two days when sliders were present. At the same time, the embryos hatched smaller and at a lower stage of development with the slider than without it. Our study extends the range of predators studied, including the effect on different phases of development of potential amphibian prey.

2022 ◽  
Kelley Gunther ◽  
Daniel Petrie ◽  
Alaina Pearce ◽  
Bari Fuchs ◽  
Koraly Perez-Edgar ◽  

The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a key brain area in considering adaptive regulatory behaviors. This includes regulatory projections to regions of the limbic system such as the amygdala, where the nature of functional connections may confer lower risk for anxiety disorders. The PFC is also associated with behaviors like executive functioning. Inhibitory control is a behavior encompassed by executive functioning, and is generally viewed favorably for adaptive socioemotional development. Yet, some research suggests that high levels of inhibitory control may actually be a risk factor for some maladaptive developmental outcomes, like anxiety disorders. In a sample of 51 children ranging from 7-9 years old, we examined resting state functional connectivity between regions of the PFC and the amygdala. We used Subgrouping Group Iterative Multiple Model Estimation (S-GIMME) to identify and characterize data-driven subgroups of individuals with similar networks of connectivity between these brain regions. Generated subgroups were collapsed into children characterized by the presence or absence of recovered connections between the PFC and amygdala. We then tested whether inhibitory control, as measured by a stop signal task, moderated the relation between these subgroups and child-reported anxiety symptoms. We found an inverse relation between stop-signal reaction times and reported count of anxiety symptoms when controlling for connectivity group, suggesting that greater inhibitory control was actually related to greater anxiety symptoms, but only when accounting for patterns of PFC-amygdala connectivity. These data suggest that there is a great deal of heterogeneity in the nature of functional connections between the PFC and amygdala during this stage of development. The findings also provide support for the notion of high levels of inhibitory control as a risk factor for anxiety, but trait-level biopsychosocial factors may be important to consider in assessing the nature of risk.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Kinga Dziurka ◽  
Michał Dziurka ◽  
Ewa Muszyńska ◽  
Ilona Czyczyło-Mysza ◽  
Marzena Warchoł ◽  

AbstractA critical step in the production of doubled haploids is a conversion of the haploid embryos into plants. Our study aimed to recognize the reasons for the low germination rate of Avena sativa haploid embryos obtained by distant crossing with maize. Oat cultivars of ‘Krezus’ and ‘Akt’ were investigated regarding embryo anatomy, the endogenous phytohormone profiles, and antioxidant capacity. The zygotic embryos of oat were used as a reference. It was found that twenty-one days old haploid embryos were smaller and had a less advanced structure than zygotic ones. Morphology and anatomy modifications of haploid embryos were accompanied by extremely low levels of endogenous auxins. Higher levels of cytokinins, as well as tenfold higher cytokinin to auxin ratio in haploid than in zygotic embryos, may suggest an earlier stage of development of these former. Individual gibberellins reached higher values in ‘Akt’ haploid embryos than in the respective zygotic ones, while the differences in both types of ‘Krezus’ embryos were not noticed. Additionally to the hormonal regulation of haploid embryogenesis, the poor germination of oat haploid embryos can be a result of the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, and therefore higher levels of low molecular weight antioxidants and stress hormones.

Marta Mazur ◽  
Artnora Ndokaj ◽  
Beatrice Marasca ◽  
Gian Luca Sfasciotti ◽  
Roberto Marasca ◽  

Germectomy is a procedure often required in patients at developmental age. It is defined as the surgical removal of the third molar at a very specific stage of development. The aim of this study was to systematically analyze the literature in terms of clinical indications for germectomy in patients at developmental age. Literature searches were performed using PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library and Scopus from 1952 to 30 June 2021. The study protocol was registered after the screening stage (PROSPERO CRD42021262949). The search strategy identified 3829 articles: 167 from PubMed, 2860 from Google Scholar, 799 from Cochrane Library and 3 from Scopus. Finally, eight full-text papers were included into the qualitative analysis. Based on the included studies, clinical indications for germectomy were mainly related to orthodontic causes, infectious and cariogenic causes and prophylaxis. Based on these results, it is not possible to present evidence-based clinical indications for germectomy in patients at developmental age. Clinical trials on this subject focused specifically on patients at developmental age are awaited.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Sunil Atulkar

Purpose With the growing acceptance of renewable energy sources in the world, new energy sources are pursued and investigated by customers. In India, residential PV technology is in an early stage of development and very less in demand among households. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify the major variables and its impact on customers purchase intention towards solar PV technology, especially in the context of central India. Design/methodology/approach Based on literature reviews, this study identifies six major independent variables having a relationship with purchase intentions. Using convenience sampling method, 413 customers’ data has been collected by the researcher and was investigated through structural equation modelling, using SmartPLS 2.0 and SPSS-20 software. Findings The study findings suggested that the construct promotional strategies, societal influence, customer awareness and government initiative plays an important role in generating customers purchase intention towards solar PV technology. While the constructs environmental concern and availability & cost having relationship, showed insignificant influence. Research limitations/implications The study outcomes provide some valuable insights to the government and policymakers in designing their policies and strategies to increase customer involvement in solar PV technology. This study suggested that the service providers need to offer more benefits in the form of subsidies and schemes that motivate customers to willingly show their purchase intention. Originality/value The major contribution of this study is the empirical analysis of six independent variables, which affects the customer purchase intentions towards solar PV technology over available conventional energy sources in an emerging Indian market.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (6) ◽  
pp. 56-60
Anu P Baby ◽  
Jigeesh PP

Diagnosis in Ayurveda is not always in terms of the name of the disease but in terms of the nature or phenomenon. This phenomenon is described in terms of Samprapti of the disease in each patient, comprising Dosha, Dushya and Adhishtana components. The prime factors in the pathogenesis of the disease are Dosha and Dushya. Shat kriyakala refers to the stage of development of a pathological process in which a physician can intervene by the most accurate treatment modality and medicine, thereby halting the progression of the disease process. By intricate understanding of the process of Shat kriyakala, the disease process could be arrested, and further complications can be avoided. In the current scenario, the concept of prevention has become broad-based. The natural history of disease is one of the significant elements of epidemiology. The course of a disease takes in individual people from its pathological onset until its eventual resolution. Natural history of disease is possible to correlate pre-pathogenesis with Sanchaya, Prakopa, Prasara and pathogenesis with Sthanasamsraya, Vyakti and Bhedavastha of Shat kriyakala. Recent studies have shown that it is possible to identify certain pre-clinical stages for many diseases like Parkinson’s disease, which can help in the early successful treatment. Shat kriyakala helps to arrest the disease process at the very early stage itself. Along with current technology, the need for research for validating the Shat kriyakala will benefit humankind in the long run.

Tatyana Maltseva

The article analyzes the scientific literature on the problem of liminality as a condition for the dynamics of subjective vitality in conjunction with professional activity. The phenomenon of subjective vitality is defined as the subject's level of vital forces, which exist in him as an adaptive and personal potential, the realization of which is necessary for a person to realize his uniqueness and integrity in order to establish a correspondence between various states in the person himself, as well as with the systems surrounding him. The article substantiates its actual role in professional activity, preservation of mental and physical health, in increasing the level of psychological well-being. Taking into account the fact that a certain number of professional situations can be better understood if we consider them through the prism of liminality - an intermediate state between otherness and norms, approaches to this concept are considered. Arnold van Gennep's views that life is characterized by transitions from one social group or situation to another. Victor Turner, expanding the understanding of liminality and describing its relevance to both traditional and modern societies. The works of Homi Bhabha, in which liminality is put forward as a state that allows self-construction through the rejection of imposed forms. The three-phase structure of the liminality of L.I. Fusu. Liminality in modern psychology is a state that occurs at the moment of transition from one stage of development to another, that is, associated with life changes or developmental crises, with changes in general, or with a situation of uncertainty. The article concludes that the problem of the development of subjective vitality is interconnected with the presence of the state of liminality and the conditions of the liminal situation. Liminality acts as a psychological condition for a change in the level of subjective vitality, leading to the need to revise the attitude to life, spiritual foundations and the system of values.

João Morais ◽  
Paulo Morais ◽  
Carlos Santos ◽  
André Paixão ◽  
Eduardo Fortunato

Nowadays, there are multiple initiatives showing a renewed interest on railway transport of goods and passengers around the world. Thus, an efficient management of railway infrastructures, both at the operational level and in terms of economic profitability, is not only desirable but also corresponds to an area of ongoing research. In order to contribute to these efforts, an alternative and novel methodology to evaluate railway track support conditions is presented here, based on modal analysis of the characteristic frequencies of the multi-element system composed by a railway infrastructure and an instrumented vehicle moving over it. This methodology belongs to the group of vibration-based structural damage identification methods, and is focused on observing the characteristic frequencies of this multi-element system, which can be correlated with changes in the physical properties of the railway infrastructure under analysis. An important feature of the proposed methodology is that it should enable the collection of information regarding the conditions of the substructure of a railway infrastructure. By performing this assessment of a railway infrastructure over its length, and over time by comparing different rides over the same railway stretch, important information can be gathered regarding the support conditions of the track. This paper presents a complete description on the current stage of development of the proposed methodology, along with the theoretical model that serves as the basis to interpret the collected data. Preliminary verification of this methodology is performed through the analysis of two case studies regarding the passage of an instrumented vehicle over two underpasses. The results obtained so far show that the proposed methodology can provide relevant information regarding the support conditions of railway tracks.

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