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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Charlotte Rebecca Pennington ◽  
Andrew Jones ◽  
Loukia Tzavella ◽  
Christopher D Chambers ◽  
Katherine Susan Button

Participant crowdsourcing platforms (e.g., MTurk, Prolific) offer numerous advantages to addiction science, permitting access to hard-to-reach populations and enhancing the feasibility of complex experimental, longitudinal and intervention studies. Yet these are met with equal concerns about participant non-naivety, motivation, and careless responding, which if not considered can greatly compromise data quality. In this article, we discuss an alternative crowdsourcing avenue that overcomes these issues whilst presenting its own unique advantages – crowdsourcing researchers through big team science. First, we review several contemporary efforts within psychology (e.g., ManyLabs, Psychological Science Accelerator) and the benefits these would yield if they were more widely implemented in addiction science. We then outline our own consortium-based approach to empirical dissertations: a grassroots initiative that trains students in reproducible big team addiction science. In doing so, we discuss potential challenges and their remedies, as well as providing resources to help addiction researchers develop these initiatives. Through researcher crowdsourcing, together we can answer fundamental scientific questions about substance use and addiction, build a literature that is representative of a diverse population of researchers and participants, and ultimately achieve our goal of promoting better global health.


2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Mutaju Isaack Marobhe

PurposeThis article examines the susceptibility of cryptocurrencies to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) induced panic in comparison with major stock indices.Design/methodology/approachThe author employs the Bayesian structural vector autoregression to examine the phenomenon in Bitcoin, Ethereum and Litecoin from 2nd January 2020 to 30th June 2021. A similar analysis is conducted for major stock indices, namely S&P 500, FTSE 100 and SSE Composite for comparison purposes.FindingsThe results suggest that cryptocurrencies returns suffered immensely in the early days of the COVID-19 outbreak following declarations of the disease as a global health emergency and eventually a pandemic in March 2020. However, the returns for all three cryptocurrencies recovered by April 2020 and remained resistant to further COVID-19 panic shocks. The results are dissimilar to those of S&P 500, FTSE 100 and SSE Composite values which were vulnerable to COVID-19 panic throughout the timeframe to June 2021. The results further reveal strong predictive power of Bitcoin on prices of other cryptocurrencies.Research limitations/implicationsThe article provides evidence to support the cryptocurrency as a safe haven during COVID-19 school of thought given their resistance to subsequent shocks during COVID-19. Thus, the author stresses the need for diversification of investment portfolios by including cryptocurrencies given their uniqueness and resistance to shocks during crises.Originality/valueThe author makes use of the novel corona virus panic index to examine the magnitude of shocks in prices of cryptocurrencies during COVID-19.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Inessa Manuelyan ◽  
Anna M. Schmoker ◽  
Boyd L. Yount ◽  
Philip Eisenhauer ◽  
Judith I. Keller ◽  
...  

Flaviviruses are enveloped, positive-strand RNA viruses that cause millions of infections in the human population annually. Although Zika virus (ZIKV) had been detected in humans as early as the 1950s, its reemergence in South America in 2015 resulted in a global health crisis. While flaviviruses encode 10 proteins that can be post-translationally modified by host enzymes, little is known regarding post-translational modifications (PTMs) of the flavivirus proteome. We used mass spectrometry to comprehensively identify host-driven PTMs on the ZIKV proteome. This approach allowed us to identify 43 PTMs across 8 ZIKV proteins, including several that are highly conserved within the Flavivirus genus. Notably, we found two phosphosites on the ZIKV envelope protein that are functionally important for viral propagation and appear to regulate viral budding. Additionally, we discovered 115 host kinases that interacted with ZIKV proteins and determined that Bosutinib, an FDA-approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets ZIKV interacting host kinases, impairs ZIKV growth. Thus, we have defined a high-resolution map of host-driven PTMs on ZIKV proteins as well as cellular interacting kinases, uncovered a novel mechanism of host driven-regulation of ZIKV budding, and identified an FDA-approved inhibitor of ZIKV growth.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
K. E. Huus ◽  
T. T. Hoang ◽  
A. Creus-Cuadros ◽  
M. Cirstea ◽  
S. L. Vogt ◽  
...  

AbstractChild undernutrition is a global health issue associated with a high burden of infectious disease. Undernourished children display an overabundance of intestinal pathogens and pathobionts, and these bacteria induce enteric dysfunction in undernourished mice; however, the cause of their overgrowth remains poorly defined. Here, we show that disease-inducing human isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteroidales spp. are capable of multi-species symbiotic cross-feeding, resulting in synergistic growth of a mixed community in vitro. Growth synergy occurs uniquely under malnourished conditions limited in protein and iron: in this context, Bacteroidales spp. liberate diet- and mucin-derived sugars and Enterobacteriaceae spp. enhance the bioavailability of iron. Analysis of human microbiota datasets reveals that Bacteroidaceae and Enterobacteriaceae are strongly correlated in undernourished children, but not in adequately nourished children, consistent with a diet-dependent growth synergy in the human gut. Together these data suggest that dietary cross-feeding fuels the overgrowth of pathobionts in undernutrition.


Antibiotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 1440
Author(s):  
Christian James ◽  
Ronald Dixon ◽  
Luke Talbot ◽  
Stephen J. James ◽  
Nicola Williams ◽  
...  

The dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) is a global health concern. This study identifies and critically reviews the published evidence on whether cooking (heating) food to eliminate bacterial contamination induces sufficient damage to the functionality of ARGs. Overall, the review found that there is evidence in the literature that Antimicrobial Resistant (AMR) bacteria are no more heat resistant than non-AMR bacteria. Consequently, recommended heat treatments sufficient to kill non-AMR bacteria in food (70 °C for at least 2 min, or equivalent) should be equally effective in killing AMR bacteria. The literature shows there are several mechanisms through which functional genes from AMR bacteria could theoretically persist in heat-treated food and be transferred to other bacteria. The literature search found sparce published evidence on whether ARGs may actually persist in food after effective heat treatments, and whether functional genes can be transferred to other bacteria. However, three publications have demonstrated that functional ARGs in plasmids may be capable of persisting in foods after effective heat treatments. Given the global impact of AMR, there is clearly a need for further practical research on this topic to provide sufficient evidence to fully assess whether there is a risk to human health from the persistence of functional ARGs in heat-treated and cooked foods.


Author(s):  
Fasoranti Afolabi Joseph

Background: COVID-19 has increased drastically all over the world and one of the major ways to reduce its prevalence is through COVID-19 vaccine. However, some individuals hesitate in accepting the uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine which is a major cause of concern to the global health. Methods: this cross-sectional study was conducted on450 respondents were selected through networking system in Lagos state. The COVID-19 Hesitancy Questionnaire with reliability value of 0.67 was used as instrument for data collection. Data gathering was online through Google docs which was circulated via e-mail and WhatsApp platform to the participants. Data Analyzing was done via SPSS 20 Results: The study revealed that 92% were aware of the accessibility of vaccine for COVID-19. Totally, 81.11% had not received the vaccine and the reasons given include misconceptions on the effects of the COVID-19. Conclusions: COVID-19 vaccine uptake is generally poor among the uneducated than the educated. Therefore, there is need for massive education on the importance of COVID-19 among the populace especially among the less educated.  


2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (7) ◽  
pp. 498-507
Author(s):  
A.E. Abaturov ◽  
V.L. Babуch

The scientific review shows the ways of nuclear import and export of miRNAs in the cell. The authors present a clear and accessible scheme of microRNA translocation in the cell. The article shows that the main site of localization in the cytoplasm of cells of the RISC complex and its components, including miRNAs, are processing P-cells. The authors cite the fact that Argonaute proteins — signature components of the effector complex of RISC RNA interference — are localized in mammalian P-bodies. It is shown that proteins of the karyopherin family mediate the translocation of miRISC into the cell nucleus. These proteins recognize nuclear localization sequences (NLS) in the amino acid sequences of proteins and actively transport these proteins through the pores of the cell’s nuclear membrane. It is emphasized that in addition to non-selective mechanisms of nuclear import of miRNAs, there are transport mechanisms that carry certain miRNAs across the cell membrane. Some miRNAs are presented, which are mainly loca­lized in the nucleus of a certain type of cell. Scientists believe that much of the nucleus miRNA is concentrated in polysomes. Export of nuclear pool microRNA into the cytoplasm of the cell occurs with the help of export 1. Thus, in the cytoplasm of the cell, mature forms of microRNA accumulate, some of which are translocated to the cell nucleus or the extracellular space. Assembly of the miRISC complex is carried out in the cytoplasm of the cell, and only after the formation of the complex, it is imported into the cell nucleus. The spectrum of exosome-associated miRNAs can be a highly important diagnostic criterion for some nosologies, and exosomes containing certain miRNAs can be used for targeted therapy of specific diseases. To write the article, information was searched using databases Scopus, Web of Science, MedLine, PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, Global Health, The Cochrane Library, CyberLeninka.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sofia Appelberg ◽  
Lijo John ◽  
Norbert Pardi ◽  
Ákos Végvári ◽  
Sándor Bereczky ◽  
...  

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), caused by Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), is on the World Health Organizations’ list of prioritized diseases and pathogens. With global distribution, high fatality rate and no approved vaccine or effective treatment, CCHF constitutes a threat against global health. In the current study, we demonstrate that vaccination with nucleoside-modified mRNA-lipid nanoparticles (mRNA-LNP), encoding for the CCHFV nucleoprotein (N) or glycoproteins (GcGn) protect IFNAR -/- mice against lethal CCHFV infection. In addition, we found that both mRNA-LNP induced strong humoral and cellular immune responses in IFNAR -/- and immunocompetent mice and that neutralizing antibodies are not necessary for protection. When evaluating immune responses induced by immunization including CCHFV Gc and Gn antigens, we found the Gc protein to be more immunogenic compared to the Gn protein. Hepatic injury is prevalent in CCHF and contributes to the severity and mortality of the disease in humans. Thus, to understand the immune response in the liver after infection and the potential effect of the vaccine, we performed a proteomic analysis on liver samples from vaccinated and control mice after CCHFV infection. Similar to observations in humans, vaccination affected the metabolic pathways. In conclusion, this study shows that a CCHFV mRNA-LNP vaccine, based on viral nucleo- or glycoproteins, mediate protection against CCHFV induced disease. Consequently, genetic immunization is an attractive approach to prevent disease caused by CCHFV and we believe we have necessary evidence to bring this vaccine platform to the next step in the development of a vaccine against CCHFV infection. Importance Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a zoonotic pathogen causing Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), a severe fever disease. CCHFV have a wide distribution and are endemic in several areas around the world. Cases of CCHF are also being reported in new areas, indicating an expansion of the disease, which is of high concern. Dispersion of the disease, high fatality rate and no approved vaccine makes CCHF a threat to global health. The development of a vaccine is thus of great importance. Here we show 100% protection against lethal CCHFV infection in mice immunized with mRNA-LNP encoding for different CCHFV proteins. The vaccination showed both robust humoral and cellular immunity. mRNA-LNP vaccines combine the ability to induce an effective immune response, the safety of a transient carrier and the flexibility of genetic vaccines. This and our results from the current study support the development of a mRNA-LNP based vaccine against CCHFV.


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