brain structures
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 118
Elena Antelmi ◽  
Lorenzo Rocchi ◽  
Anna Latorre ◽  
Daniele Belvisi ◽  
Francesca Magrinelli ◽  

Although restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder, it remains poorly understood from both clinical and pathophysiological perspectives. RLS is classified among sleep-related movement disorders, namely, conditions characterized by simple, often stereotyped movements occurring during sleep. However, several clinical, neurophysiological and neuroimaging observations question this view. The aim of the present review is to summarize and query some of the current concepts (known knowns) and to identify open questions (known unknowns) on RLS pathophysiology. Based on several lines of evidence, we propose that RLS should be viewed as a disorder of sensorimotor interaction with a typical circadian pattern of occurrence, possibly arising from neurochemical dysfunction and abnormal excitability in different brain structures.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Eva Matt ◽  
Lisa Kaindl ◽  
Saskia Tenk ◽  
Anicca Egger ◽  
Teodora Kolarova ◽  

Abstract Background With the high spatial resolution and the potential to reach deep brain structures, ultrasound-based brain stimulation techniques offer new opportunities to non-invasively treat neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, little is known about long-term effects of ultrasound-based brain stimulation. Applying a longitudinal design, we comprehensively investigated neuromodulation induced by ultrasound brain stimulation to provide first sham-controlled evidence of long-term effects on the human brain and behavior. Methods Twelve healthy participants received three sham and three verum sessions with transcranial pulse stimulation (TPS) focused on the cortical somatosensory representation of the right hand. One week before and after the sham and verum TPS applications, comprehensive structural and functional resting state MRI investigations and behavioral tests targeting tactile spatial discrimination and sensorimotor dexterity were performed. Results Compared to sham, global efficiency significantly increased within the cortical sensorimotor network after verum TPS, indicating an upregulation of the stimulated functional brain network. Axial diffusivity in left sensorimotor areas decreased after verum TPS, demonstrating an improved axonal status in the stimulated area. Conclusions TPS increased the functional and structural coupling within the stimulated left primary somatosensory cortex and adjacent sensorimotor areas up to one week after the last stimulation. These findings suggest that TPS induces neuroplastic changes that go beyond the spatial and temporal stimulation settings encouraging further clinical applications.

V Rama Raju

This study discusses the various procedures and issues involved in the acquisition of microelectrode recordings (MER) signals of subthalamic nucleus stimulations with induced deep brain stimulation electrodes very rigorously. Bellicose-invasive physiological detections through the methods of sub cortical physio logical detections, electrical induced stimulations and micro electrode recordings, stereo-tactic technique, macro-stimulation, stereo-tactic functional neurosurgical technique, stimulations such as macro and micro, induced stimuli with current and microelectrode recordings, impedance information monitoring, micro injections of test substances, evoked potentials, biomarkers/local field potentials, microelectrode fabrication methods and setups, sub cortical atlas-mapping with micro recording/microelectrode recording (M.E.R.). Thus, the study is very significant to the electrophysiological neurosurgical point of view and is very useful to the field of microelectrode recording and functional neurosurgery. This study is concerned with invasive physiological detection of deep brain structures with micro- or macro-electrodes prior to surgery followed by imaging techniques and their use in cortical and subcortical detection; detection relevant to the superficial cerebral cortex regions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Carla Bittencourt Rynkowski ◽  
Juliana Caldas

In the beginning, cerebral ultrasound (US) was not considered feasible because the intact skull was a seemingly impenetrable obstacle. For this reason, obtaining a clear image resolution had been a challenge since the first use of neuroultrasound (NUS) for the assessment of small deep brain structures. However, the improvements in transducer technologies and advances in signal processing have refined the image resolution, and the role of NUS has evolved as an imaging modality for the brain parenchyma within multiple pathologies. This article summarizes ten crucial applications of cerebral ultrasonography for the evaluation and management of neurocritical patients, whose transfer from and to intensive care units poses a real problem to medical care staff. This also encompasses ease of use, low cost, wide acceptance by patients, no radiation risk, and relative independence from movement artifacts. Bedsides, availability and reliability raised the interest of critical care intensivists in using it with increasing frequency. In this mini-review, the usefulness and the advantages of US in the neurocritical care setting are discussed regarding ten aspects to encourage the intensivist physician to practice this important tool.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Sarah Mondoloni ◽  
Manuel Mameli ◽  
Mauro Congiu

AbstractThroughout life, individuals experience a vast array of positive and aversive events that trigger adaptive behavioural responses. These events are often unpredicted and engage actions that are likely anchored on innate behavioural programs expressed by each individual member of virtually all animal species. In a second step, environmental cues, that are initially neutral, acquire value through the association with external sensory stimuli, and become instrumental to predict upcoming positive or negative events. This process ultimately prompts learned goal-directed actions allowing the pursuit of rewarding experience or the avoidance of a danger. Both innate and learned behavioural programs are evolutionarily conserved and fundamental for survival. Among the brain structures participating in the encoding of positive/negative stimuli and contributing to innate and learned behaviours is the epithalamic lateral habenula (LHb). The LHb provides top-down control of monoaminergic systems, responds to unexpected appetitive/aversive stimuli as well as external cues that predict the upcoming rewards or punishments. Accordingly, the LHb controls a number of behaviours that are innate (originating from unpredicted stimuli), and learned (stemming from predictive cues). In this review, we will discuss the progresses that rodent’s experimental work made in identifying how LHb activity governs these vital processes, and we will provide a view on how these findings integrate within a complex circuit connectivity.

2022 ◽  
Osama Hamadelseed ◽  
Thomas Skutella

Abstract INTRODUCTIONDown syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability. Children and adults with DS show deficits in various aspects of language performance and explicit memory. Here we use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on children and adults with DS to characterize changes in the volume of specific brain structures involved in memory and language and their relationship to features of cognitive-behavioral phenotypes.METHODSThirteen children and adults with the DS phenotype and 12 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were analyzed by MRI and underwent a psychological evaluation for language and cognitive abilities.RESULTSThe neuropsychological profile of DS patients showed deficits in different cognition and language domains in correlation with reduced volumes of specific regional and subregional brain structures. Intriguingly, our DS patients showed also a reduced parahippocampal gyrus volume, in contrast with the results found by other researchers.CONCLUSIONSThe memory functions and language skills affected in our DS patients correlate significantly with the reduced volume of specific brain regions, allowing us to understand DS's cognitive-behavioral phenotype. Our results provide an essential basis for early intervention and the design of rehabilitation management protocols.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Landa ◽  
Fabiola Hernández-López ◽  
Lucía Martínez-Mota ◽  
Damiana Scuteri ◽  
Blandina Bernal-Morales ◽  

Systemic injections of the flavonoid chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) exert anxiolytic-like effects in ovariectomised and cycling female rats through actions on gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptors; however, it is unknown if chrysin directly acts on brain structures that are involved in regulating emotional processes, such as the hippocampus. The present study evaluated the effects of intrahippocampal microinjections of 0.25, 0.5, and 1 μg of chrysin on anxiety-like behaviour in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and locomotor activity test (LAT) in female rats in proestrus and dioestrus. Similar doses of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone were used as a reference GABAergic anxiolytic drug. The participation of the GABAA/benzodiazepine receptor complex was evaluated by administering the antagonists picrotoxin, bicuculline and flumazenil. In proestrus, 0.5 and 1 μg of chrysin and allopregnanolone induced anxiogenic-like behaviour. In dioestrus, chrysin, and allopregnanolone (0.5 μg) induced anxiolytic-like effects. Picrotoxin, bicuculline and flumazenil prevented the effects of chrysin and allopregnanolone in both proestrus and dioestrus. None of the treatments significantly affected locomotor activity. These results indicate that the GABAA/benzodiazepine receptor complex in the dorsal hippocampus regulates the effects of chrysin on anxiety-like behaviour, similar to the actions of allopregnanolone. The divergent effects of treatments across the oestrous cycle phases suggest complex interactions between GABAA receptors and compounds with an anxiolytic potential.

Simon Steffens ◽  
Joanne Bakker ◽  
Micaela Glat ◽  
Erik Keimpema ◽  
Daniela D. Pollak ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 164-189
Ezgi Ildirim

School shootings are traumatic events that have detrimental impacts on children. Studies revealed that after the school shooting children can suffer from traumatic symptoms which cause difficulties in learning and relationships. Traumas negatively affect developing brain structures of the children which can lead to long-term problems. For that reason, the trauma sensitive schools (TSS) model, which aimed to provide safe and secure environments for children, can be helpful to support the children and to improve their well-being after the school shooting.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document