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Published By Mdpi Ag

2076-3425

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 117
Author(s):  
Naomichi Matsunaga ◽  
Tadashi Ito ◽  
Yuji Ito ◽  
Jun Mizusawa ◽  
Yingzhi Gu ◽  
...  

Children with behavioral problems have a high risk of impaired motor performance. However, the characteristics of balance functions and their associations with behavioral traits are unclear in this population. This study aimed to evaluate balance functions and their relationships with the degree of behavioral problems in school-aged children. A total of 209 children, aged 6–10 years, were divided into two groups, those with and those without behavioral problems, using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Physical assessments included the one-leg standing test (OLST), the two-step test, and the five-times-sit-to-stand test. We compared the data between groups and assessed for correlations in terms of total difficulties and the SDQ subscale scores. Children with behavioral problems showed significantly reduced the OLST results (p < 0.001) and the two-step test results (p = 0.008). The five-times-sit-to-stand test results did not show significant differences between groups. The OLST results were significantly correlated with emotional symptoms (r = −0.22, p < 0.001), hyperactivity/inattention (r = −0.29, p < 0.001), peer relationship problems (r = −0.22, p < 0.001), and total difficulties (r = −0.32, p < 0.001). Meanwhile, the two-step test results showed no significant correlation with the SDQ scores. Children with behavioral problems have poor balance function, thereby increasing the risk for instability. This suggests that the balance function of children with behavioral problems needs to be considered.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 118
Author(s):  
Elena Antelmi ◽  
Lorenzo Rocchi ◽  
Anna Latorre ◽  
Daniele Belvisi ◽  
Francesca Magrinelli ◽  
...  

Although restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder, it remains poorly understood from both clinical and pathophysiological perspectives. RLS is classified among sleep-related movement disorders, namely, conditions characterized by simple, often stereotyped movements occurring during sleep. However, several clinical, neurophysiological and neuroimaging observations question this view. The aim of the present review is to summarize and query some of the current concepts (known knowns) and to identify open questions (known unknowns) on RLS pathophysiology. Based on several lines of evidence, we propose that RLS should be viewed as a disorder of sensorimotor interaction with a typical circadian pattern of occurrence, possibly arising from neurochemical dysfunction and abnormal excitability in different brain structures.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 116
Author(s):  
Laura Fusar-Poli ◽  
Miriam Martinez ◽  
Teresa Surace ◽  
Valeria Meo ◽  
Federica Patania ◽  
...  

The COVID-19 outbreak has disrupted the daily routine of the population worldwide, including autistic people and their caregivers, with severe consequences on mental health. On one hand, the reduced social contacts and the interruption of outpatient and daycare services during the lockdown have represented a real challenge for autistic people and their caregivers. On the other hand, confinement has allowed individuals to spend more time pursuing their interests and stay home with their family members without feeling the pressure of social expectations. The present study aimed to compare the levels of personal wellbeing, family distress, insomnia, and resilience between caregivers of autistic people and caregivers of people with other neurodevelopmental, psychiatric, or relational disabilities. A web survey was completed by 383 participants, of which 141 were primary caregivers of autistic people. We did not find any significant difference between caregivers of autistic and non-autistic people in any of the considered psychological variables. Lower age of the autistic family member and lower resilience levels were significantly associated with higher individual distress in the group of caregivers of autistic people. Our findings do not corroborate the hypothesis that caregivers of autistic individuals have had more severe consequences than other caregivers during the lockdown. However, they confirm the importance of promoting resilient coping strategies in autistic people and their caregivers.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 115
Author(s):  
Claire Boutoleau-Bretonnière ◽  
Estelle Lamy ◽  
Mohamad El Haj

Recent research has assessed pupil size during past thinking in patients with retrograde amnesia. Building on this research, we assessed pupil size during future thinking in a retrograde amnesia patient. To this end, we measured pupil size during past and future thinking in L, a 19-year-old, right-handed man free of neurological/psychiatric disorders except for retrograde amnesia that occurred after an episode of fugue. During a past thinking condition, we invited L to retrieve retrograde events (i.e., events that occurred before amnesia) and anterograde events (i.e., events that occurred after amnesia). During a future thinking condition, we invited him to imagine events that might occur the following week, the following month, and in the new year. Past and future thinking occurred while L’s pupil size was monitored with eye-tracking glasses. L demonstrated higher specificity during future than during past thinking. Critically, the results demonstrated a larger pupil size during future than during past thinking. The larger pupil size during future thinking observed in L can be attributed to the high cognitive load involved in future thinking. Our study not only demonstrates preserved future thinking in a patient with dissociative retrograde amnesia, but also shows that pupillometry can be used for the physiological assessment of future thinking in retrograde amnesia patients.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 112
Author(s):  
Benjamin C. Gibson ◽  
Andrei Vakhtin ◽  
Vincent P. Clark ◽  
Christopher C. Abbott ◽  
Davin K. Quinn

Hemispheric differences in emotional processing have been observed for over half a century, leading to multiple theories classifying differing roles for the right and left hemisphere in emotional processing. Conventional acceptance of these theories has had lasting clinical implications for the treatment of mood disorders. The theory that the left hemisphere is broadly associated with positively valenced emotions, while the right hemisphere is broadly associated with negatively valenced emotions, drove the initial application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Subsequent rTMS research has led to improved response rates while adhering to the same initial paradigm of administering excitatory rTMS to the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) and inhibitory rTMS to the right PFC. However, accumulating evidence points to greater similarities in emotional regulation between the hemispheres than previously theorized, with potential implications for how rTMS for MDD may be delivered and optimized in the near future. This review will catalog the range of measurement modalities that have been used to explore and describe hemispheric differences, and highlight evidence that updates and advances knowledge of TMS targeting and parameter selection. Future directions for research are proposed that may advance precision medicine and improve efficacy of TMS for MDD.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 111
Author(s):  
Kristina Rosqvist ◽  
Anette Schrag ◽  
Per Odin ◽  

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive, neurodegenerative disease involving both motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS). In the late stage of the disease, Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) stage IV-V, the symptomatology is often severe and patients become increasingly dependent on help in their daily life, resulting in an increased burden for the informal caregivers. To assess the implications of the caregiver burden, caregiver quality of life (QoL) was assessed in 74 informal caregivers to patients in late stage PD, by the Alzheimer’s Patient Partners Life Impact Questionnaire (APPLIQue), which has been found useful also in PD. The majority of caregivers were the spouse/partner. Individual items provided information on which aspects of caregiver burden were the most common, i.e., items: “feel guilty if not there (71% affirmed)”, “the situation wears me down” (65% affirmed) and “always on my mind” (61% affirmed). In simple linear regression analyses, male patient gender (p = 0.007), better cognition (p = 0.004), lower NMS burden (p = 0.012) and not being the partner (p = 0.022) were associated with better caregiver QoL. Multivariable linear regression analyses identified better cognition (p = 0.004) and male patient gender (p = 0.035) as independently associated with better informal caregiver QoL. Identifying and treating NMS as well as recognizing and alleviating caregiver burden seem essential to enhance QoL for both patients and caregivers in late stage PD.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 109
Author(s):  
Lucian Mărginean ◽  
Paul Andrei Ștefan ◽  
Andrei Lebovici ◽  
Iulian Opincariu ◽  
Csaba Csutak ◽  
...  

Due to their similar imaging features, high-grade gliomas (HGGs) and solitary brain metastases (BMs) can be easily misclassified. The peritumoral zone (PZ) of HGGs develops neoplastic cell infiltration, while in BMs the PZ contains pure vasogenic edema. As the two PZs cannot be differentiated macroscopically, this study investigated whether computed tomography (CT)-based texture analysis (TA) of the PZ can reflect the histological difference between the two entities. Thirty-six patients with solitary brain tumors (HGGs, n = 17; BMs, n = 19) that underwent CT examinations were retrospectively included in this pilot study. TA of the PZ was analyzed using dedicated software (MaZda version 5). Univariate, multivariate, and receiver operating characteristics analyses were used to identify the best-suited parameters for distinguishing between the two groups. Seven texture parameters were able to differentiate between HGGs and BMs with variable sensitivity (56.67–96.67%) and specificity (69.23–100%) rates. Their combined ability successfully identified HGGs with 77.9–99.2% sensitivity and 75.3–100% specificity. In conclusion, the CT-based TA can be a useful tool for differentiating between primary and secondary malignancies. The TA features indicate a more heterogenous content of the HGGs’ PZ, possibly due to the local infiltration of neoplastic cells.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 114
Author(s):  
Frank Neugebauer ◽  
Marios Antonakakis ◽  
Kanjana Unnwongse ◽  
Yaroslav Parpaley ◽  
Jörg Wellmer ◽  
...  

MEG and EEG source analysis is frequently used for the presurgical evaluation of pharmacoresistant epilepsy patients. The source localization of the epileptogenic zone depends, among other aspects, on the selected inverse and forward approaches and their respective parameter choices. In this validation study, we compare the standard dipole scanning method with two beamformer approaches for the inverse problem, and we investigate the influence of the covariance estimation method and the strength of regularization on the localization performance for EEG, MEG, and combined EEG and MEG. For forward modelling, we investigate the difference between calibrated six-compartment and standard three-compartment head modelling. In a retrospective study, two patients with focal epilepsy due to focal cortical dysplasia type IIb and seizure freedom following lesionectomy or radiofrequency-guided thermocoagulation (RFTC) used the distance of the localization of interictal epileptic spikes to the resection cavity resp. RFTC lesion as reference for good localization. We found that beamformer localization can be sensitive to the choice of the regularization parameter, which has to be individually optimized. Estimation of the covariance matrix with averaged spike data yielded more robust results across the modalities. MEG was the dominant modality and provided a good localization in one case, while it was EEG for the other. When combining the modalities, the good results of the dominant modality were mostly not spoiled by the weaker modality. For appropriate regularization parameter choices, the beamformer localized better than the standard dipole scan. Compared to the importance of an appropriate regularization, the sensitivity of the localization to the head modelling was smaller, due to similar skull conductivity modelling and the fixed source space without orientation constraint.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 113
Author(s):  
Sung-Hoon Kim ◽  
Dong-Min Ji ◽  
Chan-Yong Kim ◽  
Sung-Bok Choi ◽  
Min-Cheol Joo ◽  
...  

We developed a magnetic-force-based three-dimensional (3D) rehabilitation device that can perform motor rehabilitation treatment for paralyzed fingers, regardless of upper extremity movement and position, and investigated the therapeutic effects of the device. An end-effector type rehabilitation device that can generate magnetic fields in three directions was developed using electromagnets and permanent magnetics. A double-blinded randomized controlled pilot study was conducted with a total of 12 patients. The intervention group had rehabilitation treatment using the developed magnetic finger rehabilitation device for 30 min a day for four weeks. The control group underwent exercise rehabilitation treatment. The control group received conventional occupational therapy on the upper limbs, including hands, from an occupational therapist, for the same amount of time. Adverse effects were monitored, and the patient’s sensory or proprioceptive deficits were examined before the intervention. No participants reported safety concerns while the intervention was conducted. The Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) scores were significantly improved in the intervention group (from 13.4 ± 3.6 to 20.9 ± 4.0 points) compared to the control group (from 13.1 ± 4.0 to 15.2 ± 3.8 points) (p = 0.016). The patients in the intervention group (from 88 ± 12 to 67 ± 13 s) showed greater improvement of WMFT times compared to the control group (from 89 ± 10 to 73 ± 11 s) (p = 0.042). The Manual Function Test and the upper limb score of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment were significantly improved in the intervention group compared with the control group (p = 0.038 and p = 0.042). The patients in the intervention group also showed significantly greater enhancement of the Korean version of the modified Barthel Index than the control group (p = 0.042). Rehabilitation treatment using the 3D magnetic-force-driven finger rehabilitation device helped improve finger motor function and activities of daily living in subacute stroke patients.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 110
Author(s):  
Eleni Zoe Gkoritsa

Recovery nystagmus in vestibular neuritis patients is a reversal of spontaneous nystagmus direction, beating towards the affected ear, observed along the time course of central compensation. It is rarely registered due either to its rarity as a phenomenon per se, or to the fact that it is missed between follow-up appointments. The aim of the manuscript is to describe in detail a case of recovery nystagmus found in an atypical case of vestibular neuritis and discuss pathophysiology and clinical considerations regarding this rare finding. A 26-year-old man was referred to our Otorhinolaryngology practice reporting “dizziness” sensation and nausea in the last 48 h. Clinical examination revealed left beating spontaneous nystagmus (average slow phase velocity aSPV 8.1°/s) with absence of fixation. The head impulse test (H.I.T.) was negative. Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP) and Playtone audiometry (PTA) were normal. Romberg and Unterberger tests were not severely affected. A strong directional preponderance to the left was found in caloric vestibular test with minimal canal paresis (CP 13%) on the right. The first follow-up consultation took place on the 9th day after the onset of symptoms. Right beating weak (aSPV 2.4°/s) spontaneous nystagmus was observed with absence of fixation, whereas a strong right directional preponderance (DP) was found in caloric vestibular test. A brain MRI scan was ordered to exclude central causes of vertigo, which was normal. The patient was seen again completely free of symptoms 45 days later. He reported feeling dizzy during dynamic movements of the head and trunk for another 15 days after his second consultation. The unexpected observation of nystagmus direction reversal seven days after the first consultation is a typical sign of recovery nystagmus. Recovery nystagmus (RN) is centrally mediated and when found, it should always be carefully assessed in combination with the particularities of vestibular neuritis.


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