Socioeconomic Status
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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 321-333
Ben Kenward ◽  
Cameron Brick

In 2019, the environment began to rival the economy among priority issues for the UK public. The COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to shift this balance in either direction, because the crisis is not only causing serious economic damage but is also highlighting the usefulness of expert warnings. The current work examines the balance between public prioritisation of environment and economy in the light of the COVID-19 pandemic. A nationally representative YouGov sample of 1654 UK adults were presented with two political speeches, either linking COVID-19 to climate and prioritising environment as part of planned economic recovery, or separating the issues and stating that environmental prioritisation is now unaffordable. Most participants (62%) were positive towards the environmental prioritisation speech, and it was more popular than the other speech (which 36% were positive towards). The same proportion of Conservative voters (62%) were positive towards the environmental prioritisation speech (with 50% positive towards the other speech). Higher support for the environmental prioritisation speech was associated with more education but not with socioeconomic status. Voting history and socioeconomic status were therefore less predictive of differences in support for the speeches than expected based on previous research. Consistent with these results is the suggestion that environmental concern in the UK is becoming less tied to social identity and more tied to concern for personal well-being. These findings suggest that foregrounding environmental concerns is politically realistic in post-COVID-19 economic policy, consistent with suggestions from economists and environmental scientists that an environmental focus is feasible and necessary.

2021 ◽  

Abstract Background Dental caries is the most common progressive chronic disease in school-age children with an increasing prevalence as children grow up. This study aims to examine the effects of socioeconomic status, parental education level, oral and dental health practices, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements on dental health in 12-year-old schoolchildren. Methods The sample of the study consisted of 254 children (44.1% boys and 55.9% girls) in three schools, which were identified as low, moderate and high socioeconomic status. Results It was found that 70.9% of the children have dental caries on their permanent teeth. The frequency of seeing a dentist, the status of receiving oral and dental health education and the frequency of changing toothbrush vary according to the socioeconomic status. Oral and dental health indicators were determined to be affected by the frequency and duration of tooth brushing. It was found that dmft values of the children consuming molasses and table sugar are higher. There is a negative correlation between oral and dental health indicators and anthropometric measurements and parental education level. Conclusions Dietary habits, anthropometric measurements, oral and dental health practices, gender, and parental socioeconomic status and education level were shown to be effective on caries risk.

2021 ◽  
Vol 36 (1) ◽  
pp. 62-80
María Florencia Cesani ◽  
Fabián Anibal Quintero ◽  
María Antonia Luis ◽  
María Fernanda Torres ◽  
Mariela Garraza ◽  

Objective: The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of high blood pressure in schoolchildren aged 4-14 years from urban peripheral areas of the city of La Plata, and analyze variations in high blood pressure prevalence by sex, age, excess weight and family socioeconomic status. Materials and methods: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body weight and height were measured in 3,312 schoolchildren of both sexes. The prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP), overweight and obesity was calculated. Socioeconomic information was obtained through a semi-structured survey and processed by categorical principal-component analysis. The prevalence of HBP was compared with sex, age and nutritional status (chi square test) and family socioeconomic status (generalized linear model) (p< 0.05.). Results: The results showed that the prevalence of HBP, was 20.5% and that it varied by age, nutritional status and family socioeconomic status. Sexual differences were observed only in HBP obese schoolchildren. Conclusions: Children and adolescents living in urban peripheral areas of the city of La Plata, Argentina, presented higher HBP prevalence. While HBP prevalence was higher among overweight/obese children, those aged >8 years and those of more favorable family socioeconomic status, sex did not affect HBP development. However, when HBP was analyzed associated with nutritional status, obese boys were more likely to have HBP than girls.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Thiago S. Torres ◽  
Lara E. Coelho ◽  
Kelika A. Konda ◽  
E. Hamid Vega-Ramirez ◽  
Oliver A. Elorreaga ◽  

Abstract Background Despite efforts to stop HIV epidemic in Latin America, new HIV cases continue to increase in the region especially among young MSM (YMSM). This study aims to assess if sociodemographic characteristics are associated with self-reported HIV positive status among YMSM from three Latin American countries. Methods Cross-sectional web-based survey advertised on dating apps (Grindr and Hornet) and Facebook in Brazil, Mexico and Peru. For this analysis, we included YMSM aged 18–24 years who self-reported their HIV status. We used multivariable logistic regression models for each country separately to verify if sociodemographic characteristics (race, education and income) were associated with HIV self-reported status after adjusting for behavior characteristics (sexual attraction and steady partner). Results Among 43,687 MSM who initiated the questionnaire, 27,318 (62.5%) reported their HIV status; 7001 (25.6%) of whom were YMSM. Most YMSM (83.4%) reported an HIV test in the past year, and 15.7% reported an HIV positive status in Peru, 8.4% in Mexico and 7.7% in Brazil. In adjusted models, low-income was associated with higher odds of self-reported HIV positive status in Brazil (aOR = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.01–1.75) and Peru (aOR = 1.56, 95%CI: 1.02–2.40), but not in Mexico. Lower education was associated with higher odds of self-reported HIV positive status only in Brazil (aOR = 1.35, 95%CI: 1.05–1.75). Conclusions In this large, cross-country study, self-reported HIV positive status among YMSM was high. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with higher odds of self-reported HIV positive status in Brazil and Peru. There is an urgent need for HIV prevention interventions targeting YMSM, and efforts to address low-income YMSM are especially needed in Peru and Brazil.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Jan Kowar ◽  
Victoria Stenport ◽  
Mats Nilsson ◽  
Torsten Jemt

Objectives. The purpose of this study was to investigate if edentulism is associated with all-cause mortality. The aims were to analyze the association between age, socioeconomic factors, and mortality in edentulous patients treated with either removable dentures or implant-supported prostheses. Methods. All patients who became edentulous according to the Swedish Social Insurance Agency (SSIA) between 2009 and 2013 (N  = 8463) were analyzed regarding prosthetic treatment, age, gender, and socioeconomic status. The patients were divided into two groups, depending on whether they were treated with dental implants (implant group; IG) or with conventional removable dentures (denture group; DG). Data on mortality for all included individuals were obtained from the Swedish National Cause of Death Register and compared to a reference population. Cumulative survival rates were calculated, and a multivariable regression analysis for the included variables was performed. Results. Between 2009 and 2018, 2192 of the patients (25.9%) were treated with implant-supported dental prostheses (IG) and 6271 patients (74.1%) were treated with removable dentures without support of dental implants (DG). Altogether 2526 patients (30%) died until December 31, 2019, and the overall mortality was significantly higher for the DG compared to the IG during follow-up ( p < 0.001 ). Younger edentulous patients (≤59 years) presented a higher mortality than the reference population, while implant patients over 79 years of age demonstrated a lower mortality. The final results from the multivariable logistic analysis showed that lower equalized disposable income (EDI) and the choice of conventional removable dentures are the most important factors for increased patient mortality ( p < 0.001 ). Conclusions. Edentulous patients have an overall higher mortality compared to a reference population. Low socioeconomic status increases all-cause mortality. Individuals treated with dental implants show statistically significant lower 10-year mortality compared to patients treated with conventional removable dentures, regardless of socioeconomic status.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Ali Fakhari ◽  
Mostafa Farahbakhsh ◽  
Elham Davtalab Esmaeili ◽  
Hosein Azizi

Abstract Background A detailed community-level understanding of socioeconomic status (SES) and sociocultural status (SCS) of suicides and suicide attempters (SAs) in a prospective design could have significant implications for policymakers at the local prevention and treatment levels. The effect of SCS and SES on SAs is poorly understood and investigated in Iran. The present study aimed to investigate the incidence, trend, and role of SES and SCS on suicide and SAs. Methods A longitudinal study was conducted based on the registry for SAs in Malekan County, Iran, from 2015 to 2018. Demographic characteristics, SES, SCS, incidence rates, and predictors of suicidal behaviors were measured via structured instruments. Simple and multiple logistic regressions were used to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results A total of 853 SAs (32 suicides and 821 attempts) were identified during the study. Trend analysis revealed that the suicide rate significantly decreased from 2014 (10.28) to 2018 (1.75) per 100,000. In the final multiple variable models, age (26–40), male sex, unemployment, antisocial activities, history of SA, hanging method, and season (spring) increased the suicide risk while religious commitment had protective effects on suicide. Conclusions Our findings indicated that demographic characteristics, low SES, and SCS are associated with suicide. In this county, trend of suicide and SA were decreased from 2014 to 2018. This study findings highlight the need to consider a wide range of contextual variables, socio-demographic, SES, and SCS in suicide prevention strategies. Improving inter-sectoral collaborations and policymakers’ attitudes are imperative for SA reduction.

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