cognitive impairments
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2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 433-439
Wei-Xia Ren ◽  
Ran-Ran Wu

Purpose: To investigate the effect of general and subarachnoid (spinal) anesthesia on the incidence of postoperative delirium and cognitive impairments in elderly Chinese patients. Methods: Elderly Chinese patients (n = 281) aged 65 – 79 years (mean age = 74.12 ± 4.15 years) who underwent proximal femoral fracture surgery were recruited over a 1-year period for this study. The patients were evaluated using neuropsychological assessment battery (NAB) 24 h before surgery, and on the first day 1 month after surgery. Data on activity of daily living (ADL) (in this case toileting at the time of discharge) were recorded and analyzed. Results: There was no significant difference in the number of patients that developed postoperative delirium between the two anesthesia groups (p > 0.05). Although the trail making test (TMT) scores (parts A and B) were increased on the first day 1 month after surgery, there were no significant differences in NAB results between the two groups (p > 0.05). Patients who received subarachnoid (spinal) anesthesia had significantly higher dependency for toileting at the time of discharge than those who received general anesthesia (p < 0.05). Conclusion: These results show that general and subarachnoid (spinal) anesthesia do not cause postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction in elderly Chinese patients who underwent proximal femoral fracture surgery.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Helena Gauffin ◽  
Anne-Marie Landtblom ◽  
Patrick Vigren ◽  
Andreas Frick ◽  
Maria Engström ◽  

Introduction: Cognitive impairments in epilepsy are not well-understood. In addition, long-term emotional, interpersonal, and social consequences of the underlying disturbances are important to evaluate.Purpose: To compare cognitive function including language in young adults with focal or generalized epilepsy. In addition, quality of life and self-esteem were investigated.Patients and Methods: Young adults with no primary intellectual disability, 17 with focal epilepsy and 11 with generalized epilepsy participated and were compared to 28 healthy controls. Groups were matched on age (mean = 26 years), sex, and education. Participants were administered a battery of neuropsychological tasks and carried out self-ratings of quality of life, self-esteem, and psychological problems.Results: Similar impairments regarding cognitive function were noted in focal and generalized epilepsy. The cognitive domains tested were episodic long-term memory, executive functions, attention, working memory, visuospatial functions, and language. Both epilepsy groups had lower results compared to controls (effect sizes 0.24–1.07). The total number of convulsive seizures was predictive of episodic long-term memory function. Participants with focal epilepsy reported lower quality of life than participants with generalized epilepsy. Lowered self-esteem values were seen in both epilepsy groups and particularly in those with focal epilepsy. Along with measures of cognitive speed and depression, the total number of seizures explained more than 50% of variation in quality of life.Conclusion: Interestingly, similarities rather than differences characterized the widespread cognitive deficits that were seen in focal and generalized epilepsy, ranging from mild to moderate. These similarities were modified by quality of life and self-esteem. This study confirms the notion that epilepsy is a network disorder.

2022 ◽  
Xiaoyue Chang ◽  
Kepu Chen ◽  
Yuting Ye ◽  
Fei Gu ◽  
Yuli Wu ◽  

Abstract There is an increasing recognition of neurological manifestations from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Quantifications of such manifestations and their long-term dynamics in the general infected population are of essence in understanding the health and socioeconomic burden of neurological complications of COVID-19. Through rigorous empirical testing of over 800 volunteers, we present here repeated cross-sectional and longitudinal data that depict the trajectories of chemosensory functions, cognitive performances and depressive symptoms up to 1.5 years after acute COVID-19 in discharged patients with respect to non-infected controls. Overall, deficits in smell, taste and chemesthesis slowly resolved within about a year of discharge. Concerningly, cognitive impairments –– independent of elevated depressive symptoms and evident even in those with nonsevere disease –– showed no sign of improvement over time. In people over 50 years, COVID-19 was associated with a substantially increased risk for mild cognitive impairment. Our findings urge for cognitive and emotional interventions targeting COVID-19 convalescents.

2022 ◽  
Nutchareeporn Nillert ◽  
Chantana Boonyarat ◽  
Jariya Umka Welbat ◽  
Komsun Bunreungthong ◽  
Ploenthip Puthongking ◽  

Abstract Background: Neuroinflammation caused by amyloid‐β (Aβ) is associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. In AD, Aβ accumulation can activate the surrounding microglia which followed by the synthesis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), results in cognitive impairments. Clausena harmandiana (CH) is an herb in the Rutaceae family and has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of illness such as stomachache and headache, and as a health tonic. It is interesting that CH root extract (CHRE) exhibits various anti-inflammatory and other pharmacological activities, but there has not been any study in Alzheimer's disease-like animal models.Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effects of CHRE on Aβ1-42-induced cognitive impairments, increased Aβ1-42 protein levels and neuroinflammation. Methods: Forty-eight adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=8). The rats were given 0.5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose, Celebrex® (10 mg/kg BW) or CHRE (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg BW) and not given any treatment by oral gavage for 35 days. On day 21, all treated rats were injected with aggregated Aβ1-42 at a concentration of 1 µg/µl into both lateral ventricles (1 µl/side), while untreated rats were injected with sterilized normal saline. Ten days later, their recognition memory was assessed using the novel object recognition test. At the end of the experiment, all rats were euthanized by an overdose of thiopental sodium (120 mg/kg BW) and transcardial perfusion with 0.9% normal saline solution, to observe Aβ1-42 protein levels and the expression of inflammatory markers (CD11b-positive microglia, IL-1β, and TNFα) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.Results: The results indicated that pretreatment with CHRE at all doses improved impairment of short- and long-term recognition memory. In addition, CHRE significantly decreased Aβ1-42 protein levels and the expression of inflammatory markers in both brain regions as well as pretreatment with Celebrex®.Conclusions: This suggests that CHRE has a potential therapeutic effect against Aβ1-42-induced cognitive impairments by reducing Aβ1-42 protein levels and neuroinflammation.

Xing Jun Jiang ◽  
Yan Qing Wu ◽  
Rong Ma ◽  
Yan Min Chang ◽  
Lu Lu Li ◽  

As a primary cause of dementia and death in older people, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has become a common problem and challenge worldwide. Abnormal accumulation of tau proteins in the brain is a hallmark pathology of AD and is closely related to the clinical progression and severity of cognitive deficits. Here, we found that overexpression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) effectively promoted the degradation of tau, thereby rescuing neuron loss, synaptic damage, and cognitive impairments in a mouse model of tauopathy with AAV-full-length human Tau (hTau) injected into the hippocampal CA1 area (hTau mice). Overexpression of PINK1 activated autophagy, and chloroquine but not MG132 reversed the PINK1-induced decrease in human Tau levels and cognitive improvement in hTau mice. Furthermore, PINK1 also ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunction induced by hTau. Taken together, our data revealed that PINK1 overexpression promoted degradation of abnormal accumulated tau via the autophagy–lysosome pathway, indicating that PINK1 may be a potential target for AD treatment.

Antti Hämäläinen

The article elaborates what aspects of knowledge eldercare workers describe concerning everyday long-term care practices. The article utilises a thematic analysis of Finnish long-term care workers’ semi-structured interviews (n = 25), and in doing so, it contributes to the discussion concerning the epistemological basis of care. The analysis specifies four aspects of knowledge in long-term care work: objective/objectifying, particular, corporeal and tacit. In line with existing literature on knowledge and care, the findings indicate that rational-technical epistemological approaches are insufficient when complex and fluid care relations are concerned. Moreover, cognitive impairments and other particularities of eldercare provide previously under-researched epistemological perspectives for consideration.

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