Social Anxiety
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2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Kosuke Kajitani ◽  
Rikako Tsuchimoto ◽  
Yusaku Omodaka ◽  
Tomoko Matsushita ◽  
Hideaki Fukumori ◽  

Taijin-Kyofu-sho is an East Asian culture-bound anxiety disorder with similarities to social anxiety disorder. However, few studies have examined these two disorders from the perspective of neurodevelopmental disorders. This study is aimed at examining the association of Taijin-Kyofu-sho and social anxiety disorder with the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) trait and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) trait. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety, Taijin-Kyofu-sho, and Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Self-Report scales and the 16-item Autism-Spectrum Quotient were administered to 818 university students. Participants were divided into four groups: control (neither Taijin-Kyofu-sho nor social anxiety disorder), pure Taijin-Kyofu-sho (Taijin-Kyofu-sho alone), pure social anxiety disorder (social anxiety disorder alone), and mixed Taijin-Kyofu-sho-social anxiety disorder (both Taijin-Kyofu-sho and social anxiety disorder). We used logistic regression analysis to examine whether the ADHD trait and ASD trait were associated with Taijin-Kyofu-sho and social anxiety disorder. ASD trait was significantly associated with pure Taijin-Kyofu-sho ( p = 0.006 , odds ratio: 3.99). Female sex and ADHD trait were significantly associated with pure social anxiety disorder (sex: p = 0.013 , odds ratio: 2.61; ADHD trait: p = 0.012 , odds ratio: 2.46). Female sex, ADHD trait, and ASD trait were significantly associated with mixed Taijin-Kyofu-sho-social anxiety disorder (sex: p = 0.043 , odds ratio: 2.16; ADHD trait: p = 0.003 , odds ratio: 2.75; ASD trait: p < 0.001 , odds ratio: 16.93). Neurodevelopmental disorder traits differed between individuals with Taijin-Kyofu-sho and those with social anxiety disorder. Overall, our study reveals that Japanese individuals with the ADHD or ASD traits are at a heightened risk of developing Taijin-Kyofu-sho or social anxiety disorder.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Laura M. Scorr ◽  
Stewart A. Factor ◽  
Sahyli Perez Parra ◽  
Rachel Kaye ◽  
Randal C. Paniello ◽  

Objective: The goal of this study is to better characterize the phenotypic heterogeneity of oromandibular dystonia (OMD) for the purpose of facilitating early diagnosis.Methods: First, we provide a comprehensive summary of the literature encompassing 1,121 cases. Next, we describe the clinical features of 727 OMD subjects enrolled by the Dystonia Coalition (DC), an international multicenter cohort. Finally, we summarize clinical features and treatment outcomes from cross-sectional analysis of 172 OMD subjects from two expert centers.Results: In all cohorts, typical age at onset was in the 50s and 70% of cases were female. The Dystonia Coalition cohort revealed perioral musculature was involved most commonly (85%), followed by jaw (61%) and tongue (17%). OMD more commonly appeared as part of a segmental dystonia (43%), and less commonly focal (39%) or generalized (10%). OMD was found to be associated with impaired quality of life, independent of disease severity. On average, social anxiety (LSA score: 33 ± 28) was more common than depression (BDI II score: 9.7 ± 7.8). In the expert center cohorts, botulinum toxin injections improved symptom severity by more than 50% in ~80% of subjects, regardless of etiology.Conclusions: This comprehensive description of OMD cases has revealed novel insights into the most common OMD phenotypes, pattern of dystonia distribution, associated psychiatric disturbances, and effect on QoL. We hope these findings will improve clinical recognition to aid in timely diagnosis and inform treatment strategies.

2021 ◽  
Nathan Huneke ◽  
Hannah Rowlatt ◽  
Joshua Hyde ◽  
Louise Maryan ◽  
David Baldwin ◽  

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common mental disorders and can be significantly disabling. New treatments are needed as the remission rate for SAD is the lowest of all the anxiety disorders. Experimental medicine models, in which features resembling a clinical disorder are experimentally induced, can be a cost-effective and timely approach to explore potential novel treatments for psychiatric disorders. One such model is the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), which induces social-evaluative threat and subsequent stress responses in participants. However, following the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, there is a need to develop protocols that can be carried out remotely. We developed a novel modified TSST to investigate SAD that can be carried out entirely online (the Internet-based Trier Stress test for Social Anxiety Disorder; iTSSAD). Our protocol involves a naturalistic social interaction task to explore social anxiety symptoms. The observing panel was also artificial which allows the entire protocol to be carried out by a single investigator, reducing costs and improving internal reliability. The iTSSAD induced significant subjective anxiety and reduced positive affect (F’s &gt; 4.41, p’s &lt; 0.02). Further, social anxiety symptoms correlated with anxiety during the social interaction task (r = 0.65, p = 0.0032). This protocol needs further validation with physiological measures. The iTSSAD is a new tool for researchers to investigate mechanisms underlying social anxiety disorder.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Kalyani B. Karunakaran ◽  
Satoko Amemori ◽  
N. Balakrishnan ◽  
Madhavi K. Ganapathiraju ◽  
Ken-ichi Amemori

AbstractMechanisms underlying anxiety disorders remain elusive despite the discovery of several associated genes. We constructed the protein–protein interaction networks (interactomes) of six anxiety disorders and noted enrichment for striatal expression among common genes in the interactomes. Five of these interactomes shared distinctive overlaps with the interactomes of genes that were differentially expressed in two striatal compartments (striosomes and matrix). Generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder interactomes showed exclusive and statistically significant overlaps with the striosome and matrix interactomes, respectively. Systematic gene expression analysis with the anxiety disorder interactomes constrained to contain only those genes that were shared with striatal compartment interactomes revealed a bifurcation among the disorders, which was influenced by the anterior cingulate cortex, nucleus accumbens, amygdala and hippocampus, and the dopaminergic signaling pathway. Our results indicate that the functionally distinct striatal pathways constituted by the striosome and the matrix may influence the etiological differentiation of various anxiety disorders.

Fabio Cardace ◽  
Julian Rubel ◽  
Uwe Altmann ◽  
Martin Merkler ◽  
Brian Schwartz ◽  

Zusammenfassung Ziel der Studie Bei der Untersuchung von sozialer Ängstlichkeit haben sich die Fragebögen Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) und das Social Phobia-Inventory (SPIN) etabliert. Außerdem wird zum Screening sozialer Ängstlichkeit häufig die Subskala Unsicherheit im Sozialkontakt des Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-53) eingesetzt. Alle drei Skalen geben vor dasselbe Konstrukt zu erfassen. Somit stellt sich die Frage der Konvergenz dieser Skalen. Um Forschungsergebnisse zu sozialer Ängstlichkeit, welche diese Instrumente nutzen, über einen fragebogenübergreifenden Faktor (Common-Faktor) vergleichbar zu machen, wird in der vorliegenden Studie ein Item Response Theorie (IRT) Linking Ansatz verwendet. Methodik 64 deutschsprachige psychiatrische Patienten und 295 Probanden aus der deutschen Normalbevölkerung füllten die drei Fragebögen aus. Verschiedene IRT-Modelle – darunter Graded Response Modelle (GRM) – wurden an die Daten angepasst und verglichen. Basierend auf dem Modell mit dem besten Fit wurden Regressionsanalysen durchgeführt. Der Common-Faktor wurde dabei jeweils von den Fragebogensummenwerten vorhergesagt. Ergebnisse Der Zusammenhang zwischen den verschiedenen Skalen wird am besten durch ein Bi-Faktor GRM erklärt (RMSEA=0,036; CFI=0,977; WRMR=1,061). Anhand der Ergebnisse der Regressionsanalysen lassen sich drei Gleichungen zur Transformation von Fragebogensummenwerten ableiten. Schlussfolgerung Durch den IRT Linking Ansatz konnte ein fragebogenübergreifender genereller Faktor Sozialer Ängstlichkeit abgeleitet werden. Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede wurden dabei berücksichtigt. Dies hat sowohl für die Forschung als auch für die Praxis Vorteile. Eine Replikation dieser Studie sowie die Implementierung weiterer Instrumente wird empfohlen, um die Gültigkeit dieses Ansatzes zu überprüfen und die Ergebnisse zu generalisieren.

Yvonne Tran ◽  
Elaine Blumgart ◽  
Ashley Craig

Purpose Adults who stutter (AWS) have increased risk of comorbid social anxiety about speaking in social contexts. AWS also report experiencing embarrassment in different social situations; however, research has rarely been conducted on embarrassment and its relationship to social anxiety in AWS. Method AWS ( N = 200) reported their level of embarrassment on four 10-point Likert items when speaking in four situational contexts: at home, to an individual important to them, in social groups, and at work. Participants were also assessed for sociodemographic, stuttering, and anxiety variables. Construct validity for the four embarrassment items was examined, the extent of embarrassment established in the four contexts as a function of age and sex, and the relationship of embarrassment to social anxiety evaluated. Results Evidence of acceptable construct validity and reliability is presented for the four embarrassment Likert items. Sixty-five percent of the sample experienced high levels of embarrassment when speaking in groups or at work, while 35.5% experienced high levels when speaking at home or to an individual important to them. Participants were significantly more embarrassed ( p < .01) when speaking at work or when socializing in groups. Embarrassment was lowest when speaking in the home. Younger females were significantly more embarrassed when speaking at work or when socializing in groups. Those with high embarrassment scores on all four items were more likely to have elevated social anxiety scores ( p < .001). Conclusion These preliminary results suggest that the assessment of situational embarrassment could be an important clinical measure that may help improve stuttering treatment outcomes that also target social anxiety.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Verônica Hühne ◽  
Paula Vigne ◽  
Gabriela B. de Menezes ◽  
Leonardo F. Fontenelle

Posttraumatic growth (PTG) describes positive psychological change and improvement beyond one's previous functioning. It manifests as a change of self-perception, improvement in the relationship with others, and a better outlook on life. Despite consistent literature on the occurrence of PTG in healthy subjects, there is still a dearth of studies in people with pre-existing mental disorders, especially anxiety disorders. We report the case of a patient previously diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD), whose symptoms remitted, and life view improved after a traumatic event, illustrating a case of PTG. The trauma shattered the patient's previous belief system, allowing the emergence of a new cognitive schema. Although PTG and symptom remission do not necessarily correspond to the same construct, we believe that these phenomena were related to each other in this case, probably because of a notable change in our patient's underlying belief system.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Kaan Varnali ◽  
Caner Cesmeci

Purpose As customers increasingly adopt social media as the primary channel to reach out to companies, voicing is becoming a public act. Adopting a social psychological perspective, this study aims to focus on the social dynamics that drive consumer voice on social media. Design/methodology/approach The research uses three studies. First, a list of metaperceptions about voicing behavior is compiled using the critical incident technique, and then the hypothesized effects are tested with two scenario-based experiments. Findings Metaperceptions mediate the relationship between social anxiety and the intention to voice on social media. Self-construal moderates the effect of metaperceptions, such that in the presence of a negative metaperception, the reluctance to post a direct complaint is attenuated under independent self-construal. Independent self-construal attenuates the positive effect of positive metaperception. An experimental comparison between social media and consumer review sites reveals that metaperceptions are only prevalent in social media and when the complainer construes him or herself as interdependent. Originality/value Since lodging a direct complaint to a service provider has been mainly conceived as a private behavior, the role of social dynamics in the context of voicing remains under-researched. Aiming to fill this gap, the present research empirically examines how the presence of a perceived audience affects voicing behavior.

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