low socioeconomic status
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2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Syed Muhammad Ishaque ◽  
Muhammad Sadiq Achackzai ◽  
Zia Ud Din ◽  
Shahid Pervez

Objectives: To determine frequency of esophageal malignancy in Balochistan and to evaluate its correlation with predisposing and dietary factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from Jan 2019 to Dec 2020, at two tertiary care hospital of Quetta which caters to the entire population of province. The total number of 207 cases of esophageal biopsies were received and morphological diagnosis done by H&E staining. Results: Out of 207 (N) esophageal biopsies cases, malignancy were observed in 65%, chronic esophagitis in 19%, benign esophageal lesion in 1% and other esophageal lesions were observed in less than 4% of samples. Association with aggravating factors included tea 80.5%, use of drugs 64%, spicy food 57%, salted food 53%, quid & tobacco taken orally and through nose 44% and cigarette smoking 21.5%. The protective factors include fresh fruit 90%, fish 64% and milk 55% which were never or occasionally taken, meat chicken and beef intake was 63% & 53% and vegetable intake was 52%, but 72.5% of cases never used alcohol and mutton meat was not used by 50%. Conclusion: Esophageal cancer was associated in those groups of people which may regard as having high risk factors. These include increased intake of spicy/salted food, hot beverages, drugs, quid and smoked tobacco, coupled with low intake of fruits and vegetables, lack of awareness and low socioeconomic status. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4612 How to cite this:Ishaque SM, Achakzai MS, Ziauddin, Pervez S. Correlation of predisposing factors and Esophageal Malignancy in high risk population of Baluchistan. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4612 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 159-167
Selvakumar Jagannathan

Background: Coping style is a person’s characteristic strategies used in response to life problems or traumas. Coping serves a protective function .This study aims to examine the impact of coping styles predominance in the training programme given to patients with type II diabetes of low socioeconomic status group.30 patients with type II diabetes of low socioeconomic status group were selected using purposive sampling from the diabetic clinic for the assessment of coping style. Coping style was assessed using “Coping styles of adults with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes” by Karlsen and Bru (1998). Paired t-test was used to assess the effectiveness of coping styles enhancement training programme for patients with type II diabetes. The study revealed that there is significant increase in the level of coping styles of patients with type II diabetes due to coping styles enhancement training programme.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Franz Neuberger ◽  
Mariana Grgic ◽  
Svenja Diefenbacher ◽  
Florian Spensberger ◽  
Ann-Sophie Lehfeld ◽  

Abstract Background During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, German early childhood education and care (ECEC) centres organised children’s attendance in different ways, they reduced opening hours, provided emergency support for a few children, or closed completely. Further, protection and hygiene measures like fixed children-staff groups, ventilation and surface disinfection were introduced in ECEC centres. To inform or modify public health measures in ECEC, we investigate the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infections among children and staff in ECEC centres in light of social determinants (i.e. the socioeconomic status of the children) and recommended structural and hygiene measures. We focus on the question if the relevant factors differ between the 2nd (when no variant of concern (VOC) circulated) and the 3rd wave (when VOC B.1.1.7 (Alpha) predominated). Methods Based on panel data from a weekly online survey of ECEC centre managers (calendar week 36/2020 to 22/2021, ongoing) including approx. 8500 centres, we estimate the number of SARS-CoV-2 infections in children and staff using random-effect-within-between (REWB) panel models for count data in the 2nd and 3rd wave. Results ECEC centres with a high proportion of children with low socioeconomic status (SES) have a higher risk of infections in staff and children. Strict contact restrictions between groups like fixed group assignments for children and fixed staff assignments to groups prevent infections. Both effects tend to be stronger in the 3rd wave. Conclusion ECEC centres with a large proportion of children with a low SES background and lack of using fixed child/staff cohorts experience higher COVID-19 rates. Over the long run, centres should be supported in maintaining recommended measures. Preventive measures such as the vaccination of staff should be prioritised in centres with large proportions of low SES children.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 76-86
Antarpreet Kaur ◽  
Chloe Michalopoulos ◽  
Suzanne Carpe ◽  
Soontharee Congrete ◽  
Hira Shahzad ◽  

Background: Observational studies of the long-term effects of COVID-19 infection generally focus on individual symptoms rather than health status. Objective: Longitudinal assessment of general health status following COVID-19 infection. Design: Observational study, with data collected from two telephone surveys at 32 ± 10 and 89 ± 25 days after discharge from the hospital or emergency department (ED) for a COVID-19 infection. Medicaid or no insurance was our marker of low socioeconomic status (SES). Acute disease severity was determined by summing 10 severity markers (yes-no) from the health encounter. Baseline comorbidity was a modified Charlson Index. Participants: 40 patients. Mean age was 54 ± 15 years, 50% were female, and 40% had low socioeconomic status. Main Measures: (1) the 20-item Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form General Health Survey (SF-20); (2) Dyspnea (modified Medical Research Council); (3) Psychological symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire for Anxiety and Depression); (4) Cognitive function (Cognitive Change Questionnaire); (5) Fatigue (Short Fatigue Questionnaire); (6) A 10-item review of systems (ROS) questionnaire. Key Results: Percentages with abnormal symptoms at the first and second surveys were (respectively): Dyspnea (40, 33), Fatigue (53, 50), Anxiety (33, 18), Depression (20, 10), PHQ-4 Composite (25, 13), and Cognitive (18, 10). Mean scores on the SF-20 subscales, Physical Functioning, Role Functioning, Social Functioning, Health Perception, Mental Health, and Pain were numerically lower than means from a published study of elderly outpatients. With the exception of Pain, all SF-20 subscale scores improved significantly by the second survey. In multivariable analyses, dyspnea was predictive of impairment in all SF-20 subscales at the second survey. Conclusions: COVID-19 infection causes persistent abnormality across multiple patient-reported outcome areas, including health status. The persistence of impairment in each health status component is influenced by baseline dyspnea.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Wenjie Wang ◽  
Fangzhou Zhu ◽  
Lanlan Wu ◽  
Shan Han ◽  
Xiaoyan Wu

Background: Understanding trend in nutritional status is crucial to inform national health priorities to improve diets and reduce related diseases. The present study aimed to analyze trends in the concentrations of all measured nutritional biomarkers and their status among US adults across 14 years.Methods: Trends on the concentrations of nutritional biomarkers and nutritional status evaluated by the prevalence of deficiency, inadequacy, excess, and dyslipidemia were analyzed among US adults in 7 cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES 2003–2016) and by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.Results: A total of 38,505 participants (weighted mean age of 47.2 years, 51.4% women) were included in the present study. Across 14 years, increased trends were found in red blood cell (RBC) folate, serum vitamin B12, vitamin D and albumin, the prevalence of iodine deficiency, vitamin B6 inadequacy, and hypophosphatemia, whereas decreased trends were observed in serum vitamin E, phosphorus, total calcium, total protein, apolipoprotein B (Apo B), low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), blood lead, cadmium, mercury, and the prevalence of vitamin C deficiency, vitamin D inadequacy, iodine excess, and dyslipidemia with elevated LDL-C, TC, TG, and lowered HDL/LDL. Non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) and participants with low socioeconomic status were accounted for the poor nutritional status of most biomarkers compared to their comparts.Conclusion: Most nutritional biomarkers and their status were improved among US adults from 2003 to 2016, but some specific populations should be paid much attention to improve their nutritional status, especially for NHB and participants with low socioeconomic status.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Ella L. Bracci ◽  
Rachel Milte ◽  
Jennifer B. Keogh ◽  
Karen J. Murphy

Abstract Background Weight loss diets continue to rise in popularity; however, the associated costs are seldom reported. Certain weight loss diets may be unaffordable and differ from their traditional nutrition composition to include non-conventional premium products. In contrast, healthy eating principles such as the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) and the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) place an emphasis on fresh produce and staple foods but are sometimes thought to be unaffordable. A new methodology was piloted to assess the cost of weight loss diets using seven meal plans. Methods Seven meal plans were analysed to quantify the absolute grams required of all ingredients across seven days and multiplied by the cost of the ingredient per gram to determine the total cost of each ingredient based on unit size and price. The weekly grocery shopping cost was determined through summation of all ingredients and their entire unit size to compare weekly costs. Results Weekly meal plans (absolute grams) cost between $93-193AUD. The AGHE meal plan was the least expensive and 8 Weeks to Wow was the most expensive. Weekly grocery shopping of entire units cost between $345-$625AUD, over $100AUD greater than the spending of an average Australian ($237AUD/week). Conclusions The financial feasibility for long-term sustainment of weight loss diets may be questionable for groups including low-income earners and low socioeconomic status. Further, when dietary patterns are adapted for weight loss, or followed by consumers, deviations from foundational principles tend to occur which may influence overall cost.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 99-100
Soumaya Hamich ◽  
Fatima Zahra El Gaitibi ◽  
Kaoutar Znati ◽  
Meriem Meziane ◽  
Nadia Ismaili ◽  

We report the case of a 43-year-old male with a history of pulmonary tuberculosis cured one year previously and a 25-year-old history of smoking. The patient presented with a tumor of the scalp that had been evolving since the age of thirteen years, gradually increasing in size, neglected by the patient. An examination revealed a giant tumor of the occipital area (Fig. 1), 15 × 8 cm in size, which was protruded and ulcerated, with thick, hard edges. On biological assessment, a hemogram revealed microcytic hypochromic anemia at 2.9 g/dL. Ferritin was at 4 ng/mL. HIV serology was negative. A skin biopsy revealed a mature, well-differentiated, infiltrating squamous cell carcinoma (Fig. 2). A CT scan of the brain revealed a poorly limited subgalactic parietooccipital lesion process, with bone lysis and endocranial extension and invasion of the upper longitudinal sinus. Ultrasonography of the lymph node area revealed bilateral axillary and inguinal adenopathies with an infracentimetric fatty hilum. The immediate management was to transfuse the patient with three red blood cells. Control hemoglobin was 7.7 g/dl. The patient, then, received external radiotherapy but was lost to follow-up. Squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common skin cancer [1], occurring in elderly patients with a clear phototype on sun-exposed areas. Its frequency is increasing and correlates with sun exposure [1]. It may reach enormous sizes if neglected and not treated in its early stages. The most common causes of a delayed diagnosis are low socioeconomic status, poor personal hygiene, and fear of the diagnosis and of its possible consequences [2]. Giant carcinomas are defined by a diameter exceeding 5 cm [3]. They pose a higher risk of complication and mortality. The invasiveness of these tumors depends on the size, anatomical location, and histological subtype. Their treatment is difficult because, even with extensive surgical removal, recurrence and metastasis are frequent [3].

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