Differential Function
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Ichiro Katayama ◽  
Lingli Yang ◽  
Aya Takahashi ◽  
Fei Yang ◽  
Mari Wataya-Kaneda

Aim: Previously, we reported increased number of T helper 17 (Th17) cells in vitiligo. However, in our recent study, tryptase and interleukin (IL)17 double positive cells which identified by polyclonal anti-IL17 antibody with specificity for IL17A, B, D, F was observed, but these mast cells cannot be stained by monoclonal anti-IL17 antibody with specificity for IL17A. Therefore, this study was aimed to clarify the role of mast cells in induction and progression of vitiligo. Methods: Mast cells were stained with two antibodies against IL17 and one antibody against tryptase by immunofluorescent staining. Furthermore, immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) analyses were conducted using anti-tryptase. In vitro, cultured epidermal keratinocytes were treated with agents which released by mast cells. Expression levels of mRNA were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), expression of protein levels was analyzed by western blotting. Results: An increased number of tryptase positive mast cells was observed at the lesional skin of upper dermis in vitiligo and rhododendrol-induced leukoderma (RDIL). These mast cells showed prominent degranulation in vitiligo. Interestingly, the melanosome forming glycoprotein non-metastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) is downregulated in the lesional basal keratinocytes in vitiligo and mast cell tryptase contributes to this phenomenon. In addition, small interfering GPNMB RNA (siGPNMB RNA)-introduced keratinocytes increased melanocyte survival through stem cell factor (SCF) production in the melanocyte/keratinocyte co-culture system. Conclusions: Mast cells might be two-faced in vitiligo induction, progression, and recovery through the differential function of histamine and tryptase.

2021 ◽  
Jennifer L. Mamrosh ◽  
Jing Li ◽  
David J. Sherman ◽  
Annie Moradian ◽  
Michael J. Sweredoski ◽  

Protein degradation products are constitutively presented as peptide antigens by MHC Class I. While hypervariability of Class I genes is known to tremendously impact antigen presentation, whether differential function of protein degradation pathways (comprising >1000 genes) could alter antigen generation remains poorly understood apart from a few model substrates. In this study, we introduce normalization methods for quantitative antigen mass spectrometry and confirm that most Class I antigens are dependent on ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Remarkably, many antigens derived from mitochondrial inner membrane proteins are not. Additionally, we find that atypical antigens can arise from compensatory protein degradation pathways, such as an increase in mitochondrial and membrane protein antigen presentation upon proteasome inhibition. Notably, incomplete inhibition of protein degradation pathways may have clinical utility in cancer immunotherapy, as evidenced by appearance of novel antigens upon partial proteasome inhibition.

Sharifah NurDurrah Binti Syed Mudzhar ◽  
Mohd Yusran Othman

Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a rare neuro-cutaneous disorder that is associated with the development of benign hamartomas including renal angiomyolipoma (RAML). TSC associated RAML are usually asymptomatic, but it carries a life-threatening bleeding risk. We are sharing a case of a 5-year-old girl who was diagnosed to have TSC with associated subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, cardiac rhabdomyoma and autism. She presented with a history of worsening abdominal distension over 3 weeks duration and clinically noted to be pale with a ballotable left flank mass. Ultrasound and CT scan found to have multiple RAML in both kidneys with a huge mass on the left side. The mass represented a huge RAML (8cm) with aneurysmal formation with suspicion of intratumoral bleeding. The option of conservative management with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor followed with partial nephrectomy has been questioned with its life-threatening risk of bleeding and inability to do biopsy to rule out the possibility of renal cell carcinoma. Decision for nephrectomy was then made clearer following a MAG-3 scan which revealed only 11% differential function of the left kidney. She underwent a total left nephrectomy uneventfully and intraoperatively noted to have an enlarging lesion as compared to the previous imaging; 15cm in largest diameter. Histopathological finding was consistent with multifocal angiomyolipoma with intratumoral haematoma. Decision for nephrectomy in TSC-associated RAML need to be justified carefully in view of its risk of losing the contralateral kidney following the disease progression which may end up with life-long renal replacement therapy.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Supplementary Issue-2: 2021 Page: S26

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
J. Ricky Fergurson ◽  
John T. Gironda ◽  
Maria Petrescu

Purpose This paper aims to examine how modern, digital era customers in a business-to-consumer (B2C) setting prioritize salesperson-customer orientation attributes when evaluating their expectations regarding interactions with salespeople, as well as their impact on positive and negative word-of-mouth. In addition, the research further investigates which negative salesperson attributes have an impact on overall customer experience and satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach Role theory and expectancy-disconfirmation theory form the theoretical foundation for two mixed-method studies. Study 1 is an exploratory content analysis of online consumer reviews and social media word-of-mouth related to consumer experiences with salespeople. Study 2 is a three-round Delphi study investigating which salesperson orientation attributes are most important to the customer in B2C interactions. Findings The results uncover which salesperson customer orientation attributes are essential for modern consumers and how they differ as a function of context (retail, direct-selling and follow-up) and how they contribute to the generation of digital word-of-mouth. Originality/value This paper expands B2C sales interaction literature by exploring the need for differing sales attributes based on the differential function of the shopping environment.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Eda Tokat ◽  
Serhat Gurocak ◽  
Ozgur Akdemir ◽  
Ipek Isik Gonul ◽  
Mustafa Ozgur Tan

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> In this study, we aimed to investigate the correlation between Cajal cell density and preoperative and postoperative radiological and scintigraphic parameters in ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). <b><i>Methods:</i></b> The study group consisted of 41 renal units (38 consecutive patients; 13 female and 25 male) surgically treated for UPJO. UPJ specimens from patients were immuno-stained with CD117 (c-kit) antibody for interstitial Cajal cells (ICCs). The relation between Cajal cell density and preoperative and postoperative radiological and scintigraphic parameters was evaluated. <b><i>Results:</i></b> The mean age of the patients was 8.52 ± 8.86 (0–35) years. The density of Cajal cells was defined in 2 groups for convenient analysis as 0–5 cells (low) in 19 (46.3%) patients and &#x3e;5 cells (moderate-high) in 22 (53.6%). There was significant difference between the preoperative and postoperative anteroposterior diameters of the related kidneys in both Cajal groups (<i>p</i> = 0.001-low, <i>p</i> = 0.000-moderate-high) independent of Cajal cell density. Regression in hydronephrosis postoperatively was determined in both Cajal groups (77.8%-low, 64.7%-moderate-high); however, there was no difference between them (<i>p</i> = 0.39). Preoperative T1/2 was significantly longer in the low Cajal group (<i>p</i> = 0.02). Postoperative T1/2 decreased in both low (<i>p</i> = 0.000) and moderate-high (<i>p</i> = 0.001) Cajal groups, but no difference was found between them (<i>p</i> = 0.24). There was significant improvement in the kidney differential function after surgery in the low Cajal density group (<i>p</i> = 0.015) while there was no correlation between the scintigraphic success or improvement and Cajal cell density (<i>p</i> = 0.51). <b><i>Discussion/Conclusion:</i></b> ICC deficiency/density could not be shown as a predictive factor for the determination of success rate of pyeloplasty. Despite the lack of any evidence for the degree of deficiency as an indicator for the severity of obstruction and prediction of surgical success, further studies are needed for confirmation.

Giovanni Tagliabue ◽  
Michael Sukjoon Ji ◽  
Jenny V. Suneby Jagers ◽  
Dan J. Zuege ◽  
John B. Kortbeek ◽  

Background Parasternal intercostal is an obligatory inspiratory muscle working in coordination with the diaphragm, apparently sharing a common pathway of neural response. This similarity has attracted clinical interest, promoting parasternal as a non-invasive alternative to the diaphragm, to monitor central neural respiratory output. However, this role may be confounded by the distinct and different functions of costal and crural diaphragm. Given the anatomic location, parasternal activation may significantly impact chest wall via both mechanical shortening or as a "fixator" for the chest wall. Either mechanical function of parasternal may also impact differential function of costal and crural. Objectives During eupnea and hypercapnia, 1) compare the intensity of neural activation of parasternal, with costal and crural diaphragm; 2)examine parasternal recruitment and changes in mechanical action during progressive hypercapnia, including muscle baseline length and shortening. Methods In 30 spontaneously breathing canines, awake without confounding anesthetic, we measured directly both electrical activity of parasternal, costal, and crural diaphragm, and corresponding mechanical shortening of parasternal, during eupnea and hypercapnia. Results During eupnea and hypercapnia, parasternal and costal diaphragm share a similar intensity of neural activation, while both differ significantly from crural diaphragm activity. The shortening of parasternal increases significantly with hypercapnia, without change in baseline end-expiratory length. Conclusion Parasternal shares an equivalent intensity of neural activation with costal, but not crural, diaphragm. Parasternal maintains and increases its active inspiratory shortening during augmented ventilation, despite high levels of diaphragm recruitment. Throughout hypercapnic ventilation, parasternal contributes mechanically - it is not relegated to chest wall fixation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 25-34
Petro Shcherbakov ◽  
Svitlana Tymchenko ◽  
Marat Bitimbayev ◽  
Nurzhigit Sarybayev ◽  
Serik Moldabayev

Purpose is to determine a function of the reduced expenditures connected with drilling-and-blasting operations, loading and hauling operations, and rock fragmentation depending upon the cost of machine-shift of the applied facility, its operation modes, hardness of rock being blasted, cost of the used explosive, and rock fragmentation quality based upon the developed optimization mathematical model. Methods. Method of statistical evaluation of natural blockiness structure of the rock as well as quality of its fragmentation by means of explosive energy has been applied. Statistical studies have been carried out concerning the basic indices of rock fragmentation depending upon its largeness and block hardness. Purposely-designed experimental equipment has been applied for sampling analysis of the rock fracturing in the process of its drilling by means of rotary drilling rig. The abovementioned supported representativeness of the sampling. Findings. Statistical distributions of the rock blockiness structure in terms of each bar length involving its place within the drilling assembly as well as in terms of the well depth have been compiled. Visual comparison of experimental data and theoretical data has helped determine that the statistical distributions of natural blockiness structure of the rock have the closest correlation with gamma distribution which differential function has two positive parameters. Statistical dependence has been defined between drilling-and-blasting results and the total expenditures connected with hard rock mining. Originality. A concept of oversize crushing coefficient has been introduced; its statistical dependence upon the mined rock hardness and specific consumption of the applied explosive has been derived. An alternative has been proposed concerning changes in parameters of the differential function of the assumed gamma distribution relative to the predicted granulometric composition of rock mass. Practical implications. Economic and mathematical model has been developed involving a target function of the total expenditures connected with the listed operations as well as a set of constraints avoiding incorrect decisions. The optimization method makes it possible to control drilling-and-blasting parameters at each stage of hard rock mining.

2020 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 419-427
Patil Ashlesh ◽  
Kishore K. Deepak ◽  
Kochhar Kanwal Preet

AbstractBackgroundSudoku is a popular cognitively stimulating leisure-time activity. Many studies have been directed toward finding an algorithm to solve Sudoku, but the investigation of the neural substrates involved in Sudoku has been challenging.MethodsSudoku task was divided into two steps to understand the differential function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) while applying heuristic rules. PFC activity was recorded at 16 optode locations using functional near infrared spectroscopy. Classical two-way analysis of variance as well as general linear model-based approach was used to analyze the data from 28 noise-free recordings obtained from right-handed participants.ResultsPost hoc analysis showed a significant increase in oxyhemoglobin concentrations and decrease in deoxyhemoglobin concentrations at all 16 optode locations during step 1 (3 × 3 subgrids) and step 2 (easy level 9 × 9 Sudoku) when compared with the rest (p < 0.0001). Contrasting the step 2 – step 1 revealed that medial regions of PFC were preferentially activated.ConclusionBoth the medial and lateral regions of PFC are activated during Sudoku task. However, the medial regions of PFC play a differential role, especially when we consider searching and selecting the heuristic rules. Thus, Sudoku may be used for cognitive remediation training in neuropsychiatric disorders involving PFC.

2020 ◽  
Vol 18 (S3) ◽  
pp. 46-57
Jichao Cui ◽  
Feng Zhang

According to the design of the software system, the positioning chip configured in the positioning terminal can be GPS, or a hybrid positioning system, plus optional position differential function, which ensures the positioning accuracy and maintains data security at the same time. Software system using cloud computing technology and C/S, B/S hybrid architecture for development, the system can be deployed on an ordinary PC to achieve greater capacity and higher performance, companies or individuals only need to be equipped with positioning terminals can directly use the system, but also according to their own needs to further modify the system realized in this paper customized. This greatly reduces the development and maintenance costs of the system and is beneficial to the promotion and use of the system. The satellite positioning information is received from the positioning terminal, decoded according to the present decoding algorithm, and sent to the database server for storage; remote control commands are received from the terminal administrator, processed, and sent to the positioning terminal. Web server, which provides access service to the user's operation platform. Service server, which provides service support for business logic to the user operation platform. The user operation platform is divided into the ordinary user operation platform and the terminal administrator operation platform.

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