Flow Cytometry
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2021 ◽  
Alexander P Browning ◽  
Niloufar Ansari ◽  
Christopher Drovandi ◽  
Angus Johnston ◽  
Matthew J Simpson ◽  

Biological heterogeneity is a primary contributor to the variation observed in experiments that probe dynamical processes, such as internalisation. Given that internalisation is the primary means by which cells absorb drugs, viruses and other material, quantifying cell-to-cell variability in internalisation is of high biological interest. Yet, it is common for studies of internalisation to neglect cell-to-cell variability. We develop a simple mathematical model of internalisation that captures the dynamical behaviour, cell-to-cell variation, and extrinsic noise introduced by flow cytometry. We calibrate our model through a novel distribution-matching approximate Bayesian computation algorithm to flow cytometry data collected from an experiment that probes the internalisation of antibody by transferrin receptors in C1R cells. Our model reproduces experimental observations, identifies cell-to-cell variability in the internalisation and recycling rates, and, importantly, provides information relating to inferential uncertainty. Given that our approach is agnostic to sample size and signal-to-noise ratio, our modelling framework is broadly applicable to identify biological variability in single-cell data from experiments that probe a range of dynamical processes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 188 (12) ◽  
Sang-Hyun Hwang ◽  
John Jeongseok Yang ◽  
Yoon-Hee Oh ◽  
Dae-Hyun Ko ◽  
Heungsup Sung ◽  

Abstract Affordable point-of-care (POC) CD4 + T lymphocyte counting techniques have been developed as alternatives to flow cytometry-based instruments caring for patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1. However, POC CD4 enumeration technologies can be inaccurate. Here, we developed a microparticle-based visual detector of CD4 + T lymphocytes (ImmunoSpin) using microparticles conjugated with anti-CD4 antibodies, independent of microfluidic or fluorescence detection systems. Visual enumeration of CD4 + T cells under conventional light microscope was accurate compared to flow cytometry. Microparticle-tagged CD4 + T cells were well-recognized under a light microscope. ImmunoSpin showed very good precision (coefficients of variation of ImmunoSpin were ≤ 10%) and high correlation with clinical-grade flow cytometry for the enumeration of CD4 + T cells (y = 0.4232 + 0.9485 × for the %CD4 + T cell count, R2 = 0.99). At thresholds of 200 and 350 cells/µL, there was no misclassification of the ImmunoSpin system compared to the reference flow cytometry. ImmunoSpin showed clear differential classification of CD4 + T lymphocytes from granulocytes and monocytes. Because non-fluorescence microparticle-tags and cytospin slides are used in ImmunoSpin, they can be applied to an automatic digital image analyzer. Slide preparation allows long-term storage, no analysis time limitations, and image transfer in remote areas. Graphical abstract

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Shengli Song ◽  
Miriam Manook ◽  
Jean Kwun ◽  
Annette M. Jackson ◽  
Stuart J. Knechtle ◽  

AbstractMultiplex immunoassays with acellular antigens are well-established based on solid-phase platforms such as the Luminex® technology. Cell barcoding by amine-reactive fluorescent dyes enables analogous cell-based multiplex assays, but requires multiple labeling reactions and quality checks prior to every assay. Here we describe generation of stable, fluorescent protein-barcoded reporter cell lines suitable for multiplex screening of antibody to membrane proteins. The utility of this cell-based system, with the potential of a 256-plex cell panel, is demonstrated by flow cytometry deconvolution of barcoded cell panels expressing influenza A hemagglutinin trimers, or native human CCR2 or CCR5 multi-span proteins and their epitope-defining mutants. This platform will prove useful for characterizing immunity and discovering antibodies to membrane-associated proteins.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Anna Płotka ◽  
Krzysztof Lewandowski

<b><i>Background:</i></b> <i>BCR/ABL1</i>-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia is a newly recognized high-risk subtype of ALL, characterized by the presence of genetic alterations activating kinase and cytokine receptor signaling. This subtype is associated with inferior outcomes, compared to other B-cell precursor ALL. <b><i>Summary:</i></b> The recognition of <i>BCR/ABL1</i>-like ALL is challenging due to the complexity of underlying genetic alterations. Rearrangements of <i>CRLF2</i> are the most frequent alteration in <i>BCR/ABL1</i>-like ALL and can be identified by flow cytometry. The identification of <i>BCR/ABL1</i>-like ALL can be achieved with stepwise algorithms or broad-based testing. The main goal of the diagnostic analysis is to detect the underlying genetic alterations, which are critical for the diagnosis and targeted therapy. <b><i>Key Messages:</i></b> The aim of the manuscript is to review the available data on <i>BCR/ABL1</i>-like ALL characteristics, diagnostic algorithms, and novel, molecularly targeted therapeutic options.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (6) ◽  
pp. 500-503
Shankargouda Patil ◽  
A Thirumal Raj ◽  
Sukrit Sumant ◽  
Vikrant R Patil

2021 ◽  
Grace L. Burns ◽  
Jessica K. Bruce ◽  
Kyra Minahan ◽  
Andrea Mathe ◽  
Thomas Fairle ◽  

Background and aims: Functional dyspepsia is characterised by chronic symptoms of post-prandial distress or epigastric pain not associated with defined structural pathology. Increased peripheral gut-homing T cell have been previously identified in patients. To date, it is unknown if these T cells were antigen-experienced, or if a specific immunophenotype was associated with FD. This study aimed to characterise immune populations in the blood and duodenal mucosa of FD patients that may be implicated in disease pathophysiology. Methods: We identified duodenal T cell populations from 23 controls and 49 Rome III FD patients by flow cytometry. We also analysed duodenal eosinophils and T cell populations in peripheral blood from 37 controls and 49 patients and investigated if subtyping patients based on reported symptoms or co-morbidity identified specific immunophenoptypes. Results: In addition to increased duodenal mucosal CD4+ effector cells, FD patients demonstrated a shift in the T helper cell balance compared to controls. Patients had increased duodenal mucosal Th2 populations in the effector (13.03±16.11, 19.84±15.51, p=0.038), central memory (23.75±18.97, 37.52±17.51, p=0.007) and effector memory (9.80±10.50 vs 20.53±14.15, p=0.001) populations. Th17 populations were also increased in the effector (31.74±24.73 vs 45.57±23.75, p=0.03) and effector memory (11.95±8.42 vs 18.44±15.63, p=0.027) subsets. Conclusion: Our findings confirm the involvement of adaptive responses in the aetiopathogenesis of FD, specifically a Th2 and Th17 signature in the duodenal mucosa. The presence of effector and memory cells suggest that the microinflammation in FD is antigen driven.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Sabine Farschtschi ◽  
Martin Mattes ◽  
Alex Hildebrandt ◽  
Dapi Chiang ◽  
Benedikt Kirchner ◽  

AbstractThe determination of the somatic cell count of a milk sample is one of the most common methods to monitor udder health of a dairy cow. However, this procedure does not take into account the fact that cells in milk present a great variety of different cell types. The objective of our study was to establish a high-resolution differential cell count (HRDCC) by means of flow cytometry in blood and milk. We were able to detect ten subpopulations among the three main populations of immune cells and to determine their viability. Additionally, blood samples were analyzed for common laboratory biomarkers, i.e. differential blood counts, haptoglobin levels and several metabolic parameters. In this first feasibility study, we used three different vaccines to stimulate the immune system of five healthy cows each. Samples were collected shortly before, in between and after the vaccinations. Using multivariate statistical methods we saw a diagnostic benefit when HRDCCs were included compared to only the standard laboratory parameters. The impacts of all three vaccinations on the immune system were visible in blood HRDCCs as well as in milk HRDCCs. Cluster of Differentiation 8+ (CD8+) T cells, B cells and monocyte/macrophage subpopulations were among the most important and statistically relevant parameters for all treatments in both biofluids. Moreover, in one of the treatment groups intermediate monocytes showed a significant increase after both vaccinations. Although the use of HRDCC in blood or milk was shown to be highly relevant for early systemic diagnostic, to confirm these subpopulations further investigations in cows of different breed, lactation stage or health status are required.

Sebastian Böttcher ◽  
Robby Engelmann ◽  
Georgiana Grigore ◽  
Paula Carolina Fernandez ◽  
Joana Caetano ◽  

Reproducible expert-independent flow-cytometric criteria for the differential diagnoses between mature B-cell neoplasms are lacking. We developed an algorithm-driven classification for these lymphomas by flow cytometry and compared it to the WHO gold standard diagnosis. Overall, 662 samples from 662 patients representing nine disease categories were analyzed at 9 laboratories using the previously published EuroFlow 5-tube-8-color B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disease antibody panel. Expression levels of all 26 markers from the panel were plotted by B-cell entity to construct a univariate, fully standardized diagnostic reference library. For multivariate data analysis we subsequently utilized Canonical Correlation Analysis of 176 training cases to project the multi-dimensional space of all 26 immunophenotypic parameters into 36 two-dimensional plots for each possible pair-wise differential diagnosis. Diagnostic boundaries were fitted according to the distribution of the immunophenotypes of a given differential diagnosis. A diagnostic algorithm based on these projections was developed and subsequently validated using 486 independent cases. Negative predictive values exceeding 92.1% were observed for all disease categories except for follicular lymphoma. Particularly high positive predictive values were returned in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (99.1%), hairy cell leukemia (97.2%), follicular lymphoma (97.2%) and mantle cell lymphoma (95.4%). Burkitt and CD10+ diffuse large B-cell lymphomas were difficult to distinguish by the algorithm. A similar ambiguity was observed between marginal zone, lymphoplasmacytic, and CD10- diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. The specificity of the approach exceeded 98% for all entities. The univariate immunophenotypic library and the multivariate expert-independent diagnostic algorithm might contribute to increased reproducibility of future diagnostics in mature B-cell neoplasms.

Alessandro Gozzetti ◽  
Monica Bocchia

: Minimal residual disease (MRD) detection represents a great advancement in multiple myeloma. New drugs are now available that increase depth of response. The International Myeloma Working Group recommends the use of next-generation flow cytometry (NGF) or next-generation sequencing (NGS) to search for MRD in clinical trials. Best sensitivity thresholds have to be confirmed, as well as timing to detect it. MRD has proven as the best prognosticator in many trials and promises to enter also in clinical practice to guide future therapy.

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