ebola virus
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2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 101030
Yan Wang ◽  
Jennifer M. Binning ◽  
Grigore D. Pintilie ◽  
Wah Chiu ◽  
Gaya K. Amarasinghe ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (2) ◽  
Daniel Mukadi-Bamuleka ◽  
Yibayiri Osee Sanogo ◽  
Junior Bulabula-Penge ◽  
Maria E. Morales-Betoulle ◽  
Patrice Fillon ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Jiao Wang ◽  
Changxin Yu ◽  
Junyi Zhuang ◽  
Wenxin Qi ◽  
Jiawen Jiang ◽  

AbstractThe negatively charged aminophospholipid, phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), is located in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane in normal cells, and may be exposed to the outer leaflet under some immune and blood coagulation processes. Meanwhile, Ptdser exposed to apoptotic cells can be recognized and eliminated by various immune cells, whereas on the surface of activated platelets Ptdser interacts with coagulation factors prompting enhanced production of thrombin which significantly facilitates blood coagulation. In the case where PtdSer fails in exposure or mistakenly occurs, there are occurrences of certain immunological and haematological diseases, such as the Scott syndrome and Systemic lupus erythematosus. Besides, viruses (e.g., Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Ebola virus (EBOV)) can invade host cells through binding the exposed PtdSer. Most recently, the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been similarly linked to PtdSer or its receptors. Therefore, it is essential to comprehensively understand PtdSer and its functional characteristics. Therefore, this review summarizes Ptdser, its eversion mechanism; interaction mechanism, particularly with its immune receptors and coagulation factors; recognition sites; and its function in immune and blood processes. This review illustrates the potential aspects for the underlying pathogenic mechanism of PtdSer-related diseases, and the discovery of new therapeutic strategies as well.

2022 ◽  
Luisa Santus ◽  
Raquel García-Pérez ◽  
Maria Sopena-Rios ◽  
Aaron E Lin ◽  
Gordon C Adams ◽  

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are pivotal mediators of systemic immune response to viral infection, yet most studies concerning their expression and functions upon immune stimulation are limited to in vitro bulk cell populations. This strongly constrains our understanding of how lncRNA expression varies at single-cell resolution, and how their cell-type specific immune regulatory roles may differ compared to protein-coding genes. Here, we perform the first in-depth characterization of lncRNA expression variation at single-cell resolution during Ebola virus (EBOV) infection in vivo. Using bulk RNA-sequencing from 119 samples and 12 tissue types, we significantly expand the current macaque lncRNA annotation. We then profile lncRNA expression variation in immune circulating single-cells during EBOV infection and find that lncRNAs' expression in fewer cells is a major differentiating factor from their protein-coding gene counterparts. Upon EBOV infection, lncRNAs present dynamic and mostly cell-type specific changes in their expression profiles especially in monocytes, the main cell type targeted by EBOV. Such changes are associated with gene regulatory modules related to important innate immune responses such as interferon response and purine metabolism. Within infected cells, several lncRNAs have positively and negatively correlated expression with viral load, suggesting that expression of some of these lncRNAs might be directly hijacked by EBOV to attack host cells. This study provides novel insights into the roles that lncRNAs play in the host response to acute viral infection and paves the way for future lncRNA studies at single-cell resolution.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 142
Benedicte Mpia Moni ◽  
Yasuteru Sakurai ◽  
Jiro Yasuda

Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a lethal disease caused by the highly pathogenic Ebola virus (EBOV), and its major symptoms in severe cases include vascular leakage and hemorrhage. These symptoms are caused by abnormal activation and disruption of endothelial cells (ECs) whose mediators include EBOV glycoprotein (GP) without the need for viral replication. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying virus–host interactions remain largely unknown. Here, we show that EBOV-like particles (VLPs) formed by GP, VP40, and NP activate ECs in a GP-dependent manner, as demonstrated by the upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecules-1 (ICAM-1) expression. VLPs-mediated ECs activation showed a different kinetic pattern from that of TNF-α-mediated activation and was associated with apoptotic ECs disruption. In contrast to TNF-α, VLPs induced ICAM-1 overexpression at late time points. Furthermore, screening of host cytoskeletal signaling inhibitors revealed that focal adhesion kinase inhibitors were found to be potent inhibitors of ICAM-1 expression mediated by both TNF-α and VLPs. Our results suggest that EBOV GP stimulates ECs to induce endothelial activation and dysfunction with the involvement of host cytoskeletal signaling factors, which represent potential therapeutic targets for EVD.

mBio ◽  
2022 ◽  
Wakako Furuyama ◽  
Kyle Shifflett ◽  
Amanda N. Pinski ◽  
Amanda J. Griffin ◽  
Friederike Feldmann ◽  

The vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vaccine platform rose to fame in 2019, when a VSV-based Ebola virus (EBOV) vaccine was approved by the European Medicines Agency and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for human use against the deadly disease.

PLoS Medicine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. e1003865
Zacchaeus Anywaine ◽  
Houreratou Barry ◽  
Omu Anzala ◽  
Gaudensia Mutua ◽  
Sodiomon B. Sirima ◽  

Background Reoccurring Ebola outbreaks in West and Central Africa have led to serious illness and death in thousands of adults and children. The objective of this study was to assess safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of the heterologous 2-dose Ad26.ZEBOV, MVA-BN-Filo vaccination regimen in adolescents and children in Africa. Methods and findings In this multicentre, randomised, observer-blind, placebo-controlled Phase II study, 131 adolescents (12 to 17 years old) and 132 children (4 to 11 years old) were enrolled from Eastern and Western Africa and randomised 5:1 to receive study vaccines or placebo. Vaccine groups received intramuscular injections of Ad26.ZEBOV (5 × 1010 viral particles) and MVA-BN-Filo (1 × 108 infectious units) 28 or 56 days apart; placebo recipients received saline. Primary outcomes were safety and tolerability. Solicited adverse events (AEs) were recorded until 7 days after each vaccination and serious AEs (SAEs) throughout the study. Secondary and exploratory outcomes were humoral immune responses (binding and neutralising Ebola virus [EBOV] glycoprotein [GP]-specific antibodies), up to 1 year after the first dose. Enrolment began on February 26, 2016, and the date of last participant last visit was November 28, 2018. Of the 263 participants enrolled, 217 (109 adolescents, 108 children) received the 2-dose regimen, and 43 (20 adolescents, 23 children) received 2 placebo doses. Median age was 14.0 (range 11 to 17) and 7.0 (range 4 to 11) years for adolescents and children, respectively. Fifty-four percent of the adolescents and 51% of the children were male. All participants were Africans, and, although there was a slight male preponderance overall, the groups were well balanced. No vaccine-related SAEs were reported; solicited AEs were mostly mild/moderate. Twenty-one days post-MVA-BN-Filo vaccination, binding antibody responses against EBOV GP were observed in 100% of vaccinees (106 adolescents, 104 children). Geometric mean concentrations tended to be higher after the 56-day interval (adolescents 13,532 ELISA units [EU]/mL, children 17,388 EU/mL) than the 28-day interval (adolescents 6,993 EU/mL, children 8,007 EU/mL). Humoral responses persisted at least up to Day 365. A limitation of the study is that the follow-up period was limited to 365 days for the majority of the participants, and so it was not possible to determine whether immune responses persisted beyond this time period. Additionally, formal statistical comparisons were not preplanned but were only performed post hoc. Conclusions The heterologous 2-dose vaccination was well tolerated in African adolescents and children with no vaccine-related SAEs. All vaccinees displayed anti-EBOV GP antibodies after the 2-dose regimen, with higher responses in the 56-day interval groups. The frequency of pyrexia after vaccine or placebo was higher in children than in adolescents. These data supported the prophylactic indication against EBOV disease in a paediatric population, as licenced in the EU. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02564523.

Biologics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 45-55
Muhammad Muzammal ◽  
Muzammil Ahmad Khan ◽  
Mohammed Al Mohaini ◽  
Abdulkhaliq J. Alsalman ◽  
Maitham A. Al Hawaj ◽  

Venom from different organisms was used in ancient times to treat a wide range of diseases, and to combat a variety of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. The aim of this in silico research was to investigate the impact of honeybee venom proteins and peptides against Ebola virus. In the current in silico study, different online and offline tools were used. RaptorX (protein 3D modeling) and PatchDock (protein–protein docking) were used as online tools, while Chimera and LigPlot + v2.1 were used for visualizing protein–protein interactions. We screened nine venom proteins and peptides against the normal Ebola virus spike protein and found that melittin, MCD and phospholipase A2 showed a strong interaction. We then screened these peptides and proteins against mutated strains of Ebola virus and found that the enzyme phospholipase A2 showed a strong interaction. According to the findings, phospholipase A2 found in honeybee venom may be an effective source of antiviral therapy against the deadly Ebola virus. Although the antiviral potency of phospholipase A2 has been recorded previously, this is the first in silico analysis of honeybee phospholipase A2 against the Ebola viral spike protein and its more lethal mutant strain.

Nature ◽  
2022 ◽  
Yukihiko Sugita ◽  
Hideyuki Matsunami ◽  
Yoshihiro Kawaoka ◽  
Takeshi Noda ◽  
Matthias Wolf

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