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Trivedi Krunal ◽  
Patel Kinjal ◽  

Cryptococcus neoformans infections are more common among immunosuppressed individuals, causing the most widespread opportunistic CNS infection among HIV-positive patients [1]. Specifically, those with cellular immunosuppression, such as patients with HIV positive CD4 counts less than 100. When a patient presents with atypical symptoms, it can be difficult to diagnose due to its infrequent presentation in HIV negative patients. Due to the rarity of encounters in HIV-negative patients, when atypical symptoms are present, it poses a diagnostic challenge. Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma that is known to be associated with cellular immunosuppression [2]. This demonstrates the need for early diagnosis and recognition of cryptococcal infections and as a physician should be vigilant to diagnose cryptococcal who is on Acalabrutinib with MCL [3]. CLL patients receiving ibrutinib should be evaluated for cryptococcal infection, which is potentially life threatening if overlooked [4]. Meningitis caused by Cryptococcus mainly presents with fever and altered mental status but in this case, our patient 78-year-old male with mantle cell lymphoma, undergoing a regimen of Rituximab-Bendamustine (BR) in combination with acalabrutinib (TKI), presented with hypotension to ED in June 2021. Cryptococcal infection in patient receiving ibrutinib were mostly reported in patients with Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, who have poor immune reconstitution. Here we are reporting case of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in patient with MCL on acalabrutinib which is never reported before.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 389
Dorota Zarębska-Michaluk ◽  
Jerzy Jaroszewicz ◽  
Anna Parfieniuk-Kowerda ◽  
Małgorzata Pawłowska ◽  
Ewa Janczewska ◽  

The introduction of the direct-acting antivirals (DAA) has substantially improved the effectiveness of the therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C. We aimed to compare the efficacy of pangenotypic and genotype-specific DAA in the cohort of genotype (GT) four patients with HCV monoinfection and HIV coinfection. A total of 662 GT4-infected patients treated in 2015–2020—of whom 168 (25.3%) were coinfected with HIV, selected from the retrospective EpiTer-2 database—were enrolled in the analysis. Among HIV-coinfected patients, 54% (90) were treated with genotype-specific regimens and 46% (78) with pangenotypic options, while among HCV-monoinfected patients, the rates were 72% and 28%, respectively. Significantly higher rate of males (67.9% vs. 57.7%, p = 0.01), a lower rate of liver cirrhosis (10.2% vs. 18.1%, p = 0.02), and higher of treatment-naïve patients (87.5% vs. 76.7%, p = 0.003) were documented in the HIV coinfected population. The overall sustained virologic response after exclusion of non-virologic failures was achieved in 98% with no significant difference between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients, 96.2% vs. 98.5%, respectively. While the genotype-specific regimens resulted in a similar cure rate regardless of the HIV status, the pangenotypic options were more efficacious in patients with HCV monoinfection (99.3% vs. 94.4%, p = 0.05). Hereby, we demonstrated the high effectiveness and good safety profile of the DAA therapy in the population of HCV GT4 infected patients with HIV coinfection supporting the current recommendations to treat HCV/HIV coinfected patients with the same options as those with HCV monoinfection.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262454
Patrick Lungu ◽  
Evarist Njelesani ◽  
Thomas Sukwa ◽  
Owen Ngalamika ◽  
Sody Munsaka ◽  

Background People living with HIV (PLHIV) co-infected with tuberculosis (TB) have a distinct clinical presentation and poorer treatment outcomes compared to HIV-seronegative TB patients. Excluding low CD4 count, innate immune factors associated with TB are not fully elucidated. We, therefore, characterised and compared the expression of IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-10 in whole blood of treatment naïve TB patients stimulated with heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis stratified by HIV status and the level of CD4 count. Results We recruited 39 HIV seropositive and 31 HIV seronegative TB patients. Median (IQR) age was 35(28–42) years and 31(25–36) years respectively, and a majority had pulmonary tuberculosis i.e. 38(95%) and 30(97%), respectively. The two groups were significantly different in the distribution of CD4 count, 563 [465–702.5 cells/mm3] vs 345 [157–483 cell/mm3] in HIV negative vs HIV positive respectively p = <0.001. Post stimulation, the expression of IL-6 in HIV negative TB patients was significantly higher than in the HIV positive 16,757366 [8,827–23,686 pg/ml] vs. 9,508 [5,514–15,008 pg/ml], respectively; p = 0.0360. TNF-α and IFN-γ were highly expressed in HIV negative TB patients compared to the HIV positive though not statistically significant. We only observed higher expression of IL-6 in HIV negative patients in comparison to the HIV positive when stratified by level of CD4 counts as < 500 and ≥ 500 cell/mm3 for both cohorts. 21,953 [8,990–24,206 pg/ml] vs 9,505 [5,400–15,313 pg/ml], p value = 0.0585 in patients with CD4 count < 500 cell/mm3 and 13,168 [7,087–22,584 pg/ml] vs 10,413 [7,397–14,806 pg/ml], p value = 0.3744 for patients with CD4 count of ≥ 500 cell/mm3 respectively. We found a positive pairwise correlation between TNF-α -alpha and IL-6 in both HIV positive and HIV negative patients, r = 0.61 (95% CI 0.36–0.72; p < 0.0001) and r = 0.48 (95% CI 0.15–0.68; p = 0.005) respectively. The IFNγ/IL-10 ratio was higher in HIV negative when compared to HIV positive individuals, 0.052 [0.0–0.28] vs 0.007 [0–0.32] respectively; p = 0.05759. IL-6 independently reduced the probability of TB/HIV, Adjusted odds ratio 0.99, p value 0.007. Conclusions This study suggests that HIV seronegative TB patients have a higher pro-inflammatory response to MTB than HIV seropositive TB patients. Further, it also shows that the level of CD4 influences immunomodulation. The findings suggest that the difference in cytokine expression may be responsible for the distinct patterns of TB presentation between HIV positive and HIV negative patient.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Gabriela Samayoa-Reyes ◽  
Sidney O. Ogolla ◽  
Ibrahim I. Daud ◽  
Conner Jackson ◽  
Katherine R. Sabourin ◽  

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is known to be associated with EBV shedding in saliva suggesting an increased risk of EBV transmission to infants born to mothers with HIV at an earlier age. In this study we investigated (i) whether maternal HIV status was a risk factor for EBV in blood at delivery or for shedding in saliva and breast milk of 6- and 10-weeks post-partum mothers, (ii) if there was a difference in EBV strains shed between HIV+ and HIV- mothers, and (iii) if maternal HIV status was a determinant of EBV viral load in their infants. Samples were collected as part of a prospective cohort study that followed HIV-positive (HIV+) and HIV-negative (HIV-) pregnant women in Western Kenya through delivery and post-partum period. EBV viral load in blood was found to be significantly higher in mothers with HIV (p-value = 0.04). Additionally, a statistically significant difference was observed between EBV viral load in saliva samples and HIV status where HIV+ mothers had a higher EBV viral load in saliva at 6-weeks post-partum compared to HIV- mothers (p-value &lt; 0.01). The difference in EBV shedding in breast milk was not found to be statistically significant. Furthermore, no difference in frequency of EBV strain was attributable to HIV- or HIV+ mothers. Interestingly, we found that infants born to HIV+ mothers had a higher EBV viral load at the time of their first EBV detection in blood than infants born to HIV- mothers and this was independent of age at detection. Overall, our study suggests that HIV infected mothers shed more virus in saliva than HIV-negative mothers and infants born to HIV+ mothers were at risk for loss of control of primary EBV infection as evidenced by higher EBV viral load following primary infection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 143
Hortensia Álvarez ◽  
Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos ◽  
Pedro Miguel Juiz-González ◽  
Joana Vitallé ◽  
Irene Viéitez ◽  

Intra-host evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been reported in cases with persistent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, we describe a severely immunosuppressed individual with HIV-1/SARS-CoV-2 coinfection with a long-term course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. A 28-year-old man was diagnosed with HIV-1 infection (CD4+ count: 3 cells/µL nd 563000 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL) and simultaneous Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection and SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction positivity from nasopharyngeal samples was prolonged for 15 weeks. SARS-CoV-2 was identified as variant Alpha (PANGO lineage B.1.1.7) with mutation S:E484K. Spike-specific T-cell response was similar to HIV-negative controls although enriched in IL-2, and showed disproportionately increased immunological exhaustion marker levels. Despite persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection, adaptive intra-host SARS-CoV-2 evolution, was not identified. Spike-specific T-cell response protected against a severe COVID-19 outcome and the increased immunological exhaustion marker levels might have favoured SARS-CoV-2 persistence.

2022 ◽  
Jacques JL Tamuzi ◽  
Ley M Muyaya ◽  
Amal Mitra ◽  
Peter Nyasulu

Objective To conduct a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of all recommended SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) vaccines in people living with HIV (PLWH), as well as an overview of the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of the vaccines in PLWH. Methods We searched six databases, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, Medline, Medrxiv, Global research on COVID-19 database, and Google Scholar for studies investigating the effects of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines on PLWH. Results of the association were summarised by SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroconversion and level, vaccines efficacy and tolerability. A meta-analysis was performed for studies, using random-effects model and a pooled RR with 95% CI was reported. Results Twenty-three of the 1052 studies screened met the inclusion criteria. The review included 28, 246 participants among whom 79.55% (22,469/28, 246) were PLWH with median CD4 >=200 cells/mm3. The pooled estimate of SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroconversion and positive neutralizing antibodies after the second vaccination dose between PLWH vs HIV negative were RR 0.95 (95%CI: 0.92 to 0.99, P = 0.006) and 0.88 (95%CI: 0.82 to 0.95, P = 0.0007), respectively. The mean difference of IgG antibodies level (BAU/ml) was found higher in mRNA vaccines MD -1444.97 (95%CI: -1871.39 to -1018.55). PLWH with CD4 less than 500 cells/mm3 had 15% risk reduction of neutralizing antibodies response compared to those with CD4>=500 cells/mm3 (P = 0.003). The SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectiveness was 65% (95%CI: 56% to 72%, P <0.001) among vaccinated compared to unvaccinated PLWH. PLWH with CD4 count <350 cells/mm3 had lower vaccine effectiveness compared to CD4 count >=350 cells/mm3 with 59% vs 72%, respectively. Vaccine tolerability was the same between PLWH and HIV negatives. Conclusion According to our findings, PLWH with CD4>=200 cells/mm3 had lower immunogenicity and antigenicity in COVID-19 vaccines than HIV negatives. Additional doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are needful in PLWH.

Yu Liu ◽  
Savanah Russ ◽  
Jason Mitchell ◽  
Sarahmona Przybyla ◽  
Chen Zhang

Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in the United States (U.S.) are disproportionally burdened by HIV and experience adverse social determinants of health. Minimal research has examined quality of life (QoL) and psychosocial/behavioral determinants among HIV-negative or status-unknown YMSM. We conducted a study with YMSM from two U.S. cities to assess their QoL scores, and whether specific QoL domains (e.g., physical, psychological, social, and environment) were associated with their demographics, psychosocial determinants, behavioral risk factors, and HIV prevention measures. Black YMSM, YMSM of low socioeconomic status (below high school education, income < $20,000, and lack of health insurance), and YMSM who did not disclose their sexual orientation had the lowest QoL scores across all domains. Substance use and unprotected anal intercourse were negatively associated with men’s physical/psychosocial health. Housing/food instability and perceived stress were among the strongest predictors of lower QoL in all domains. Higher physical/psychological and environment QoL scores were associated with a higher likelihood of HIV testing and PrEP use. The identification of YMSM within these demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial sub-groups is important for targeted intervention to enhance their well-being and engagement with HIV prevention.

2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Jessica Wells ◽  
Rasheeta Chandler ◽  
Lisa Flowers ◽  
Sudeshna Paul ◽  
Anjali Sharma ◽  

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262400
Jerusha Nyabiage Mogaka ◽  
Monisha Sharma ◽  
Tecla Temu ◽  
Sarah Masyuko ◽  
John Kinuthia ◽  

Introduction The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa with untreated hypertension being a major contributing factor. Understanding the magnitude of the problem and risk factors associated with HIV and long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) is critically important for designing effective programs for diagnosing and treating hypertension in Kenya. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 300 persons with HIV (PWH) on long term ART (≥6 months) and 298 HIV-negative adults seeking care at the Kisumu County Hospital between September 2017 and May 2018. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure of ≥140/90mmHg or a previous hypertension diagnosis. Multivariate regression was used to assess the association between hypertension and HIV adjusting for age, sex, and known CVD risk factors. Results Overall prevalence of hypertension was 22%. PWH had a lower prevalence of hypertension than HIV-negative persons (16% vs 27% respectively; p<0.002). In multivariate analyses, persons with HIV were 37% less likely to have hypertension compared to HIV-negative individuals (adjusted prevalence ratio 0.63; 95% confidence interval: 0.46–0.86). Other factors that were associated with hypertension in all participants included older age >40 years, body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2 and low-density lipoproteins ≥130mg/dL. Among PWH, being older than 40 years and higher BMI >30 kg/m2 were associated with hypertension. Conclusion Prevalence of hypertension was high, affecting nearly one in every 4 adults, and associated with older age, higher BMI and high low-density lipoproteins. PWH on long-term ART had significantly lower prevalence of hypertension compared to HIV-negative individuals, potentially due to increased access to healthcare services and interaction with prevention messaging. Interventions to increase screening for and prevention of hypertension in the community for all adults are warranted.

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