Foot And Mouth Disease
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2021 ◽  
Kyousuke Kobayashi ◽  
Hidekazu Nishimura ◽  
Katsumi Mizuta ◽  
Tomoha Nishizawa ◽  
Son T. Chu ◽  

Although epidemics of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) have occurred worldwide, the Asia-Pacific region has seen large sporadic outbreaks with many severe neurological cases. This suggests that the virulence of the circulating viruses fluctuates in each epidemic and that HFMD outbreaks with many severe cases occur when highly virulent viruses are circulating predominantly, which has not been experimentally verified. Here, we analyzed 32 clinically isolated strains obtained in Japan from 2002 to 2013, along with 27 Vietnamese strains obtained from 2015 to 2016 that we characterized previously using human SCARB2 transgenic mice. Phylogenetic analysis of the P1 region classified them into five clades belonging to subgenogroup B5 (B5-I to B5-V) and five clades belonging to subgenogroup C4 (C4-I to C4-V) according to the epidemic year and region. Interestingly, the clade B5-I and B5-II were very virulent, while clades B5-III, B5-IV, and B5-V were less virulent. Clades C4-II, C4-III, C4-IV, and C4-V were virulent, while clade C4-I was not. The result experimentally showed for the first time that several clades with different virulence levels emerged one after another. The experimental virulence evaluation of circulating viruses using SCARB2 transgenic mice is helpful to assess potential risks of circulating viruses. These results also suggest that a minor nucleotide or amino acid substitution in the EV-A71 genome during circulation may cause fluctuations in virulence. The data presented herein may increase our understanding of the dynamics of viral virulence during epidemics. IMPORTANCE Outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with severe enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) cases have occurred repeatedly, mainly in Asia. In severe cases, central nervous system complications can lead to death, making it an infectious disease of importance to public health. An unanswered question about this disease is why outbreaks of HFMD with many severe cases sometimes occur. Here, we collected EV-A71 strains that were prevalent in Japan and Vietnam over the past 20 years and evaluated their virulence in a mouse model of EV-A71 infection. This method clearly revealed that viruses belonging to different clades have different virulence, indicating that the method is powerful to assess the potential risks of the circulating viruses. The results also suggested that factors in the virus genome may potentially cause an outbreak with many severe cases and that further studies may facilitate the prediction of large epidemics of EV-A71 in the future.

2021 ◽  
Jean Claude Udahemuka ◽  
Accadius Lunayo ◽  
George Ogello Obiero ◽  
Gabriel Oluga Aboge ◽  
Phiyani Justice Lebea

Foot and Mouth Disease Virus has seven distinct, geographically localized, serotypes and a vaccination targeting one serotype does not confer immunity against another serotype. The use of inactivated vaccines is not safe and confers an immunity with a relatively shorter time. Using the VP1 sequences isolated in East Africa, we have predicted epitopes able to induce humoral and cell-mediated immunity in cattle. The Wu-Kabat variability index calculated in this study reflects the variable, including the known GH loop, and conserved regions, with the latter being good candidates for region-tailored vaccine design. Furthermore, we modelled the identified epitopes on a 3D model (PDB ID:5aca) to represent the epitopes structurally. This study can be used for in vitro and in vivo experiments.

2021 ◽  
Jing Zhang ◽  
Dan Li ◽  
Wenping Yang ◽  
Yue Wang ◽  
Lulu Li ◽  

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cloven-hoofed animals causes severe inflammatory symptoms, including blisters on the oral mucosa, hoof, and breast; however, the molecular mechanism underlying the inflammatory response is unclear. In this study, we provide the first evidence that the FMDV protein VP3 activates lipopolysaccharide-triggered Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling. FMDV VP3 increased the expression of TLR4 by downregulating the expression of the lysozyme-related protein Rab7b. Additionally, Rab7b can interact with VP3 to promote the replication of FMDV. Our findings suggested that VP3 regulates the Rab7b-TLR4 axis to mediate the inflammatory response to FMDV. Importance Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection causes a severe inflammatory response in cloven-hoofed animals, such as pigs, cattle, and sheep, with typical clinical manifestations of high fever, numerous blisters on the oral mucosa, hoof, and breast, as well as myocarditis (tigroid heart). However, the mechanism underlying the inflammatory response caused by FMDV is enigmatic. In this study, we identified the VP3 protein of FMDV as an important proinflammatory factor. Mechanistically, VP3 interacted with TLR4 to promote TLR4 expression by inhibiting the expression of the lysozyme-related protein Rab7b. Our findings suggest that FMDV VP3 is a major proinflammatory factor in FMDV-infected hosts.

Viruses ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (9) ◽  
pp. 1830
Jef M. Hammond ◽  
Badi Maulidi ◽  
Nina Henning

As one of the most infectious livestock diseases in the world, foot and mouth disease (FMD) presents a constant global threat to animal trade and national economies. FMD remains a severe constraint on development and poverty reduction throughout the developing world due to many reasons, including the cost of control measures, closure of access to valuable global FMD-free markets for livestock products, production losses through reduced milk yield, reduced live weight gain, and the inability of infected livestock to perform traction. FMD virus infects a variety of cloven-hoofed animals, including cattle, sheep, goats, swine, all wild ruminants, and suidae, with high morbidity in adult animals. High mortality can occur in young animals due to myocarditis. FMD is endemic in Africa, most of Asia, the Middle East, and parts of South America. The global clustering of FMD viruses has been divided into seven virus pools, where multiple serotypes occur but within which are topotypes that remain mostly confined to that pool. Three pools cover Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; three pools cover Africa; and one pool covers the Americas. The highly infectious nature of FMDV, the existence of numerous continually circulating serotypes and associated topotypes, the potential for wildlife reservoirs, and the frequent emergence of new strains that are poorly matched to existing vaccines all serve to compound the difficulties faced by the governments of endemic countries to effectively control and reduce the burden of the disease at the national and regional levels. This clustering of viruses suggests that if vaccination is to be a major tool for control, each pool could benefit from the use of tailored or more specific vaccines relevant to the topotypes present in that pool, rather than a continued reliance on the currently more widely available vaccines. It should also be noted that, currently, there are varying degrees of effort to identify improved vaccines in different regions. There are relatively few targeted for use in Africa, while the developed world’s vaccine banks have a good stock of vaccines destined for emergency outbreak use in FMDV-free countries. The AgResults Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) Vaccine Challenge Project (the “Project”) is an eight-year, US $17.68 million prize competition that supports the development and uptake of high-quality quadrivalent FMD vaccines tailored to meet the needs of Eastern Africa (EA). The Project targets the following Pool Four countries: Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. The Project is being run in two phases: a development phase, which will encourage the production of regionally relevant vaccines, and a cost-share phase, designed to help to reduce the price of these vaccines in the marketplace to the end users, which is hoped will encourage broader uptake. Manufacturers can submit quadrivalent FMD vaccines containing serotypes A, O, SAT1, and SAT2, which will be assessed as relevant for use in the region through a unique component of the Project requiring the screening of vaccines against the Eastern Africa Foot and Mouth Disease Virus Reference Antigen Panel assembled by the World Reference Laboratory for FMD (WRLFMD), at the Pirbright Institute, UK, in collaboration with the OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratory Network. To be eligible for the Project, sera from vaccinated cattle will be used to evaluate serological responses of FMD vaccines for their suitability for use in Eastern African countries. If they pass a determined cut-off threshold, they will be confirmed as relevant for use in the region and will be entered into the Project’s cost-share phase.

2021 ◽  
Lucy Gordon ◽  
Neil Mabbott ◽  
Joanna Wells ◽  
Liudmila Kulik ◽  
Nick Juleff ◽  

AbstractPrevious studies have shown after the resolution of acute infection and viraemia, foot- and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid proteins and/or genome are localised in the light zone of germinal centres of lymphoid tissue in cattle and African buffalo. The pattern of staining for FMDV proteins was consistent with the virus binding to follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). We have now demonstrated a similar pattern of FMDV protein staining in mouse spleens after acute infection and showed FMDV proteins are colocalised with FDCs. Blocking antigen binding to complement receptor type 2 and 1 (CR2/CR1) prior to infection with FMDV significantly reduced the detection of viral proteins on FDCs and FMDV genomic RNA in spleen samples. Blocking the receptors prior to infection also significantly reduced neutralising antibody titres. Therefore, the binding of FMDV to FDCs and sustained induction of neutralising antibody responses are dependent on FMDV binding to CR2/CR1 in mice.Author SummaryFoot and mouth disease virus causes a highly contagious acute vesicular disease, resulting in more than 50% of cattle, regardless of vaccination status, and almost 100% of African buffalo becoming persistently infected for long periods (months) of time. Yet, the mechanisms associated with establishment of persistent infections are still poorly understood. Infected animals are characterised by the presence of long-lived neutralising antibody titres, which contrast with the short-lived response induced by vaccination. We have used a mouse model to understand how foot and mouth disease virus is trapped and retained in the spleen for up to 28 days post infection and how the absence of antigen in the germinal centre prevents a sustainable neutralising antibody response, in the mouse. Our results highlight the importance of targeting antigen to FDCs to stimulate potent neutralising antibody responses after vaccination.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Siat Yee Fong ◽  
Daisuke Mori ◽  
Christina Rundi ◽  
Jun Fai Yap ◽  
Muhammad Jikal ◽  

AbstractHand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is endemic in Malaysia, with the number of cases increasing. Sabah has experienced several HFMD outbreaks, but information on the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of responsible viruses is scarce. In this study, data of 17,574 reports of HFMD cases in Sabah from 2015 to 2019 were extracted from a public health disease surveillance system and analyzed. Twenty-one swab samples from 13 children were collected from Beaufort, Sabah, during an outbreak in August 2018 for detection and serotyping of causative viruses by semi-nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (snRT-PCR) of the VP4–VP2 region and consensus degenerate hybrid oligonucleotide primer PCR of the VP1 region, respectively. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were conducted by the neighbor-joining method. The average annual incidence of HFMD was 94.3 per 100,000 people, with the greatest yearly increase between 2017 and 2018. Swabs from six children were tested positive for enterovirus, of which five were positive for CVA16 and one for EV71. All CVA16 strains belonged to sub-genotype B1a, and the EV71 strain belonged to sub-genotype B5. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that enterovirus genotype shift might be responsible for the increasing trend of HFMD in Sabah, however, further study is needed.

S. Sieng ◽  
I.W. Patrick ◽  
P.A. Windsor ◽  
S.W. Walkden‐Brown ◽  
J. Kerr ◽  

Vaccines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (9) ◽  
pp. 996
Ntungufhadzeni M. Rathogwa ◽  
Katherine A. Scott ◽  
Pamela Opperman ◽  
Jacques Theron ◽  
Francois F. Maree

The effective control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) relies strongly on the separation of susceptible and infected livestock or susceptible livestock and persistently infected wildlife, vaccination, and veterinary sanitary measures. Vaccines affording protection against multiple serotypes for longer than six months and that are less reliant on the cold chain during handling are urgently needed for the effective control of FMD in endemic regions. Although much effort has been devoted to improving the immune responses elicited through the use of modern adjuvants, their efficacy is dependent on the formulation recipe, target species and administration route. Here we compared and evaluated the efficacy of two adjuvant formulations in combination with a structurally stabilized SAT2 vaccine antigen, designed to have improved thermostability, antigen shelf-life and longevity of antibody response. Protection mediated by the Montanide ISA 206B-adjuvanted or Quil-A Saponin-adjuvanted SAT2 vaccines were comparable. The Montanide ISA 206B-adjuvanted vaccine elicited a higher SAT2 neutralizing antibody response and three times higher levels of systemic IFN-γ responses at 14- and 28-days post-vaccination (dpv) were observed compared to the Quil-A Saponin-adjuvanted vaccine group. Interestingly, serum antibodies from the immunized animals reacted similarly to the parental vaccine virus and viruses containing mutations in the VP2 protein that simulate antigenic drift in nature.

Viruses ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (9) ◽  
pp. 1776
Pathum Ekanayaka ◽  
Byeong-Hoon Lee ◽  
Asela Weerawardhana ◽  
Kiramage Chathuranga ◽  
Jong-Hyeon Park ◽  

As a structural protein of the Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), VP3 plays a vital role in virus assembly and inhibiting the interferon (IFN) signal transduction to promote FMDV replication. Previous studies demonstrated that FMDV VP3 blocks the type-I IFN response by inhibiting the mRNA expression of the mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS); however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we describe the specificity of FMDV VP3 interaction with the transmembrane (TM) domain of MAVS as FMDV driven type-I IFN inhibitory mechanism for its effective replication. The TM domain of MAVS governs the mitochondria localization of MAVS, and it is a key factor in type-I IFN signaling transduction via MAVS aggregation. Thereby, the interaction of FMDV VP3 with the TM domain of MAVS leads to the inhibition of MAVS mitochondria localization, self-association, and aggregation, resulting in the suppression of type-I IFN response. Collectively, these results provide a clear understanding of a key molecular mechanism used by the FMDV VP3 for the suppression of IFN responses via targeting MAVS.

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