mitochondrial dynamics
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Antioxidants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 165
Laura R. Rodríguez ◽  
Tamara Lapeña-Luzón ◽  
Noelia Benetó ◽  
Vicent Beltran-Beltran ◽  
Federico V. Pallardó ◽  

Calcium (Ca2+) is a versatile secondary messenger involved in the regulation of a plethora of different signaling pathways for cell maintenance. Specifically, intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis is mainly regulated by the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria, whose Ca2+ exchange is mediated by appositions, termed endoplasmic reticulum–mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), formed by proteins resident in both compartments. These tethers are essential to manage the mitochondrial Ca2+ influx that regulates the mitochondrial function of bioenergetics, mitochondrial dynamics, cell death, and oxidative stress. However, alterations of these pathways lead to the development of multiple human diseases, including neurological disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Friedreich’s ataxia, and Charcot–Marie–Tooth. A common hallmark in these disorders is mitochondrial dysfunction, associated with abnormal mitochondrial Ca2+ handling that contributes to neurodegeneration. In this work, we highlight the importance of Ca2+ signaling in mitochondria and how the mechanism of communication in MAMs is pivotal for mitochondrial maintenance and cell homeostasis. Lately, we outstand potential targets located in MAMs by addressing different therapeutic strategies focused on restoring mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake as an emergent approach for neurological diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Changping Gu ◽  
Jie Yan ◽  
Liang Zhao ◽  
Guanghan Wu ◽  
Yue-lan Wang

Mitochondrial dynamics, including continuous biogenesis, fusion, fission, and autophagy, are crucial to maintain mitochondrial integrity, distribution, size, and function, and play an important role in cardiovascular homeostasis. Cardiovascular health improves with aerobic exercise, a well-recognized non-pharmaceutical intervention for both healthy and ill individuals that reduces overall cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Increasing evidence shows that aerobic exercise can effectively regulate the coordinated circulation of mitochondrial dynamics, thus inhibiting CVD development. This review aims to illustrate the benefits of aerobic exercise in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease by modulating mitochondrial function.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Edward J. Goetzl ◽  
Holden T. Maecker ◽  
Yael Rosenberg-Hasson ◽  
Lorrin M. Koran

The retention of the heavy metal, gadolinium, after a Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agent-assisted MRI may lead to a symptom cluster termed Gadolinium Deposition Disease. Little is known of the disorder’s underlying pathophysiology, but a recent study reported abnormally elevated serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to normal controls. As a calcium channel blocker in cellular plasma and mitochondrial membranes, gadolinium also interferes with mitochondrial function. We applied to sera from nine Gadolinium Deposition Disease and two Gadolinium Storage Condition patients newly developed methods allowing isolation of plasma neuron-derived extracellular vesicles that contain reproducibly quantifiable levels of mitochondrial proteins of all major classes. Patients’ levels of five mitochondrial functional proteins were statistically significantly lower and of two significantly higher than the levels in normal controls. The patterns of differences between study patients and controls for mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondrial proteins encompassing neuronal energy generation, metabolic regulation, ion fluxes, and survival differed from those seen for patients with first episode psychosis and those with Major Depressive Disorder compared to their controls. These findings suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction due to retained gadolinium may play a role in causing Gadolinium Deposition Disease. Larger samples of both GDD and GSC patients are needed to allow not only testing the repeatability of our findings, but also investigation of relationships of specific mitochondrial protein deficiencies or excesses and concurrent cytokine, genetic, or other factors to GDD’s neurological and cognitive symptoms. Studies of neuronal mitochondrial proteins as diagnostic markers or indicators of treatment effectiveness are also warranted.

Benjamín Cartes-Saavedra ◽  
Josefa Macuada ◽  
Daniel Lagos ◽  
Duxan Arancibia ◽  
María E. Andrés ◽  

Autosomal Dominant Optic Atrophy (ADOA), a disease that causes blindness and other neurological disorders, is linked to OPA1 mutations. OPA1, dependent on its GTPase and GED domains, governs inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) fusion and cristae organization, which are central to oxidative metabolism. Mitochondrial dynamics and IMM organization have also been implicated in Ca2+ homeostasis and signaling but the specific involvements of OPA1 in Ca2+ dynamics remain to be established. Here we studied the possible outcomes of OPA1 and its ADOA-linked mutations in Ca2+ homeostasis using rescue and overexpression strategies in Opa1-deficient and wild-type murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), respectively and in human ADOA-derived fibroblasts. MEFs lacking Opa1 required less Ca2+ mobilization from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to induce a mitochondrial matrix [Ca2+] rise ([Ca2+]mito). This was associated with closer ER-mitochondria contacts and no significant changes in the mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex. Patient cells carrying OPA1 GTPase or GED domain mutations also exhibited altered Ca2+ homeostasis, and the mutations associated with lower OPA1 levels displayed closer ER-mitochondria gaps. Furthermore, in Opa1−/− MEF background, we found that acute expression of OPA1 GTPase mutants but no GED mutants, partially restored cytosolic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]cyto) needed for a prompt [Ca2+]mito rise. Finally, OPA1 mutants’ overexpression in WT MEFs disrupted Ca2+ homeostasis, partially recapitulating the observations in ADOA patient cells. Thus, OPA1 modulates functional ER-mitochondria coupling likely through the OPA1 GED domain in Opa1−/− MEFs. However, the co-existence of WT and mutant forms of OPA1 in patients promotes an imbalance of Ca2+ homeostasis without a domain-specific effect, likely contributing to the overall ADOA progress.

2022 ◽  
Gabriella L. Robertson ◽  
Stellan Riffle ◽  
Mira Patel ◽  
Andrea Marshall ◽  
Heather Beasley ◽  

Mitochondria and peroxisomes are both dynamic signaling organelles that constantly undergo fission. While mitochondrial fission is known to coordinate cellular metabolism, proliferation, and apoptosis, the physiological relevance of peroxisome dynamics and the implications for cell fate are not fully understood. DRP1 (dynamin-related protein 1) is an essential GTPase that executes both mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission. Patients with de novo heterozygous missense mutations in the gene that encodes DRP1, DNM1L, present with encephalopathy due to defective mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission (EMPF1). EMPF1 is a devastating neurodevelopmental disease with no effective treatment. To interrogate the mechanisms by which DRP1 mutations cause cellular dysfunction, we utilized human-derived fibroblasts from patients with mutations in DRP1 who present with EMPF1. As expected, patient cells display elongated mitochondrial morphology and lack of fission. Patient cells display a lower coupling efficiency of the electron transport chain, increased proton leak, and upregulation of glycolysis. In addition to these metabolic abnormalities, mitochondrial hyperfusion results in aberrant cristae structure and hyperpolarized mitochondrial membrane potential, both of which are tightly linked to the changes in metabolism. Peroxisome structure is also severely elongated in patient cells and results in a potential functional compensation of fatty acid oxidation. Understanding the mechanism by which DRP1 mutations cause these metabolic changes will give insight into the role of mitochondrial dynamics in cristae maintenance and the metabolic capacity of the cell, as well as the disease mechanism underlying EMPF1.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Bo Young Nam ◽  
Jong Hyun Jhee ◽  
Jimin Park ◽  
Seonghun Kim ◽  
Gyuri Kim ◽  

AbstractThe NLRP3 inflammasome is activated by mitochondrial damage and contributes to kidney fibrosis. However, it is unknown whether PGC-1α, a key mitochondrial biogenesis regulator, modulates NLRP3 inflammasome in kidney injury. Primary renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) were isolated from C57BL/6 mice. The NLRP3 inflammasome, mitochondrial dynamics and morphology, oxidative stress, and cell injury markers were examined in RTECs treated by TGF-β1 with or without Ppargc1a plasmid, PGC-1α activator (metformin), and siPGC-1α. In vivo, adenine-fed and unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mice were treated with metformin. In vitro, TGF-β1 treatment to RTECs suppressed the expressions of PGC-1α and mitochondrial dynamic-related genes. The NLRP3 inflammasome was also activated and the expression of fibrotic and cell injury markers was increased. PGC-1α induction with the plasmid and metformin improved mitochondrial dynamics and morphology and attenuated the NLRP3 inflammasome and cell injury. The opposite changes were observed by siPGC-1α. The oxidative stress levels, which are inducers of the NLRP3 inflammasome, were increased and the expression of TNFAIP3, a negative regulator of NLRP3 inflammasome regulated by PGC-1α, was decreased by TGF-β1 and siPGC-1α. However, PGC-1α restoration reversed these alterations. In vivo, adenine-fed and UUO mice models showed suppression of PGC-1α and TNFAIP3 and dysregulated mitochondrial dynamics. Moreover, the activation of oxidative stress and NLRP3 inflammasome, and kidney fibrosis were increased in these mice. However, these changes were significantly reversed by metformin. This study demonstrated that kidney injury was ameliorated by PGC-1α-induced inactivation of the NLRP3 inflammasome via modulation of mitochondrial viability and dynamics.

2021 ◽  
Lang Hu ◽  
Yanjie Guo ◽  
Liqiang Song ◽  
He Wen ◽  
Nan Sun ◽  

Abstract Background: Myocardial dysfunction is associated with an imbalance in mitochondrial fusion/fission dynamics in patients with diabetes. However, effective strategies to regulate mitochondrial dynamics in the diabetic heart are still lacking. This study investigated whether Nicotinamide riboside (NR) supplementation protects against diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction by regulating mitochondrial fusion/fission and further explored the underlying mechanisms.Methods: Obese diabetic (db/db) and lean control (db/+) mice were each given NR oral supplementation in this study. NAD+ Content was determined in mice hearts and primary neonatal cardiomyocytes. Cardiac function was detected by echocardiography. Mitochondrial dynamics were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy in vivo and by confocal microscopy in vitro. Results: Here, we show an evident decrease in NAD+ level and mitochondrial fragmentation in the hearts of leptin receptor-deficient diabetic (db/db) mouse model. NR supplementation significantly increased NAD+ content in the diabetic heart tissues. Furthermore, NR treatment increased Mfn2 expression, promoted mitochondrial fusion, suppressed oxidative stress, reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and consequently improved cardiac function in db/db mice. In neonatal primary cardiomyocytes cultured in a high-glucose/high-fat medium, NR treatment also promoted mitochondrial fusion, suppressed mitochondria-derived ROS production and reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, which were all reversed when Mfn2 was knocked down. Mechanistically, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase report assay analysis revealed that PGC1α and PPARα interdependently regulated Mfn2 transcription by binding to its promoter region. NR treatment elevated NAD+ levels and activated SIRT1, resulting in the deacetylation of PGC1α and promoting the transcription of Mfn2. Furthermore, the inhibition of SIRT1, PGC1α or PPARα blunted the positive effects of NR supplementation on Mfn2 expression and mitochondrial fusion. Conclusion: NR attenuates the development of diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction by promoting mitochondrial fusion through the SIRT1-PGC1α-PPARα pathway, with PGC1α and PPARα being the interdependent co-regulatory factors for Mfn2. The promotion of mitochondrial fusion via oral supplementation of NR may be a potential strategy for delaying cardiac complications in patients with diabetes.

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