The Internet of Things (IoT) revolutionised the way devices, and human beings, cooperate and interact. The interconnectivity and mobility brought by IoT devices led to extremely variable networks, as well as unpredictable information flows. In turn, security proved to be a serious issue for the IoT, far more serious than it has been in the past for other technologies. We claim that IoT devices need detailed descriptions of their behaviour to achieve secure default configurations, sufficient security configurability, and self-configurability. In this article, we propose S×C4IoT, a framework that addresses these issues by combining two paradigms: Security by Contract (S×C) and Fog computing. First, we summarise the necessary background such as the basic S×C definitions. Then, we describe how devices interact within S×C4IoT and how our framework manages the dynamic evolution that naturally result from IoT devices life-cycles. Furthermore, we show that S×C4IoT can allow legacy S×C-noncompliant devices to participate with an S×C network, we illustrate two different integration approaches, and we show how they fit into S×C4IoT. Last, we implement the framework as a proof-of-concept. We show the feasibility of S×C4IoT and we run different experiments to evaluate its impact in terms of communication and storage space overhead.
This paper aims to summarize, propose, and discuss existing or emerging strategies to shift towards a circular economy of materials. To clarify the landscape of existing circular practices, a new spectrum is proposed, from product-based strategies, where entire products go through several life cycles without being reprocessed, to material-based approaches, extracting, recycling, and reprocessing materials from the waste flow. As refillable packaging does not lose any functionality or value, when re-used through many life cycles, product-based strategies are globally extremely efficient and must be promoted. It appears however that their implementation is only possible at the scale of individual products such as packaging containers, relying on the cooperation of involved companies and consumers. It appears more and more urgent to focus as well on a more systematic and flexible material-oriented scheme. The example of circular glass recycling is a success in many countries, and technologies become nowadays available to extend such practices to many other materials, such as rigid plastics. An ideal would be to aim at an economy of materials that would imitate the continuous material cycle of the biosphere. Technological and business strategies are presented and discussed, aiming at a relevant impact on circularity.
Backgorund: Bacteriophages are closely related to the evolution and virulence of some important bacterial pathogens. Due to their highly significant roles in pathogenesis and virulence, S. aureus bacteriophages are frequently studied. Bacteriophages are grouped into two main categories depending on their life cycles. There are highly consistently lytic phages (virulent) and temperate phages. This study aimed to isolate bacteriophages and determine their phage serogroups from phage plaques in S. aureus cultures in order to show if they are lytic or lysogenic, the latter plays a major role in horizontal gene transfer. Methods: A total of 234 S. aureus isolates were recovered from milk samples from cases with gangrenous mastitis in sheep. Staphylococcal phages are determined based on the type and serogroup by PCR using specific primers. Result: Our study allowed us to determine serogroups of the isolated bacteriophages. Two phage stock samples included only one serogroup while the others included more than one phage serotypes and needed further purification Fa, L and D serogroups were not determined in the study. Present work revealed that all the isolated phages were temperate phages, which play a highly significant role in horizontal gene transfer.
For almost a decade, edible insects have become promoted on a wider basis as one way to combat world hunger and malnourishment, although attempts to do so have a longer history. Contemporary researchers and consumers, particularly those without an entomophagous background, have been rising safety and sustainability concerns. The present contribution seeks a substantiated answer to the question posed above. The possible answer consists of different factors that have been taken into consideration. First, the species and its life cycle. It is mandatory to realize that what is labeled as “edible insects” stands for more than 2,140 animal species, not counting other edible, non-crustacean arthropods. Their life cycles are as diverse as the ecological niches these animals can fill and last between some days to several years and many of them may—or may not—be reproduced in the different farming systems. Second, the level of knowledge concerning the food use of a given species is important, be it traditional, newly created by research, or a combination of both. Third, the existence of a traditional method of making the use of the insect safe and sustainable, ideally from both the traditional and the modern points of view. Fourth, the degree of effectiveness of these measures despite globalization changes in the food-supplying network. Fifth, farming conditions, particularly housing, feeding (type, composition, and contaminants), animal health and animal welfare. Sixth, processing, transport, and storage conditions of both traditional and novel insect-based foodstuffs, and seventh, consumer awareness and acceptance of these products. These main variables create a complex web of possibilities, just as with other foodstuffs that are either harvested from the wild or farmed. In this way, food safety may be reached when proper hygiene protocols are observed (which usually include heating steps) and the animals do not contain chemical residues or environment contaminants. A varying degree of sustainability can be achieved if the aforementioned variables are heeded. Hence, the question if insects can be safe and sustainable can be answered with “jein,” a German portmanteau word joining “yes” (“ja”) and “no” (“nein”).
True truffle (Tuber spp.) is one group of ascomycetes with great economic importance. During the last 30 years, numerous fine-scale population genetics studies were conducted on different truffle species, aiming to answer several key questions regarding their life cycles; these questions are important for their cultivation. It is now evident that truffles are heterothallic, but with a prevalent haploid lifestyle. Strains forming ectomycorrhizas and germinating ascospores act as maternal and paternal partners respectively. At the same time, a number of large-scale studies were carried out, highlighting the influences of the last glaciation and river isolations on the genetic structure of truffles. A retreat to southern refugia during glaciation, and a northward expansion post glaciation, were revealed in all studied European truffles. The Mediterranean Sea, acting as a barrier, has led to the existence of several refugia in different peninsulas for a single species. Similarly, large rivers in southwestern China act as physical barriers to gene flow for truffles in this region. Further studies can pay special attention to population genetics of species with a wide distribution range, such as T. himalayense, and the correlation between truffle genetic structure and the community composition of truffle-associated bacteria.
Abstract. This spring, super dust storms reappeared in East Asia after being absent for a (two) decade(s). The event caused enormous losses both in Mongolia and in China. Accurate simulation of such super sandstorms is valuable for the quantification of health damages, aviation risks, and profound impacts on the Earth system, but also to reveal the driving climate and the process of desertification. However, accurate simulation of dust life cycles is challenging mainly due to imperfect knowledge of emissions. In this study, the emissions that lead to the 2021 spring dust storms are estimated through assimilation of MODIS AOD and ground-based PM10 concentration data. To be able to use the AOD observations to represent the dust load, an Angstrom-based data screening is designed to select only observations that are dominated by dust. In addition, a non-dust AOD bias correction has been designed to remove the part of the AOD that could be attributed to other aerosols than dust. With this, the dust concentrations during the 2021 spring super storms could be reproduced and validated with concentration observations. The emission inversion results reveal that wind blown dust emissions originated from both China and Mongolia during spring 2021. Specifically, 18.3M and 27.2M ton of particles were released in Chinese desert and Mongolia desert respectively during these severe dust events. By source apportionment it has been estimated that 58 % of the dust deposited in the densely populated Fenwei Plain (FWP) in the northern China originate from transnational transport from Mongolia desert. For the North China Plain (NCP), local Chinese desert play a less significant roles in the dust affection; the long-distance transport from Mongolia contributes for about 69 % to the dust deposition in NCP, even if it locates more than 1000 km away from the nearest Mongolian desert.
Bacteriophages exhibit a vast spectrum of relatedness and there is increasing evidence of close genomic relationships independent of host genus. The variability in phage similarity at the nucleotide, amino acid, and gene content levels confounds attempts at quantifying phage relatedness, especially as more novel phages are isolated. This study describes three highly similar novel Arthrobacter globiformis phages–Powerpuff, Lego, and YesChef–which were assigned to Cluster AZ using a nucleotide-based clustering parameter. Phages in Cluster AZ, Microbacterium Cluster EH, and the former Microbacterium singleton Zeta1847 exhibited low nucleotide similarity. However, their gene content similarity was in excess of the recently adopted Microbacterium clustering parameter, which ultimately resulted in the reassignment of Zeta1847 to Cluster EH. This finding further highlights the importance of using multiple metrics to capture phage relatedness. Additionally, Clusters AZ and EH phages encode a shared integrase indicative of a lysogenic life cycle. In the first experimental verification of a Cluster AZ phage’s life cycle, we show that phage Powerpuff is a true temperate phage. It forms stable lysogens that exhibit immunity to superinfection by related phages, despite lacking identifiable repressors typically required for lysogenic maintenance and superinfection immunity. The ability of phage Powerpuff to undergo and maintain lysogeny suggests that other closely related phages may be temperate as well. Our findings provide additional evidence of significant shared phage genomic content spanning multiple actinobacterial host genera and demonstrate the continued need for verification and characterization of life cycles in newly isolated phages.
In this part, the paper discusses several aspects of the origin, structure, development and movement of wave disturbances over the North African tropical zone during the northern summer. Analyzing the cases often actual wave disturbances which later in their life cycles developed into hurricanes over the Atlantic, it finds that though the horizontal and vertical shear of the mean zonal wind associated with the mid-tropospheric easterly jet over Africa satisfies the condition of dynamical instability under certain restrictive boundary conditions, it is the influence of a large-amplitude baroclinic wave in mid-latitude westerlies upon a stationary wave in the mountainous region of the east-central north Africa that appears to trigger the birth of a wave disturbance in the intertropical convergence zone over the Nile valley of Sudan between the Marra and the Ethiopian mountains. Physical processes likely to be important in the formation, development and movement of the disturbances are pointed out.
The high demand for efficient energy devices leads to the rapid development of energy storage systems with excellent electrochemical properties, such as long life cycles, high cycling stability, and high power density. SC is postulated as a potential candidate to fulfill this demand. The combination of graphene and polyaniline can create SC electrodes with excellent electrical conductivity, high specific surface area, and high capacitance. The graphene/polyaniline hybrid electrodes represent an attractive means to overcome the major drawbacks of graphene or polyaniline non-hybrid (single) electrode materials. In this review article, the trend in the development of various graphene/polyaniline hybrid electrodes is summarized, which includes the zero-dimension graphene-quantum-dots/polyaniline hybrid, one-dimension graphene/polyaniline hybrid, two-dimension graphene/polyaniline hybrid, and three-dimension hydrogel-shaped graphene/polyaniline hybrid. Several strategies and approaches to enhance the capacitance value and cycling stability of graphene/polyaniline hybrid electrodes are discussed in this review article, such as the addition of transition metal oxides and metal-organic frameworks, and modification of graphene into functionalized-graphene. The performance of the electrodes prepared from the combination of graphene with other conducting polymers (i.e., polypyrrole, polythiophene, and polythiophene-derivatives) is also discussed.
Wild oat (Avena fatua L.) and false cleavers (Galium spurium) are currently a challenge to manage in less competitive crops such as flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). Increasing the functional diversity in crop rotations can be an option to improve weed management. Nonetheless, this strategy is not tested in flax in Western Canada. A 5-yr (2015-2019) crop rotation study was carried at three locations in western Canada to determine the effect of diverse flax-based crop rotations with differences in crop species, crop life cycles, harvesting time and reduced herbicides on managing A. fatua and G. spurium. The perennial rotation (flax-alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-alfalfa-alfalfa-flax) under reduced herbicide use was found to be the most consistent cropping system, providing similar A. fatua and G. spurium control to the conventional annual flax crop rotation[flax-barley (Hordium vulgare L.)-flax-oat (Avena sativa L.)-flax] with standard herbicides. At Carman, this alfalfa rotation provided even better weed control (80% A. fatua, 75% G. spurium) than the conventional rotation. Furthermore, a greater A. fatua control was identified compared to conventional rotation where two consecutive winter cereal crops were grown successfully in rotation (flax-barley-winter triticale (x Triticosecale ex A. Camus)-winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-flax), greater A. fatua control was observed compared to the conventional crop rotation under standard herbicides. Incorporation of silage oat crops did not show consistent management benefits compared to the perennial alfalfa rotation but were generally similar to the conventional rotation with standard herbicides. The results showed that perennial alfalfa in the rotation minimized G. spurium and A. fatua in flax cropping systems, followed by rotations with two consecutive winter cereal crops.