Fire Dynamics
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Jan-Michael Cabrera ◽  
Robert Moser ◽  
Ofodike A. Ezekoye

Abstract Fire scene reconstruction and determining the fire evolution (i.e. item-to-item ignition events) using the post-fire compartment is an extremely difficult task because of the time-integrated nature of the observed damages. Bayesian methods are ideal for making inferences amongst hypotheses given observations and are able to naturally incorporate uncertainties. A Bayesian methodology for determining probabilities to items that may have initiated the fire in a compartment from damage signatures is developed. Exercise of this methodology requires uncertainty quantification of these damage signatures. A simple compartment configuration was used to quantify the uncertainty in damage predictions by Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS), and a compartment evolution program, JT-risk as compared to experimentally derived damage signatures. Surrogate sensors spaced within the compartment use heat flux data collected over the course of the simulations to inform damage models. Experimental repeatability showed up to 4% uncertainty in damage signatures between replicates . Uncertainties for FDS and JT-risk ranged from 12% up to 32% when compared to experimental damages. Separately, the evolution physics of a simple three fuel package problem with surrogate damage sensors were characterized in a compartment using experimental data, FDS, and JT-risk predictions. An simple ignition model was used for each of the fuel packages. The Bayesian methodology was exercised using the damage signatures collected, cycling through each of the three fuel packages, and combined with the previously quantified uncertainties. Only reconstruction using experimental data was able to confidently predict the true hypothesis from the three scenarios.

Wenxuan Xu ◽  
Yongxue Liu ◽  
Sander Veraverbeke ◽  
Wei Wu ◽  
Yanzhu Dong ◽  

Fire ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 69
Daryn Sagel ◽  
Kevin Speer ◽  
Scott Pokswinski ◽  
Bryan Quaife

Most wildland and prescribed fire spread occurs through ground fuels, and the rate of spread (RoS) in such environments is often summarized with empirical models that assume uniform environmental conditions and produce a unique RoS. On the other hand, representing the effects of local, small-scale variations of fuel and wind experienced in the field is challenging and, for landscape-scale models, impractical. Moreover, the level of uncertainty associated with characterizing RoS and flame dynamics in the presence of turbulent flow demonstrates the need for further understanding of fire dynamics at small scales in realistic settings. This work describes adapted computer vision techniques used to form fine-scale measurements of the spatially and temporally varying RoS in a natural setting. These algorithms are applied to infrared and visible images of a small-scale prescribed burn of a quasi-homogeneous pine needle bed under stationary wind conditions. A large number of distinct fire front displacements are then used statistically to analyze the fire spread. We find that the fine-scale forward RoS is characterized by an exponential distribution, suggesting a model for fire spread as a random process at this scale.

PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e12029
Minerva Singh ◽  
Xiaoxiang Zhu

In the past two decades, Amazon rainforest countries (Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru and Venezuela) have experienced a substantial increase in fire frequency due to the changes in the patterns of different anthropogenic and climatic drivers. This study examines how both fire dynamics and bioclimatic factors varied based on the season (wet season and dry season) El Niño years across the different countries and ecosystems within the Amazon rainforest. Data from publicly available databases on forest fires (Global Fire Atlas) and bioclimatic, topographic and anthropogenic variables were employed in the analysis. Linear mixed-effect models discovered that year type (El Niño vs. non-El Niño), seasonality (dry vs. wet), land cover and forest strata (in terms of canopy cover and intactness) and their interactions varied across the Amazonian countries (and the different ecosystems) under consideration. A machine learning model, Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (MARS), was utilized to determine the relative importance of climatic, topographic, forest structure and human modification variables on fire dynamics across wet and dry seasons, both in El Niño and non-El Niño years. The findings of this study make clear that declining precipitation and increased temperatures have strong impact on fire dynamics (size, duration, expansion and speed) for El Niño years. El Niño years also saw greater fire sizes and speeds as compared to non-El Niño years. Dense and relatively undisturbed forests were found to have the lowest fire activity and increased human impact on a landscape was associated with exacerbated fire dynamics, especially in the El Niño years. Additionally, the presence of grass-dominated ecosystems such as grasslands also acted as a driver of fire in both El Niño and non-El Niño years. Hence, from a conservation perspective, increased interventions during the El Niño periods should be considered.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Mengsheng Yu ◽  
Qifeng Chen ◽  
Xinyu Yao ◽  
Xiao Guo ◽  
Tianzhi Hao ◽  

This paper presents a numerical study on the high-temperature mechanical properties of a long-span double-deck suspension bridge. The main focus of this paper is the behavior analysis of Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge. A three-dimensional thermal model of the bridge was established by the Fire Dynamics software (FDS) to obtain the 3D temperature field distribution, and the thermal analysis result was then applied to the three-dimensional finite element model of the suspension bridge. The shortest failure time of the main cable and sling was determined to obtain the rescue time of a bridge fire. According to the calculation results of the suspension bridge under a tanker fire initiated at the upper deck of the bridge, the middle lane in the upper deck of the suspension bridge was determined to be a safe lane. Thus, the tanker should be guided to go in this lane of the bridge. The numerical analysis of the experimental results shows that when the fuel tanker is located on the upper and lower floors of the bridge, the bridge structure is affected by the fire. When the oil tanker burns in the outermost lane of the upper bridge, it will have a great impact on the main cables and slings of the bridge. When the fuel tanker burns in the lower nonmotorized lane of the bridge, it will have a great impact on the upper stiffening beam steel plates and truss rods.

2021 ◽  
Egle Rackauskaite ◽  
Matthew Bonner ◽  
Francesco Restuccia ◽  
Nieves Fernandez Anez ◽  
Eirik G. Christensen ◽  

AbstractThe traditional design fires commonly considered in structural fire engineering, like the standard fire and Eurocode parametric fires, were developed several decades ago based on experimental compartments smaller than 100 m2 in floor area. These experiments led to the inherent assumption of flashover in design fires and that the temperatures and burning conditions are uniform in the whole of the compartment, regardless of its size. However, modern office buildings often have much larger open-plan floor areas (e.g. the Shard in London has a floor area of 1600 m2) where non-uniform fire conditions are likely to occur. This paper presents observations from a large-scale fire experiment x-ONE conducted inside a concrete farm building in Poland. The objective of x-ONE was to capture experimentally a natural fire inside a large and open plan compartment. With an open-plan floor area of 380 m2, x-ONE is the largest compartment fire experiment carried out to date. The fire was ignited at one end of the compartment and allowed to spread across a continuous wood crib (fuel load ~ 370 MJ/m2). A travelling fire with clear leading and trailing edges was observed spreading along 29 m of the compartment length. The flame spread rate was not constant but accelerated with time from 3 mm/s to 167 mm/s resulting in a gradually changing fire size. The fire travelled across the compartment and burned out at the far end 25 min after ignition. Flashover was not observed. The thermocouples and cameras installed along the fire path show clear near-field and far-field regions, indicating highly non-uniform spatial temperatures and burning within the compartment. The fire dynamics observed during this experiment are completely different to the fire dynamics reported in small scale compartments in previous literature and to the assumptions made in traditional design fires for structural design. This highlights the need for further research and experiments in large compartments to understand the fire dynamics and continue improving the safe design of modern buildings.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (19) ◽  
pp. 5515
Yongwang Zhang ◽  
Lu Wang

Due to the flammability of materials and the vastness of space, flashover fires of large-space timber structures pose a huge threat to lives as well as the structures themselves. Therefore, it is necessary to study the critical conditions, control factors and prediction methods of flashover fires. To address this issue, hundreds of design conditions were simulated by Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) with variations in space size, the heat release rate (HRR) of fire source and fire growth type. A temperature–time model of the maximum temperature of the smoke layer near the ceiling (Tmax) was established, and the critical condition that uses this model to predict the occurrence of flashover was determined. Furthermore, a mathematical formula was established that can accurately predict the flashover induction time when the Tmax exceeds 400 °C. This research can provide a reference for the performance-based fire safety design of large-space timber structures.

2021 ◽  
Vol 93 (6s) ◽  
pp. 149-166
Peter Vidmar ◽  
Andrej Androjna ◽  

The maritime safety is of great concern for the entire maritime community. Ships using LNG for propulsion are already sailing the seas, but the majority of the ports are not yet prepared for this kind of supply. As the process of LNG bunkering is only seemingly similar to traditional oil bunkering or liquid loading, dealing with the technical and safety challenges is much more subject of investigation. In this paper, the dispersion part of the consequences of LNG release, pooling, evaporation and dispersion during the future bunkering operation in the port of Koper, Slovenia, where the populated area (city) is located in close proximity are examined. We follow the comparison of three different tools, namely the Unified Dispersion Model (UDM) implemented by the software PHAST from DNV-GL® and two CFD (FDS – Fire Dynamics Simulator from NIST and Ansys Fluent®) in the same case scenario. Geometry, initial and boundary conditions are assumed to be the same as far as possible, according to the limitations of the respective software tools.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (4) ◽  
pp. 31-38
Kyeongnam Kwon ◽  
Sungyon Kim ◽  
Sunjoo Lee ◽  
Chungeun Kwon ◽  
Kyunngwon Seo ◽  

The crown fire of various pine trees was investigated using a wildland–urban interface fire dynamics simulator (WFDS). The effects of wind speeds and the spatial distances between fuels on crown fire ignition and spread were investigated. The average 30-year values of atmospheric conditions in March and April were used as the reference conditions to represent the climatic conditions for the wildfire season. As the wind speed increases, crown fire initiation is promoted, and the intensity and spread rate of the crown fire increase. The effects of the spatial distance on the crown fire depend on the wind speed and fuel conditions. The results show that a computational fluid dynamics tool using physics-based models, such as the WFDS, can predict the crown fire ignition and spread behaviors for domestic pine trees. However, further studies are required for other vegetation and domestic atmospheric conditions to validate the applicability of the WFDS on domestic fuels.

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