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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 51-66
Author(s):  
Vesna Žegarac Leskovar ◽  
Vanja Skalicky Klemenčič

Currently, many older people live in institutions for various social and health reasons. In Slovenia, this proportion is almost 5% of the population aged 65 and over. In the COVID-19 pandemic, the elderly proved to be the most vulnerable social group, as they are exposed to a number of comorbidities that increase the risk of mortality. At that time, nursing homes represented one of the most critical types of housing, as seen from a disproportionate number of infections and deaths among nursing home residents worldwide, including Slovenia. During the emergency, a number of safety protocols had to be followed to prevent the spread of infection. Unfortunately, it turned out that while the safety measures protected the nursing home residents, they also had a negative effect on their mental health, mainly due to isolation and social distancing. It follows that especially in times of epidemics of infectious respiratory diseases, the quality of life in nursing homes requires special attention. In this context, it is also necessary to consider whether and how an appropriate architectural design can help mitigating the spread of infections, while at the same time enable older people to live in dignity and with a minimum of social exclusion. To this end, the present study examined 97 nursing homes in Slovenia, analysing the number of infections in nursing homes and their correlation with the degree of infection in the corresponding region in Slovenia. Additionally, 2 nursing homes were studied in more detail with the use of newly developed “Safe and Connected” evaluation tool, analysing the architectural features of each building. The advantages identified so far include living in smaller units, single rooms with balconies, the possibility of using green open spaces and the use of an adequate ventilation. Conclusions of this study are useful for further consideration of design of new nursing homes and the refurbishment of existing ones.


Author(s):  
M. H. Verwijs ◽  
O. van de Rest ◽  
G.-J. van der Putten ◽  
L. C. P. G. M. de Groot ◽  
Sanne Boesveldt

Abstract Objectives Dementia can lead to decreased appetite and nutritional intake. Food odor exposure has been shown to increase appetite and nutritional intake in young healthy adults. This study investigates the effect of food odor exposure on appetite, nutritional intake and body weight of Dutch nursing home residents with dementia. Design This was a one-armed, non-randomized, non-blinded intervention study consisting of a four-week control period followed by a twelve-week intervention period. Setting Four nursing homes in the Netherlands. Participants Forty-five nursing home residents with dementia. Intervention During the intervention period, odors were dispersed prior to the main meals. Measurements General and specific appetite for sweet and savory foods was measured weekly. Nutritional intake was measured once during the control period and three times during the intervention period through a 3-day food record. Body weight was assessed at the start and end of the control period and at the start, end and halfway the intervention period. Data were analyzed with linear mixed models. Results Small changes in general and specific appetite were observed after odor exposure. Overall energy intake did not change during the first four intervention weeks, but increased during the second and third (+118kcal/d, p=0.003 and +122kcal/d, p=0.004). Protein intake and body weight did not significantly change during the study. Conclusion In this study, no clinically relevant changes in appetite, nutritional intake and body weight were observed after food odor exposure. Future studies should assess the effect of natural food odors and/or meal-tailored odors on nutritional intake of older adults with dementia.


Author(s):  
Mark Q Thompson ◽  
Agathe D Jadczak ◽  
Solomon Yu ◽  
Graeme R Tucker ◽  
Renuka Visvanathan

Author(s):  
Moniyka Sachar ◽  
Tom Bayer ◽  
Frank DeVone ◽  
Chris Halladay ◽  
Kevin McConeghy ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Weiwen Ng ◽  
John R. Bowblis ◽  
Yinfei Duan ◽  
Odichinma Akosionu ◽  
Tetyana P. Shippee

Author(s):  
Christine E. Kistler ◽  
Christopher J. Wretman ◽  
Sheryl Zimmerman ◽  
Chineme Enyioha ◽  
Kimberly Ward ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Claude Saegerman ◽  
Anh Nguyet Diep ◽  
Véronique Renault ◽  
Anne-Françoise Donneau ◽  
Lambert Stamatakis ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Nursing home (NH) residents have been severely affected during the COVID-19 pandemic because of their age and underlying comorbidities. Infection and outbreaks in NHs are most likely triggered by infected workers. Screening for asymptomatic NH workers can prevent risky contact and viral transmission to the residents. This study examined the effect of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID‑19 (Comirnaty®; BioNTech and Pfizer) vaccination on the saliva excretion of SARS-CoV-2 among NH workers, through weekly saliva RT-qPCR testing. Methods A 2-month cohort study was conducted among 99 NHs in the Walloon region (Belgium), at the start of February 2021. Three groups of workers, i.e., non-vaccinated (n = 1618), one-dosed vaccinated (n = 1454), and two-dosed vaccinated (n = 2379) of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID‑19 vaccine, were followed-up weekly. Their saliva samples were used to monitor the shedding of SARS-CoV-2. All positive samples were sequenced and genotyped to identify the circulating wild-type virus or variants of concern. Results The protection fraction against the excretion of the SARS-CoV-2 in the saliva samples of the workers after the second dose is estimated at 0.90 (95% CI: 0.18; 0.99) at 1 week and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.54; 0.95) at 8 weeks. We observe more circulating SARS-CoV-2 and a greater variability of viral loads in the unvaccinated group compared to those of the vaccinated group. Conclusions This field cohort study advances our knowledge of the efficacy of the mRNA BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine on the viral shedding in the saliva specimens of vaccinated NH workers, contributing to better decision-making in public health interventions and management.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mohammad Rababa ◽  
Audai A Hayajneh ◽  
Sami Al-Rawashdeh ◽  
Nahedh Alawneh

Aim: This study examined the use of analgesics and associated factors among nursing home residents (NHRs). Materials & methods: A descriptive correlational design and a convenience sample of 209 NHRs receiving analgesics was used in this study. Results: Higher use of analgesics was noted among NHRs without cognitive impairment (p < 0.001), those with higher anticholinergic burden scores (p = 0.002) and those with a higher average number of oral pills taken daily (p = 0.045). Conclusion: These findings contribute to a better understanding of the prevalence and associated factors of analgesic use, which will inform the development and application of evidence-based pain practice and guidelines in nursing homes in Jordan and beyond.


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