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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 429-450
Barbara Jeanne Slazus ◽  
Geoffrey Bick

The widespread use of mobile phones and growth in internet penetration has created a unique opportunity to increase access to financial services. Financial Technology (FinTech) companies and mobile banking (m-banking) empower customers to use digital platforms to utilise financial services without the physical access requirements of traditional banking. This has led to the rise of FinTech firms that are disrupting traditional industry standards by servicing consumers through a range of digital channels and mobile devices. A new completely branchless bank, Bank Zero, is set to launch in South Africa in 2020 to exploit these opportunities. This consumer behavioural study focuses on analysing FinTech adoption in the South African market. An adapted mixed-method approach was used to identify the enabling and inhibiting factors that motivate consumers to adopt or reject m-banking. Qualitative research was initially conducted via in-depth interviews with 7 respondents. The most salient factors identified in the literature review were tested, and the results were used to develop a quantitative, online questionnaire. A convenience sample of 217 valid responses was collected, and the data was analysed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The EFA identified 6 influencing factors: four enabling and two inhibiting factors. The enabling factors that positively influenced FinTech adoption were: Utility, Socio-Economic Influencers, Mobile Device Trust and Youth. The two inhibiting factors were: Perceived Risks and Associated Costs. Interestingly, 74% of the 217 respondents indicated that they would join a completely branchless bank, using only their mobile phones and the internet to access banking services, showing a high propensity to branchless, m-banking. Finally, the Enhancement Criteria Model based on insights gained from the research findings, is proposed. This model provides recommendation criteria for existing and new FinTech providers who are looking to improve their business models. JEL Codes: D18, G40 Keywords: FinTech, mobile banking, m-banking, branchless banking, consumer behaviour, South Africa

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262407
Rui Fu ◽  
Robert Schwartz ◽  
Nicholas Mitsakakis ◽  
Lori M. Diemert ◽  
Shawn O’Connor ◽  

Prior research has suggested that a set of unique characteristics may be associated with adult cigarette smokers who are able to quit smoking using e-cigarettes (vaping). In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to identify and rank the importance of these characteristics using machine learning. During July and August 2019, an online survey was administered to a convenience sample of 889 adult smokers (age ≥ 20) in Ontario, Canada who tried vaping to quit smoking in the past 12 months. Fifty-one person-level characteristics, including a Vaping Experiences Score, were assessed in a gradient boosting machine model to classify the status of perceived success in vaping-assisted smoking cessation. This model was trained using cross-validation and tested using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The top five most important predictors were identified using a score between 0% and 100% that represented the relative importance of each variable in model training. About 20% of participants (N = 174, 19.6%) reported success in vaping-assisted smoking cessation. The model achieved relatively high performance with an area under the ROC curve of 0.865 and classification accuracy of 0.831 (95% CI [confidence interval] 0.780 to 0.874). The top five most important predictors of perceived success in vaping-assisted smoking cessation were more positive experiences measured by the Vaping Experiences Score (100%), less previously failed quit attempts by vaping (39.0%), younger age (21.9%), having vaped 100 times (16.8%), and vaping shortly after waking up (15.8%). Our findings provide strong statistical evidence that shows better vaping experiences are associated with greater perceived success in smoking cessation by vaping. Furthermore, our study confirmed the strength of machine learning techniques in vaping-related outcomes research based on observational data.

Candace Tefertiller ◽  
Patricia Bartelt ◽  
Maureen Stobelaar ◽  
Susie Charlifue ◽  
Mitch Sevigny ◽  

Objectives: To evaluate upper extremity (UE) function, strength, and dynamic sitting balance in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) who received an intensive outpatient therapy program focused on UE training augmented with wide pulse/high frequency functional electrical stimulation (WPHF-FES). Methods: This prospective case series was conducted in an outpatient (OP) clinic in an SCI-specific rehabilitation hospital. Participants were a convenience sample (N = 50) of individuals with tetraplegia receiving OP therapy focused on UE recovery. Individuals participated in 60 minutes of UE functional task-specific practice (FTP) in combination with WPHF-FES 5 times/week for an average of 72 sessions. The primary outcome for this analysis was the Capabilities of Upper Extremity Test (CUE-T). Secondary outcomes include UE motor score (UEMS) and the modified functional reach (MFR). Results: Fifty individuals (13 motor complete; 37 motor incomplete SCI) completed an OP UE training program incorporating WPHF-FES and were included in this analysis. On average, participants demonstrated significant improvements in the total CUE-T score of 14.1 (SD = 10.0, p < .0001) points; significant changes were also noted in UEMS and MFR, improving an average of 4.6 (SD = 5.2, p < .0001) points and 13.6 (SD = 15.8, p < .0001) cm, respectively. Conclusion: Individuals with tetraplegia demonstrated significant improvements in UE strength, function, and dynamic sitting trunk balance after receiving UE training augmented with WPHF-FES. Future comparative effectiveness studies need to be completed to guide efficacious treatment interventions in OP therapy.

Manal Mohamed Elkayal ◽  
Mahmoud Abdel Hameed Shahin ◽  
Rasha Mohammed Hussien

Abstract Background Psychological distress is considered a threat to the mental health of human beings. This research was conducted at the beginning of the emerging COVID-19 pandemic, when most people had limited knowledge about coronavirus, mode of transmission, associated manifestations, with uncertainty about treatment, vaccine, future life, and coping capacity. This study examined the nature of the psychological distress related to the emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and coping strategies adopted among the general population in Egypt. Methods This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study assessing a convenience sample consisting of 312 participants from the general population in Egypt. Data were gathered as online responses to a questionnaire which incorporated a sociodemographic datasheet, psychological distress scale, and ways of coping scale. Results Forty-two percent of the participants showed severe psychological distress and 26% showed mild to moderate psychological distress. There was a strong positive correlation between the distress score and the overall coping score—that is, the higher the distress, the more ways of coping were adopted (p < 0.001). This study also showed that the methods of adaptation used by most of the population were based on emotional coping strategy. The most adaptive people were those who work in the health field and the residents in the cities with a monthly income sufficient enough to meet their needs; better adaptation methods were also seen among both divorced and highly educated people. We also found a significant relationship between sociodemographic characteristics except for sex and overall coping methods (p < 0.001). Further, significant relationships between sociodemographic characteristics and psychological distress were observed (p < 0.001). Conclusion Most of the study population as a sample of the general population in Egypt reported suffering from varying degrees of psychological distress during the COVID-19 crisis. However, the more severe an individual’s level of psychological distress, the greater their adaptation ability was. This study focuses light on the importance to provide appropriate interventions against COVID-19-related stresses and equipping people with suitable strategies for coping with the COVID-19 pandemic.

2022 ◽  
Majid Yousefi Afrashteh

Abstract Background: Psychological tests are necessary to assess and assess the mental state of individuals. Mental health is one of the important psychological indicators and is increasingly considered as having various aspects of well-being. The Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) is a 14-item instrument that assesses mental health, focusing on emotional, psychological, and social well-being. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the MHC-SF among adolescents, focusing on its factor structure, internal consistency, construct validity, and gender measurement invariance.Methods: The population of this study was Iranian adolescents between 11 and 18 years old who were enrolled in the seventh to twelfth grades. A convenience sample of 822 Adolescents from four large cities in the Iran (Tehran, Zanjan, Hamedan and Ghazvin) participated in the present study. Questionnaires were completed online. Statistical analyses to evaluate the factor structure, internal consistency, construct validity, gender and age factorial invariance were performed in SPSS and LISREL.Results: The results of confirmatory factor analysis supported the 3-factor structure of MHC-SF (emotional, psychological, and social well-being). Reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha method and composite reliability (>.7). Measurement invariance were confirmed among girls and boys. Convergent and divergent validity were also evaluated and confirmed by correlating the test score with similar and different tests.Conclusion: This study examined and confirmed the psychometric properties of GHQ in the Iranian adolescent community. This instrument can be used in psychological research and diagnostic evaluations.

2022 ◽  
pp. 026010602110709
Selby Nichols ◽  
Nequesha Dalrymple ◽  
Patrice Prout ◽  
Anisa Ramcharitar-Bourne

Background: Diet is a significant contributor to health and wellbeing of individuals. Aim: In this study we investigated patterns of dietary intakes, levels of nutrient inadequacies and associated sociodemographic, anthropometric and lifestyle factors among adults in Trinidad and Tobago. Method: The study was cross-sectional in nature. A convenience sample of 11783 persons from districts throughout Trinidad and Tobago completed a self-administered questionnaire comprising socio-demographic and lifestyle items. Anthropometry was self-reported with 15% of participants having measurements done according to recommended procedures. Dietary patterns were determined by principal component analysis (PCA) while nutrient intakes and adequacy were assessed using the NutriGenie 7.0 software and nutrient adequacy ratio (MAR) respectively. Foods were categorised as unprocessed/minimally processed and processed/ultra-processed. The University of The West Indies Ethics Committee approved the study. Results: Approximately 72.5% of participants met the Goldberg criteria for plausible reporting. The three predominant dietary patterns ‘Typical’, ‘Fruits and Vegetables’, and ‘High Fat’ explained 45% of the total variance in foods consumed. Processed/ultra-processed foods accounted for most of the energy (80%) and nutrients consumed. Nutrient inadequacies were observed for potassium, vitamins B12, D, E, K, fibre, magnesium; and iron among females. The mean adequacy ratio (MAR) for participants was 67%. MAR was positively associated with predominant dietary patterns independent of socioe demographic and lifestyle factors (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Irrespective of their nature, the predominant dietary pattern was associated with nutrient adequacy among participants. Reducing the risk of inadequate nutrient intakes may be addressed by increasing availability, access and consumption of appropriate sources of these micronutrients.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Dennis Koroma ◽  
Maria I. Pestalozzi ◽  
Hansjörg Znoj

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> As Switzerland faced the “second wave” of COVID-19 incidences, a discussion of a potential vaccine against the virus emerged. While some individuals accept vaccines, others challenge or refuse to be vaccinated, a phenomena called <i>vaccine hesitancy</i>. Here, trust plays a vital role in vaccination intention. Embitterment not only goes along with the sense of being treated unjust but also innates a distrust in others. Thus, embitterment may influence individuals’ vaccination intention against COVID-19. In the present study, we investigate how feelings of being socially excluded and the perceived negative impact of the pandemic are associated with embitterment and in turn, how embitterment is related to individuals’ vaccination intention and the tendency to hold COVID-19-related conspiracy beliefs (CCBs). This is in regard of the perceived communication style by the government. <b><i>Method:</i></b> A convenience sample of 281 individuals completed an online survey developed on Qualtrics. In this cross-sectional, nonexperimental designed study, indirect effects of a moderated serial mediation were analyzed using <i>Jamm</i> (Jamovi, Version 0.9; 2019). <b><i>Results:</i></b> Results indicated that embitterment went along with increased feelings of social exclusion (β = 0.45, <i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.001). Further, individuals high in embitterment generally indicated a higher vaccination intention against COVID-19 (β = 0.15, <i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.01). However, embittered individuals holding CCBs had a decreased vaccination intention against COVID-19 (β = −0.71, <i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.001). Thus, whether or not embittered individuals develop CCBs might be a crucial determinant for their vaccination intention. Noteworthy, the relationship between embitterment and the tendency to hold CCBs was reinforced by the notion of an unsatisfactory style of communication by the government. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Taken together, results suggest that embitterment not only plays a relevant role in vaccination intention against COVID-19 but also for the susceptibility to engage in conspiracy beliefs.

Jieun Cha ◽  
Hyunju Kang ◽  
Juyoun Yu ◽  
Mi Jin Choi

Background: We aimed to explore the factors associated with health promotion behavior of international students in South Korea. Methods: The convenience sample of 263 participants was recruited from two universities in Gangwon-do and Jeollanam-do, South Korea. The data were collected by using structured questionnaires from Apr to Jun 2019. Demographic characteristics, health conception, acculturative stress, self-efficacy, interpersonal support, and health promotion behavior were assessed. T-test, ANOVA, and multiple regression analyses were used for statistical analyses. Results: Participants from Vietnam (P=.040), with more health conception (P<.001), more acculturative stress (P<.001), more self-efficacy (P<.001), and greater interpersonal support (P<.001) were more likely to engage in more health promotion behaviors. Conclusion: This study is meaningful as it collected the data on which to design health promotion programs for international students. Future studies are needed to investigate further factors relating to international students’ health promotion behavior, including internal and external environments.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Michael Pentzek ◽  
Verena Baumgart ◽  
Flora-Marie Hegerath

Abstract Objective Health scientists strive for a smooth recruitment of physicians for research projects like surveys. Teaching physicians are an easy to approach population that is already affiliated with a university by teaching students in their practice. How do response rates compare between a convenient online survey among teaching physicians and an elaborate postal survey in a random sample of unknown physicians? Data from the TMI-GP study on the use of memory tests in general practice were used. Results Physicians in the random sample responded to the postal survey more often than teaching physicians to the online survey (59.5% vs. 18.9%; odds ratio 7.06; 95% confidence interval 4.81–10.37; p < 0.001). Although it is unclear whether the sample, the survey mode (online vs. postal) or both account for this effect, it is noteworthy that even in such a convenience sample of known/committed physicians, an adequate response rate could not be reached without a tailored and elaborated survey technique. Responders in the two samples were comparable regarding a content-related item (use of memory tests; Χ2 (df = 1) = 3.07; p = 0.080).

2022 ◽  
Mohammad Rababa ◽  
Audai A Hayajneh ◽  
Sami Al-Rawashdeh ◽  
Nahedh Alawneh

Aim: This study examined the use of analgesics and associated factors among nursing home residents (NHRs). Materials & methods: A descriptive correlational design and a convenience sample of 209 NHRs receiving analgesics was used in this study. Results: Higher use of analgesics was noted among NHRs without cognitive impairment (p < 0.001), those with higher anticholinergic burden scores (p = 0.002) and those with a higher average number of oral pills taken daily (p = 0.045). Conclusion: These findings contribute to a better understanding of the prevalence and associated factors of analgesic use, which will inform the development and application of evidence-based pain practice and guidelines in nursing homes in Jordan and beyond.

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