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PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0260621
Pedro Pechorro ◽  
Rebecca Revilla ◽  
Miguel Resende ◽  
Rui Abrunhosa Gonçalves ◽  
Cristina Nunes ◽  

The Dickman Impulsivity Inventory (DII) measures impulsive personality related to both negative and positive behaviors and characteristics. The main aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the DII among a Southern-European sample of Portuguese young adults. Our convenience sample (N = 429, M = 22.11 years, SD = 3.35, range = 18–42), composed of women (n = 237, M = 22.08 years, SD = 3.35, age range = 18–42) and men (n = 192, M = 22.14 years, SD = 3.34, range = 18–35), was collected from a university context. The two-factor latent structure of the DII composed of functional and dysfunctional impulsivity was supported, although three items had to be removed due to low standardized loadings, and strong cross-gender measurement invariance was established. Our analyses of the DII also provided evidence of criterion-related validity, known-groups validity, and internal consistency/reliability. Our findings support the use of the DII among Portuguese young adults.

Amanda K.S. Vieira, RN ◽  
Marisa T. Nagumo ◽  
Gisele Kuba, PhD ◽  
Leonice F.S. Kurebayashi, PhD ◽  
Ruth N.T. Turrini, PhD

Background: Premenstrual syndrome is a highly prevalent cyclical disorder among women of childbearing age which interferes with daily activities, mood, and quality of life. Purpose: To evaluate the effects of a foot reflexology protocol on relieving pre-menstrual syndrome symptoms in nurs-ing students. Setting: Nursing School, São Paulo Uni-versity, Brazil. Participants: A convenience sample of 17 nursing students, diagnosed with moderate-to-severe premenstrual syn-drome as assessed by the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool (PSST). Research design: A pre–post pilot inter-vention study. Intervention: The intervention consist-ed of eight reflexology sessions lasting 30 minutes for eight weeks. Main Outcome Measure: Evaluation of the participants by the PSST applied at the beginning and at the end of the study. Results: The participants had an average age of 21.7 (±2.6) years, ranging from 19 to 28 years; all were single, and most were in the third year of the course (58.8%); 75.6% lived with their family; 82.4% do not use contraceptives; 64.7% reported regular menstrual flow with an average duration of 5.1 (±1.1) days, and an average menstrual cycle interval of 29.3 (±4.9) days. The intervention significantly reduced the premenstrual symptoms assessed by the PSST (p<.017) with a pre–post difference of 10.2 points in the overall score, and the items score decreased between 1.2 to 3.4 for difficulty concentrating, insomnia, hy-persomnia, feeling overwhelmed, muscle/joint pain, bloating, weight gain; and be-tween 3.5 to 5.2 to anger/irritability, anxiety/tension, tearful, depressed mood, de-creased interest in daily activities, fatigue, overeating, and breast tenderness. There was a significant decrease regarding the functional impact of premenstrual symp-toms domain in the overall score with a pre–post difference of 10.7, and between 1.7 and 3.0 for all of the items (p<.04), except for the item “your home responsibilities”. Conclusion: Foot reflexology has shown promising results in reducing premen-strual syndrome symptoms. 

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
pp. 41-48
Larissa Stella Prothero ◽  
Theresa Foster ◽  
Debra Winterson

Background: There is limited research regarding the menopause transition in the emergency services; however, all women will experience this life phase, which can have a significant impact on personal well-being, workplace attendance and performance. The aim of this survey was to explore personal and work impacts of the menopause for all female staff in the ambulance setting.Methods: A purpose-designed, 20-question survey, based on the Menopause Rating Scale and British Menopause Survey, was developed to understand menopausal symptoms and their impact on female staff in one UK ambulance service. Disseminated during 1‐31 July 2019, it resulted in a convenience sample of 522 responses, which were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic approaches.Results: Typically, respondents were either pre-menopausal or peri-menopausal, with approximately a third being menopausal or post-menopausal. Over half worked in emergency operational delivery, and typically worked shifts or unsocial hours. For those who had experienced menopause symptoms, the most commonly reported were tiredness or low energy levels, difficulty sleeping (including insomnia) and mood changes (including anxiety or depression). Symptoms impacted respondents’ well-being, work and home life. Most had not expected the symptoms they experienced. The majority of respondents did not feel supported at work, with lack of menopausal symptom awareness and personal impact, working times and patterns, and sense of embarrassment of most concern. Other issues included lack of managerial and peer support, inadequate working environment and uniform, lack of dignity and choice, and no dedicated menopause policy.Conclusions: It is understood that this is the first survey to explore female ambulance staff menopause experiences. The impact of menopausal symptoms can be significant. Menopause awareness in this ambulance service is lacking and there is clear scope for initiatives for improved staff support and well-being. Further research is warranted to explore how best to support ambulance staff with the menopause transition.

2021 ◽  
Megan Fuerst ◽  
Kaitlin Schrote ◽  
Bharti Garg ◽  
Maria Rodriguez

Abstract Objective This study sought to determine if there was a difference in the months of oral contraception prescribed by physicians living in U.S. states with a 12-month supply policy compared to physicians in states without a policy. Methods We conducted an exploratory descriptive study using a convenience sample of Obstetrics & Gynecology resident physicians (n=275) in the United States. Standard bivariate analyses were used to compare the difference between groups. Results Few physicians in both groups (3.8% with a policy and 1.4% without a policy) routinely prescribed a 12-month supply of contraception. The mean coverage prescribed by providers in states with and without a policy was 2.81 and 2.07 months (p<0.05). Conclusions The majority of physicians were unaware of 12-month contraceptive supply policies and unable to correctly write a prescription for 12-months of contraception, regardless of whether they lived in a state with a 12-month contraceptive supply policy. Physician education may be needed to effectively implement 12-month contraceptive supply policies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Amie Steel ◽  
Iva Lloyd

Abstract Background Health promotion and patient education are crucial to improved population health and are also among the core principles that define naturopathy. Yet, the activities of naturopathic practitioners (NPs) with regards to health promotion and community education have not been widely studied. Methods A cross-sectional online survey of an international convenience sample of NPs was conducted through disseminating a 15-item questionnaire prepared in five languages. Correlates of most frequently mentioned NP activities were studied. Results The survey was completed by 813 NPs representing all world regions. Almost all participants (98%) reported at least one health promotion activity. Most reported were information sheets and handouts (92.7%) or social and professional network communications (91.8%) and information talks presented to community members (84.9%). The majority of NPs (79.5%) indicated that the ‘health issues individuals in NPs’ community have said they need help with’ were a ‘very important’ consideration when they designed health promotion activities. NP characteristics associated with the likelihood of engaging in specific health promotion activities varied between activities but include gender, time since first qualification, factors considered to identify need when designing an activity, and stakeholder involvement in activity design. Conclusions Health promotion is a key activity of the global naturopathic profession. There are a wide range of patient education tools utilized by NPs.

Jan Keller ◽  
Dominika Kwasnicka ◽  
Lea O. Wilhelm ◽  
Noemi Lorbeer ◽  
Theresa Pauly ◽  

Abstract Background Effective hand washing (for at least 20 s, with water and soap) is one of the health behaviors protecting against infection transmissions. Behavior change interventions supporting the initiation and maintenance of hand washing are crucial to prevent infection transmissions. Based on the Health Action Process Approach, the aim of this research was to conduct a pre-post analysis of hand washing and related cognitions (i.e., intention, self-efficacy, self-monitoring), measured up to 100 days following an intervention. Methods A convenience sample of N = 123 participants (age: M = 23.96 years; SD = 5.82; 80% women) received a brief intervention (key behavior change techniques: information about health consequences of hand washing; action planning) and responded to daily diaries and questionnaires up to a 100-day follow-up. Two-level models were used to analyze data of n = 89 participants who provided longitudinal data. Results Hand washing and self-monitoring increased, whereas intention and self-efficacy decreased over time. Only self-monitoring was a consistent positive correlate of hand washing on a between-person level. Conclusions Hand washing and self-monitoring considerably increased over several weeks following the intervention. Future research testing the intervention against a control condition is needed to rule out that changes in behavior and cognitions might have been prompted by completing the daily diaries. Trial Registration German Clinical Trials Register;; registration number: DRKS00022067.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Irini Verbist ◽  
Dale Huey ◽  
Hazel Bennett

Purpose Given the considerable variation in treatment effectiveness observed across Improving Access to Psychological Therapy (IAPT) services, the purpose of this study is to explore client- and service-related variables that predict successful treatment outcomes and clients’ dropout. Clinician-rated clients’ motivation to change was also explored as a potential predictor for both outcome variables. Design/methodology/approach A convenience sample of 1,135 (F = 752; Mage = 39.4) was collected from three IAPT services in the North West of England. The study adopts a quasi-experimental, observational design. The analysis involves the description of patients’ socio-demographic and clinical characteristics and the development of three outcome prediction models, using hierarchical logistic regression. Findings After adjusting for confounders, employment status and motivation to change as rated by clinicians were predictive of both recovery and reliable improvement. The higher number of IAPT re-referrals was negatively associated with recovery and positively with dropouts. Clients who indicated low motivation to change and received low intensity treatment at their last session presented a higher likelihood to dropout. Research limitations/implications Given that the evaluation of clients’ motivation to change was solely reliant on clinical judgement, as no validated measure was used, further robust research is recommended to draw sensible conclusions. Originality/value This is the first study evaluating clinician-rated motivation to change as a significant predictor of treatment outcomes and dropouts within the IAPT setting. Further research implications are discussed.

Lin-Yen Chen ◽  
Tzu-Jung Fang ◽  
Yu-Chih Lin ◽  
Hsiu-Fen Hsieh

With 16.15% of its total population aged 65 or above, Taiwan is already an aging society. Frailty is a natural consequence of aging, which may decrease physical strength and deteriorate physiological functioning. We examined the mediating effects of cognitive function, social support, activities of daily living (ADL), and depression in the relationship between age and frailty in older people living in the community. This cross-sectional study used a structured questionnaire to collect data from a convenience sample of 200 pre-frail to mildly frail older adults in southern Taiwan. Structural equation modeling was used for data analysis, with data collected from July to November 2020. ADL mediated the relationship between age and frailty, while cognitive function also mediated the relationship between age and frailty, indicating that ADL and cognitive function were significant determinants of frailty. The path from age to frailty was significant, indicating that age was a significant determinant of frailty. The standardized total effect of age affected frailty through the mediating roles of ADL and cognitive function. Age, depression, ADL, and cognitive function explained 59% of the variance in frailty among older adults. ADL and cognitive function are significant mediators of frailty among older adults.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Rachel E. Soeiro ◽  
Leila Rocha ◽  
Fernanda G. Surita ◽  
Luis Bahamondes ◽  
Maria L. Costa

Abstract Background Adolescent and young women (10–24 years old) are habitually a neglected group in humanitarian settings. Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) is an unmet aspect of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and an additional challenge if lack of hygiene products, inadequate access to safe, clean, and private toilets identified as period poverty. Our objective was to provide an overview of the main MHM issues affecting Venezuelan migrant adolescents and young women in the north-western border of Venezuela-Brazil. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted, early in 2021, with the use of a self-responded questionnaire, in Spanish, adapted from the Menstrual Practice Needs Scale (MPNS-36). All identified adolescents and young women aged between 12 and 24 years old were invited to participate (convenience sample-167 women). Women with complete questionnaires and who menstruate were included. Information on access to and quality of hygiene kits and toilets were retrieved, and a descriptive analysis performed, with an evaluation of frequencies for categorical variables (n, %) and mean (± SD-standard deviation) for continuous variables. In addition to the open-ended questions, we included one open question about their personal experience with menstruation. Results According to official reports, at the moment of the interviews, there were 1.603 Venezuelans living on the streets in Boa Vista. A total of 167 young women were invited, and 142 further included, mean age was 17.7 years, almost half of the participants who menstruate (46.4%) did not receive any hygiene kits, 61% were not able to wash their hands whenever they wanted, and the majority (75.9%) did not feel safe to use the toilets. Further, menstruation was often described with negative words. Conclusions Migrant Venezuelan adolescents and young women have their MHM needs overlooked, with evident period poverty, and require urgent attention. It is necessary to assure appropriate menstrual materials, education, and sanitation facilities, working in partnership among governmental and non-governmental organizations to guarantee menstrual dignity to these young women.

Amela Salihović ◽  
Jasmina Mahmutović ◽  
Suada Branković

Introduction: Positive attitudes toward the nursing profession among nursing students improve the sustainability of the profession. Studying the attitudes of nursing students toward nursing is of great importance, as it can indicate their remaining in the profession. This study aimed to determine the attitudes of nursing students toward the nursing profession.Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical study. The research was conducted at the Faculty of Health Studies at the University of Sarajevo from May to June 2019. The study involved a convenience sample of 107 currently enrolled Bachelor of Nursing students from the 1st to the 4th (and final) year of full-time study and part-time students in the Baccalaureate of Nursing Care program at the University of Sarajevo. The students voluntarily and anonymously completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic information and the Nursing Image Questionnaire.Results: Overall, 107 students participated in the research. Their mean age was 23 years old (standard deviation, 5 years). Spearman’s correlation factor shows a statistically significant correlation between the scores and the mode of studying (full-time or part-time) (rho = −0.200*, p = 0.039) and whether respondents working in the profession or not (rho = 0.249*, p = 0.010).Conclusion: The attitudes of future Bachelor of Nursing toward the nursing profession were very positive. Full-time students had more positive attitudes toward the profession, compared with part-time students, although the difference was not statistically significant.

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