Multidrug Resistance
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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 101249
Ainhoa Madariaga ◽  
Lawrence Kasherman ◽  
Michelle McMullen ◽  
Luisa Bonilla

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Vu Van Du ◽  
Pham Thai Dung ◽  
Nguyen Linh Toan ◽  
Can Van Mao ◽  
Nguyen Thanh Bac ◽  

AbstractFew studies have been conducted on group B Streptococcus (GBS) in Vietnam. We determined the GBS colonization and antimicrobial resistance vaginal-rectal profile of 3863 Vietnamese pregnant women over 5 years. Maternal GBS colonization was characterized by antibiotic susceptibility. Overall, the GBS colonization rate was 8.02% (95% CI: 7.20–8.94%). Compared to sampling ≥ 35 weeks of gestation, the GBS colonization rate was statistically higher (p = 0.004) with sampling < 35 weeks. Among 272 antimicrobial susceptibility testing isolates, all were susceptible to ampicillin, penicillin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, vancomycin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. Resistance was highest for tetracycline (89.66%), followed by erythromycin (76.23%) and clindamycin (58.21%). Multidrug resistance and resistance to ≥ 6 different antibiotics were 60.66% and 8.82%, respectively. Resistance to clindamycin but not erythromycin (L phenotype) was 2.2%. The clindamycin resistance rate was significantly increased (p = 0.005) during the study period. These data demonstrate a low rate of maternal GBS colonization. The high rate of erythromycin, clindamycin, and multidrug resistance to GBS that can be transmitted to neonates is an important risk factor to consider. β-lactams continue to be appropriate for first-line treatment and prophylaxis in the study area. Ongoing monitoring should be considered in the future.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2395-2400
Yue-Jiao Cao ◽  
Zhi-Peng Li ◽  
Nan Zhou ◽  
Jia-Ping Liu

The cis-platinum (CDDP) is a first line chemotherapeutics drugs to combat lung cancer. However, its efficacy is largely limited due to the off-target delivery and multidrug resistance (MDR) upon in vivo applications. In order to solve this problem, here in our study, we prepared ultra-small lipidpolymer nanoparticles (USLPNPs) using one-pot method and to load CDDP (USLPNPs-CDDP) for the effective lung cancer therapy. Our results showed that the size of USLPNPs-CDDP was 20 nm and the stability of this platform was high. The sustained drug release afforded the long-lasting administration of CDDP to treat cancers. Most importantly, the USLPNPs-CDDP was able to bypass the CDDP resistance of A549/CDDP cells, which resulted in better anticancer benefits as compared to free CDDP both in vitro and in vivo.

Biomolecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 1534
Malene J. Petersen ◽  
Xamuel L. Lund ◽  
Susan J. Semple ◽  
Bevan Buirchell ◽  
Henrik Franzyk ◽  

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major challenge in cancer treatment, and the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is an important target in the search for new MDR-reversing drugs. With the aim of discovering new potential BCRP inhibitors, the crude extract of leaves of Eremophila galeata, a plant endemic to Australia, was investigated for inhibitory activity of parental (HT29par) as well as BCRP-overexpressing HT29 colon cancer cells resistant to the chemotherapeutic SN-38 (i.e., HT29SN38 cells). This identified a fraction, eluted with 40% acetonitrile on a solid-phase extraction column, which showed weak growth-inhibitory activity on HT29SN38 cells when administered alone, but exhibited concentration-dependent growth inhibition when administered in combination with SN-38. The major constituent in this fraction was isolated and found to be 5,3′,5′-trihydroxy-3,6,7,4′-tetramethoxyflavone (2), which at a concentration of 25 μg/mL potentiated the growth-inhibitory activity of SN-38 to a degree comparable to that of the known BCRP inhibitor Ko143 at 1 μM. A dye accumulation experiment suggested that 2 inhibits BCRP, and docking studies showed that 2 binds to the same BCRP site as SN-38. These results indicate that 2 acts synergistically with SN-38, with 2 being a BCRP efflux pump inhibitor while SN-38 inhibits topoisomerase-1.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (10) ◽  
pp. 2163
John Y. Bolukaoto ◽  
Atheesha Singh ◽  
Ntando Alfinete ◽  
Tobias G. Barnard

This study was undertaken to determine the virulence and antibiotic resistance profiles of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in environmental waters of Johannesburg, South Africa. Samples were collected and cultured on selective media. An 11-plex PCR assay was used to differentiate five DEC, namely: enteroaggregative (EAEC), enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC), enteroinvasive (EIEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterotoxigenic (ETEC). The antibiotic resistance profile of isolates was determined using the VITEK®-2 automated system. The virulence profiles of 170 E. coli tested showed that 40% (68/170) were commensals and 60% (102/170) were pathogenic. EPEC had a prevalence of 19.2% (32/170), followed by ETEC 11.4% (19/170), EAEC 6% (10/170) and EHEC 3% (5/170). Hybrid DEC carrying a combination of simultaneously two and three pathogenic types was detected in twenty-eight and nine isolates, respectively. The antibiotic susceptibility testing showed isolates with multidrug resistance, including cefuroxime (100%), ceftazidime (86%), cefotaxime (81%) and cefepime (79%). This study highlighted the widespread occurrence of DEC and antibiotic resistance strains in the aquatic ecosystem of Johannesburg. The presence of hybrid pathotypes detected in this study is alarming and might lead to more severe diseases. There is a necessity to enhance surveillance in reducing the propagation of pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant strains in this area.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Junjun Long ◽  
Wentao Ji ◽  
Doudou Zhang ◽  
Yifei Zhu ◽  
Yi Bi

Fusidic acid (FA) is a natural tetracyclic triterpene isolated from fungi, which is clinically used for systemic and local staphylococcal infections, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci infections. FA and its derivatives have been shown to possess a wide range of pharmacological activities, including antibacterial, antimalarial, antituberculosis, anticancer, tumor multidrug resistance reversal, anti-inflammation, antifungal, and antiviral activity in vivo and in vitro. The semisynthesis, structural modification and biological activities of FA derivatives have been extensively studied in recent years. This review summarized the biological activities and structure–activity relationship (SAR) of FA in the last two decades. This summary can prove useful information for drug exploration of FA derivatives.

Ping Li ◽  
Li Zhan ◽  
Henghui Wang ◽  
Wenjie Gao ◽  
Lei Gao ◽  

Salmonella , a major foodborne pathogen, causes severe gastrointestinal disease in people and animals worldwide. Plasmid-borne mcr-1 , which confers colistin resistance in Salmonella, has significant epidemiological interest for public health safety. Here, we report the first evidence of mcr-1 -mediated colistin resistance in one multidrug-resistant strain,namely 16062 in this study, from 355 Salmonella isolates collected for Jiaxing foodborne pathogen monitoring in Zhejiang Province in 2015–2019. In addition to colistin, 16062 displayed multidrug resistance to various antimicrobials (β-lactams, quinolone, sulfonamide, florfenicol, ampicillin, streptomycin, nalidixic acid, aminoglycoside, and trimethoprim-sulfamethox). The mcr-1 -carrying IncX4 plasmid (p16062-MCR) in this study shares a conserved structure with other mcr -IncX4 plasmids. We found that other antimicrobial-resistance genes ( aac(6')-Ib-cr , aadA1 , aadA2 , aph(3')-Ia , oqxA , oqxB , sul1 , and cmlA1 ) are located on p16062-cmlA, an atypical IncHI2 plasmid, in isolate 16062. This is the first identification of transferable colistin resistance in foodborne Salmonella isolate collected in Jiaxing city, the 5-year monitoring of which revealed limited dissemination. By determining the genetic features of the plasmid vehicle, the characteristics of transferable mcr genes circulating in isolates from Jiaxing are now clearer.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (10) ◽  
pp. 1036
Chung-Ping Yu ◽  
Yu-Hsuan Peng ◽  
Ching-Ya Huang ◽  
Yow-Wen Hsieh ◽  
Yu-Chi Hou ◽  

Folium Sennae (FS), a popular laxative (Senna), contains polyphenolic anthranoids, whose conjugation metabolites are probable modulators of multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). We suspected that the combined use of FS might alter the pharmacokinetics of various medicines transported by MRPs or BCRP. This study investigated the effect of FS on the pharmacokinetics of methotrexate (MTX), an anticancer drug and a probe substrate of MRPs/BCRP. Rats were orally administered MTX alone and with two dosage regimens of FS in a parallel design. The results show that 5.0 g/kg of FS significantly increased the AUC0–2880, AUC720–2880 and MRT of MTX by 45%, 102% and 42%, and the seventh dose of 2.5 g/kg of FS significantly enhanced the AUC720–2880 and MRT by 78% and 42%, respectively. Mechanism studies indicated that the metabolites of FS (FSM) inhibited MRP 2 and BCRP. In conclusion, the combined use of FS increased the systemic exposure and MRT of MTX through inhibition on MRP 2 and BCRP.

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