comparative genomic
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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 189
Ignacio Vasquez ◽  
Ahmed Hossain ◽  
Hajarooba Gnanagobal ◽  
Katherinne Valderrama ◽  
Briony Campbell ◽  

Aeromonas salmonicida is a global distributed Gram-negative teleost pathogen, affecting mainly salmonids in fresh and marine environments. A. salmonicida strains are classified as typical or atypical depending on their origin of isolation and phenotype. Five subspecies have been described, where A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the only typical subspecies, and the subsp. achromogenes, masoucida, smithia, and pectinolytica are considered atypical. Genomic differences between A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates and their relationship with the current classification have not been explored. Here, we sequenced and compared the complete closed genomes of four virulent strains to elucidate their molecular diversity and pathogenic evolution using the more accurate genomic information so far. Phenotypes, biochemical, and enzymatic profiles were determined. PacBio and MiSeq sequencing platforms were utilized for genome sequencing. Comparative genomics showed that atypical strains belong to the subsp. salmonicida, with 99.55 ± 0.25% identity with each other, and are closely related to typical strains. The typical strain A. salmonicida J223 is closely related to typical strains, with 99.17% identity with the A. salmonicida A449. Genomic differences between atypical and typical strains are strictly related to insertion sequences (ISs) activity. The absence and presence of genes encoding for virulence factors, transcriptional regulators, and non-coding RNAs are the most significant differences between typical and atypical strains that affect their phenotypes. Plasmidome plays an important role in A. salmonicida virulence and genome plasticity. Here, we determined that typical strains harbor a larger number of plasmids and virulence-related genes that contribute to its acute virulence. In contrast, atypical strains harbor a single, large plasmid and a smaller number of virulence genes, reflected by their less acute virulence and chronic infection. The relationship between phenotype and A. salmonicida subspecies’ taxonomy is not evident. Comparative genomic analysis based on completed genomes revealed that the subspecies classification is more of a reflection of the ecological niche occupied by bacteria than their divergences at the genomic level except for their accessory genome.

2022 ◽  
Takanori Yamashiro ◽  
Akira Shiraishi ◽  
Koji Nakayama ◽  
Honoo Satake

Abstract The plant Tanacetum coccineum (painted daisy) is closely related to Tanacetum cinerariifolium (pyrethrum daisy). However, T. cinerariifolium produces large amounts of pyrethrins, a class of natural insecticides, whereas T. coccineum produces much smaller amounts of these compounds. Thus, comparative genomic analysis is expected to contribute a great deal to investigating the difference in biological defense systems, including pyrethrin biosynthesis. Here, we elucidated the 9.4-Gb draft genome of T. coccineum, consisting of 2,836,647 scaffolds and 103,680 genes. Comparative analyses of the draft genome of T. coccineum and that of T. cinerariifolium, generated in our previous study, revealed distinct features of T. coccineum genes. While the T. coccineum genome contains more numerous ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP)-encoding genes, the number of higher-toxicity type-II RIP-encoding genes is larger in T. cinerariifolium. Furthermore, the number of histidine kinases encoded by the T. coccineum genome is smaller than that of T. cinerariifolium, suggesting a biological correlation with pyrethrin biosynthesis. Moreover, the flanking regions of pyrethrin biosynthesis-related genes are also distinct between these two plants. These results provide clues to elucidation of species-specific biodefense systems, including the regulatory mechanisms underlying pyrethrin production.

2022 ◽  
Tianxiang Liu ◽  
Yulin Sun ◽  
Chao Ma ◽  
Wenhui Jiang ◽  
Hongqi Wu ◽  

Abstract Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important source of nutrients for humans. Therefore, improvement of its yields is essential to feed the increasing world population. The tri-pistil (TRP) trait in wheat has a high potential for increasing yields. We obtained a pure tri-pistil wheat line, 4045, and evaluated its morphological properties. The 4045 wheat line stably produced three independently inherited pistils, which led to 1-3 grains in each floret. Among the three pistils, two lately emerged pistils initiated at late anther primordia stage to early tetrads stage. Genetic analysis revealed that there were TRP penetrance variations among the 11 F1 populations of 4045. Fine mapping narrowed the single dominant TRP locus to a 97.3 kb region, containing two candidate genes, on the 2DL chromosome. However, further gene sequence, functional as well as comparative genomic analyses ruled out the only two candidate genes. Therefore, TRP is high-likely a unique gain-of-function mutation that does not exist in normal wheat genome. Transcriptome analysis of floral homeotic genes revealed that expressions of the C-class TaAG-2s, which are essential for carpel specification, significantly increased in 4045, implying that TaAG-2s have played important roles in TRP-regulated tri-pistil formation. This study highlights that TRP leads to a precisely regulated pistil number increase (PRPNI) mutations and proposed a regulatory model of PRPNI pistil architecture. PRPNI offers a novel abnormal pistil development resource for research of floral architectures and potential on crop yield improvement.

N. E. Ballesteros-Nova ◽  
S. Sánchez ◽  
J. L. Steffani ◽  
L. C. Sierra ◽  
Z. Chen ◽  

Salmonella enterica (SE) can survive in surface waters (SuWa) and the role of non-host environments in its transmission has acquired increasing relevance. In this study, we conducted comparative genomic analyses of 172 SE isolates collected from SuWa across three months in six states of central Mexico during 2019. SE transmission dynamics were assessed using 87 experimental and 112 public isolates from Mexico collected during 2002-2019. We also studied genetic relatedness between SuWa isolates and human clinical strains collected in North America during 2005-2020. Among experimental isolates, we identified 41 SE serovars and 56 multi-locus sequence types (ST). Predominant serovars were Senftenberg (n=13), Meleagridis, Agona, and Newport (n=12 each), Give (n=10), Anatum (n=8), Adelaide (n=7), and Infantis, Mbandaka, Ohio and Typhimurium (n=6 each). We observed a high genetic diversity in the sample under study, as well as clonal dissemination of strains across distant regions. Some of these strains are epidemiologically important (ST14, ST45, ST118, ST132, ST198, and ST213), and were genotypically close to those involved in clinical cases in North America. Transmission network analysis suggests that SuWa are a relevant source of SE (0.7 source/hub ratio) and contributes to its dissemination as isolates from varied sources and clinical cases have SuWa isolates as common ancestors. Overall, the study shows SuWa act as reservoir of various SE serovars of public health significance. Further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms involved in SuWa contamination by SE, as well as develop interventions to contain its dissemination to food production settings. Study importance Surface waters are heavily used in food production worldwide. Several human pathogens can survive in these waters for long periods and disseminate to food production environments, contaminating our food supply. One of these pathogens is Salmonella enterica , a leading cause of foodborne infections, hospitalizations and deaths in many countries. This research demonstrates the role of surface waters as a vehicle for the transmission of Salmonella along food production chains. It also shows some strains circulating in surface waters are very similar to those implicated in human infections and harbor genes that confer resistance to multiple antibiotics, posing a risk to public health. The study contributes to expand our current knowledge on the ecology and epidemiology of Salmonella in surface waters.

2022 ◽  
Dongya Wu ◽  
Yiyu Hu ◽  
Shota Akashi ◽  
Hideaki Nojiri ◽  
Chu-Yu Ye ◽  

Momilactone A, an important plant labdane-related diterpenoid, functions as a phytoalexin against pathogens and an allelochemical against neighboring plants. The genes involved in biosynthesis of momilactone A are found in clusters, i.e., MABGCs (Momilactone A biosynthetic gene clusters), in the rice and barnyardgrass genomes. How MABGCs originate and evolve is still not clear. Here, we integrated results from comprehensive phylogeny and comparative genomic analyses of the core genes of MABGC-like clusters and MABGCs in 40 monocot plant genomes, providing convincing evidence for the birth and evolution of MABGCs in grass species. The MABGCs found in the PACMAD clade of the core grass lineage (including Panicoideae and Chloridoideae) originated from a MABGC-like cluster in Triticeae (BOP clade) via horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and followed by recruitment of MAS and CYP76L1 genes. The MABGCs in Oryzoideae originated from PACMAD through another HGT event and lost CYP76L1 afterwards. The Oryza MABGC and another Oryza diterpenoid cluster c2BGC are two distinct clusters, with the latter being originated from gene duplication and relocation within Oryzoideae. Further comparison of the expression patterns of the MABGC genes between rice and barnyardgrass in response to pathogen infection and allelopathy provides novel insights into the functional innovation of MABGCs in plants. Our results demonstrate HGT-mediated origination of MABGCs in grass and shed lights into the evolutionary innovation and optimization of plant biosynthetic pathways.

mSystems ◽  
2022 ◽  
Nina B. Kreuzenbeck ◽  
Elena Seibel ◽  
Jan W. Schwitalla ◽  
Janis Fricke ◽  
Benjamin H. Conlon ◽  

The symbiosis between macrotermitinae termites and Termitomyces is obligate for both partners and is one of the most important contributors to biomass conversion in the Old World tropic’s ecosystems. To date, research efforts have dominantly focused on acquiring a better understanding of the degradative capabilities of Termitomyces to sustain the obligate nutritional symbiosis, but our knowledge of the small-molecule repertoire of the fungal cultivar mediating interspecies and interkingdom interactions has remained fragmented.

2022 ◽  
Atimukta Jha ◽  
Abdul Ahad ◽  
Gyan Prakash Mishra ◽  
Kaushik Sen ◽  
Shuchi Smita ◽  

Abstract Dendritic cell (DC) fine-tunes inflammatory versus tolerogenic responses to protect from immune-pathology. However, the role of co-regulators in maintaining this balance is unexplored. NCoR1-mediated repression of DC immune-tolerance has been recently reported. Here we found that depletion of NCoR1 paralog SMRT (NCoR2) enhanced cDC1 activation and expression of IL-6, IL-12 and IL-23 while concomitantly decreasing IL-10 expression/secretion. Consequently, co-cultured CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells depicted enhanced Th1/Th17 frequency and cytotoxicity, respectively. Comparative genomic and transcriptomic analysis demonstrated differential regulation of IL-10 by SMRT and NCoR1. SMRT depletion represses mTOR-STAT3-IL10 signaling in cDC1 by down-regulating NR4A1. Besides, Nfkbia and Socs3 were down-regulated in Ncor2 (Smrt) knockdown cDC1, supporting increased production of inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, studies in mice showed, adoptive transfer of SMRT knockdown cDC1 in OVA-DTH induced footpad inflammation led to increased Th1/Th17 and reduced tumor burden after B16 melanoma injection by enhancing oncolytic CD8+ T-cell frequency, respectively. We also depicted decreased Ncor2 expression in Rheumatoid Arthritis, a Th1/Th17 disease.

Xiaomei Zhang ◽  
Michael Payne ◽  
Sandeep Kaur ◽  
Ruiting Lan

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) have more than 470 serotypes. The well-known STEC O157:H7 serotype is a leading cause of STEC infections in humans. However, the incidence of non-O157:H7 STEC serotypes associated with foodborne outbreaks and human infections has increased in recent years. Current detection and serotyping assays are focusing on O157 and top six (“Big six”) non-O157 STEC serogroups. In this study, we performed phylogenetic analysis of nearly 41,000 publicly available STEC genomes representing 460 different STEC serotypes and identified 19 major and 229 minor STEC clusters. STEC cluster-specific gene markers were then identified through comparative genomic analysis. We further identified serotype-specific gene markers for the top 10 most frequent non-O157:H7 STEC serotypes. The cluster or serotype specific gene markers had 99.54% accuracy and more than 97.25% specificity when tested using 38,534 STEC and 14,216 non-STEC E. coli genomes, respectively. In addition, we developed a freely available in silico serotyping pipeline named STECFinder that combined these robust gene markers with established E. coli serotype specific O and H antigen genes and stx genes for accurate identification, cluster determination and serotyping of STEC. STECFinder can assign 99.85% and 99.83% of 38,534 STEC isolates to STEC clusters using assembled genomes and Illumina reads respectively and can simultaneously predict stx subtypes and STEC serotypes. Using shotgun metagenomic sequencing reads of STEC spiked food samples from a published study, we demonstrated that STECFinder can detect the spiked STEC serotypes, accurately. The cluster/serotype-specific gene markers could also be adapted for culture independent typing, facilitating rapid STEC typing. STECFinder is available as an installable package ( and will be useful for in silico STEC cluster identification and serotyping using genome data.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Rebecca Bland ◽  
Joy Waite-Cusic ◽  
Alexandra J. Weisberg ◽  
Elizabeth R. Riutta ◽  
Jeff H. Chang ◽  

The effective elimination of Listeria monocytogenes through cleaning and sanitation is of great importance to the food processing industry. Specifically in fresh produce operations, the lack of a kill step requires effective cleaning and sanitation to mitigate the risk of cross-contamination from the environment. As facilities rely on sanitizers to control L. monocytogenes, reports of the development of tolerance to sanitizers and other antimicrobials through cross-resistance is of particular concern. We investigated the potential for six L. monocytogenes isolates from fresh produce handling and processing facilities and packinghouses to develop cross-resistance between a commercial sanitizer and antibiotics. Experimental adaptation of isolates belonging to hypervirulent clonal complexes (CC2, CC4, and CC6) to a commercial quaternary ammonium compound sanitizer (cQAC) resulted in elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations (2–3 ppm) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (3–4 ppm). Susceptibility to cQAC was restored for all adapted (qAD) isolates in the presence of reserpine, a known efflux pump inhibitor. Reduced sensitivity to 7/17 tested antibiotics (chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, kanamycin, novobiocin, penicillin, and streptomycin) was observed in all tested isolates. qAD isolates remained susceptible to antibiotics commonly used in the treatment of listeriosis (i.e., ampicillin and gentamicin). The whole genome sequencing of qAD strains, followed by comparative genomic analysis, revealed several mutations in fepR, the regulator for FepA fluoroquinolone efflux pump. The results suggest that mutations in fepR play a role in the reduction in antibiotic susceptibility following low level adaptation to cQAC. Further investigation into the cross-resistance mechanisms and pressures leading to the development of this phenomenon among L. monocytogenes isolates recovered from different sources is needed to better understand the likelihood of cross-resistance development in food chain isolates and the implications for the food industry.

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