acid transport
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2022 ◽  
Matthew Jordan ◽  
Tanmay Kulkarni ◽  
Dodangodage Senadheera ◽  
Revati Kumar ◽  
Yupo Lin ◽  

Abstract Most commercial anion exchange membranes (AEMs) deploy quaternary ammonium moieties. Alternative cation moieties have been explored in AEMs for fuel cells, but there are no studies focused examining alternative tethered cations in AEMs for ionic separations – such as organic acid anion transport via electrodialysis. H-cell and conductivity experiments demonstrate that tethered benzyl 1-methyl imidazolium groups in polysulfone AEMs enhance lactate conductivity by 49% and improved lactate anion flux by 24x when compared to a quaternary benzyl ammonium polysulfone AEM. An electrodialysis demonstration with the imidazolium-type AEM showed a 2x improvement in lactate anion flux and 20% improvement in permselectivity when benchmarked against the quaternary ammonium AEM. Molecular dynamics and 2D NOESY NMR revealed closer binding of lactate anions to the imidazolium cations when compared to the quaternary ammonium cation. It is posited that this closer binding is responsible to greater flux values observed with imidazolium-type AEM.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 394
Esra Kocaman ◽  
Davide Rabiti ◽  
Juan Sebastian Murillo Moreno ◽  
Asli Can Karaca ◽  
Paul Van der Meeren

The permeation of amino acids and di-peptides with different hydrophobicities across the oil phase in W/O/W double emulsions was investigated at different concentrations, considering the pH of the aqueous phase. Moreover, the particle size, yield of entrapped water and release kinetics of the double emulsions was evaluated as a function of time. Regarding the release of the entrapped amino acids and di-peptides, their hydrophobicity and the pH had a significant effect, whereas the concentration of the dissolved compound did not lead to different release kinetics. The release of the amino acids and di-peptides was faster at neutral pH as compared to acidic pH values due to the increased solute solubility in the oil phase for more hydrophobic molecules at neutral pH. Regarding the effect of the type of oil, much faster amino acid transport was observed through MCT oil as compared to LCT oil, which might be due to its higher solubility and/or higher diffusivity. As di-peptides released faster than amino acids, it follows that the increased solubility overruled the effect from the decreased diffusion coefficient of the dissolved compound in the oil phase.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Kazutaka Ushio ◽  
Erika Watanabe ◽  
Takehiro Kamiya ◽  
Ayumi Nagashima ◽  
Tadaomi Furuta ◽  

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 6169
Robyn A. Umans ◽  
Joelle Martin ◽  
Megan E. Harrigan ◽  
Dipan C. Patel ◽  
Lata Chaunsali ◽  

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a deadly brain tumor with a large unmet therapeutic need. Here, we tested the hypothesis that wild-type p53 is a negative transcriptional regulator of SLC7A11, the gene encoding the System xc- (SXC) catalytic subunit, xCT, in GBM. We demonstrate that xCT expression is inversely correlated with p53 expression in patient tissue. Using representative patient derived (PDX) tumor xenolines with wild-type, null, and mutant p53 we show that p53 expression negatively correlates with xCT expression. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation studies, we present a molecular interaction whereby p53 binds to the SLC7A11 promoter, suppressing gene expression in PDX GBM cells. Accordingly, genetic knockdown of p53 increases SLC7A11 transcript levels; conversely, over-expressing p53 in p53-null GBM cells downregulates xCT expression and glutamate release. Proof of principal studies in mice with flank gliomas demonstrate that daily treatment with the mutant p53 reactivator, PRIMA-1Met, results in reduced tumor growth associated with reduced xCT expression. These findings suggest that p53 is a molecular switch for GBM glutamate biology, with potential therapeutic utility.

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 3154
Lon J. Van Van Winkle

In this review we discuss the beneficial effects of amino acid transport and metabolism on pre- and peri-implantation embryo development, and we consider how disturbances in these processes lead to undesirable health outcomes in adults. Proline, glutamine, glycine, and methionine transport each foster cleavage-stage development, whereas leucine uptake by blastocysts via transport system B0,+ promotes the development of trophoblast motility and the penetration of the uterine epithelium in mammalian species exhibiting invasive implantation. (Amino acid transport systems and transporters, such as B0,+, are often oddly named. The reader is urged to focus on the transporters’ functions, not their names.) B0,+ also accumulates leucine and other amino acids in oocytes of species with noninvasive implantation, thus helping them to produce proteins to support later development. This difference in the timing of the expression of system B0,+ is termed heterochrony—a process employed in evolution. Disturbances in leucine uptake via system B0,+ in blastocysts appear to alter the subsequent development of embryos, fetuses, and placentae, with undesirable consequences for offspring. These consequences may include greater adiposity, cardiovascular dysfunction, hypertension, neural abnormalities, and altered bone growth in adults. Similarly, alterations in amino acid transport and metabolism in pluripotent cells in the blastocyst inner cell mass likely lead to epigenetic DNA and histone modifications that produce unwanted transgenerational health outcomes. Such outcomes might be avoided if we learn more about the mechanisms of these effects.

Oncogenesis ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
Ming-Da Wang ◽  
Nan-Ya Wang ◽  
Hui-Lu Zhang ◽  
Li-Yang Sun ◽  
Qiu-Ran Xu ◽  

AbstractAberrant lipid metabolism is an essential feature of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Fatty acid transport protein-5 (FATP5) is highly expressed in the liver and is involved in the fatty acid transport pathway. However, the potential role of FATP5 in the pathogenesis of HCC remains largely unknown. Herein, we showed that FATP5 was downregulated in HCC tissues and even much lower in vascular tumor thrombi. Low expression of FATP5 was correlated with multiple aggressive and invasive clinicopathological characteristics and contributed to tumor metastasis and a poor prognosis in HCC patients. FATP5 inhibited the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) process and suppressed HCC cell migration and invasion, while silencing FATP5 had the opposite effects. Mechanistically, knockdown of FATP5 promoted cellular glycolytic flux and ATP production, thus suppressing AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and activating its downstream signaling mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) to support HCC progression and metastasis. Activation of AMPK using metformin reversed the EMT program and impaired the metastatic capacity of FATP5-depleted HCC cells. Collectively, FATP5 served as a novel suppressor of HCC progression and metastasis partly by regulating the AMPK/mTOR pathway in HCC, and targeting the FATP5-AMPK axis may be a promising therapeutic strategy for personalized HCC treatment.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (11) ◽  
pp. 3726
Joshua P. Nederveen ◽  
Katherine Manta ◽  
Adam L. Bujak ◽  
Alexander C. Simone ◽  
Matthew R. Fuda ◽  

We investigated the effects of a novel multi-ingredient supplement comprised of polyphenol antioxidants and compounds known to facilitate mitochondrial function and metabolic enhancement (ME) in a mouse model of obesity. In this study, 6-week-old male C57/BL6J mice were placed on a high-fat diet (HFD; ~60% fat) for 6 weeks, with subsequent allocation into experimentalgroups for 4 weeks: HFD control, HFD + ME10 (10 components), HFD + ME7 (7 components), HFD + ME10 + EX, HFD + EX (where ‘+EX’ animals exercised 3 days/week), and chow-fed control. After the intervention, HFD control animals had significantly greater body weight and fat mass. Despite the continuation of HFD, animals supplemented with multi-ingredient ME or who performed exercise training showed an attenuation of fat mass and preservation of lean body mass, which was further enhanced when combined (ME+EX). ME supplementation stimulated the upregulation of white and brown adipose tissue mRNA transcripts associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, browning, fatty acid transport, and fat metabolism. In WAT depots, this was mirrored by mitochodrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) protein expression, and increased in vivo fat oxidation measured via CLAMS. ME supplementation also decreased systemic and local inflammation markers. Herein, we demonstrated that novel multi-ingredient nutritional supplements induced significant fat loss independent of physical activity while preserving muscle mass in obese mice. Mechanistically, these MEs appear to act by inducing a browning program in white adipose tissue and decreasing other pathophysiological impairments associated with obesity, including mitochondrial respiration alterations induced by HFD.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (20) ◽  
pp. 6231
Joana Fort ◽  
Adrià Nicolàs-Aragó ◽  
Manuel Palacín

It is known that 4F2hc and rBAT are the heavy subunits of the heteromeric amino acid transporters (HATs). These heavy subunits are N-glycosylated proteins, with an N-terminal domain, one transmembrane domain and a bulky extracellular domain (ectodomain) that belongs to the α-amylase family. The heavy subunits are covalently linked to a light subunit from the SLC7 family, which is responsible for the amino acid transport activity, forming a heterodimer. The functions of 4F2hc and rBAT are related mainly to the stability and trafficking of the HATs in the plasma membrane of vertebrates, where they exert the transport activity. Moreover, 4F2hc is a modulator of integrin signaling, has a role in cell fusion and it is overexpressed in some types of cancers. On the other hand, some mutations in rBAT are found to cause the malfunctioning of the b0,+ transport system, leading to cystinuria. The ectodomains of 4F2hc and rBAT share both sequence and structure homology with α-amylase family members. Very recently, cryo-EM has revealed the structure of several HATs, including the ectodomains of rBAT and 4F2hc. Here, we analyze available data on the ectodomains of rBAT and 4Fhc and their relationship with the α-amylase family. The physiological relevance of this relationship remains largely unknown.

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