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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Magdalena Postek ◽  
Katarzyna Walicka-Serzysko ◽  
Justyna Milczewska ◽  
Dorota Sands

IntroductionIn cystic fibrosis (CF), pathological lung changes begin early in life. The technological progress currently gives many diagnostic possibilities. However, pulmonary function testing in children remains problematic.ObjectivesOur study aimed to correlate the results of impulse oscillometry (IOS) with those of multiple breath nitrogen washout (MBNW) in our pediatric CF population. We also compared those parameters between the groups with and without spirometric features of obturation.MethodsWe collected 150 pulmonary function test sets, including spirometry, IOS, and MBNW in patients with CF aged 12.08 ± 3.85 years [6–18]. The study group was divided into two subgroups: IA (without obturation) and IB (with obturation). We also compared Sacin, Scond, and oscillometry parameters of 20 patients aged 14–18 years who reached the appropriate tidal volume (VT) during MBNW.ResultsStatistical analysis showed a negative correlation between lung clearance index (LCI) and spimoetric parameters. Comparison of subgroups IA (n = 102) and IB (n = 48) indicated a statistically significant difference in LCI (p < 0.001) and FEV1z-score (p < 0.001), FEV1% pred (p < 0.001), MEF25z-score (p < 0.001), MEF50 z-score (p < 0.001), MEF75 z-score (p < 0.001), R5% pred (p < 0.05), and R20% pred (p < 0.01). LCI higher than 7.91 was found in 75.33% of the study group, in subgroup IB—91.67%, and IA−67.6%.ConclusionsLCI derived from MBNW may be a better tool than IOS for assessing pulmonary function in patients with CF, particularly those who cannot perform spirometry.


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (s1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Syifa Hanifa ◽  
Diana Puspitasari ◽  
Cahyadi Ramadhan ◽  
Karina Oriza Herastuti

Due to limited availability, Indonesia’s coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination will be done in 4 stages until herd immunity has been reached. Yogyakarta, an education and tourist destination, needs to get a specific, spatial estimation of the exact need for COVID-19 vaccination without delay. This study sheds light on identifying which districts should be prioritized at each vaccination phase. Secondary data collected from provincial, and county-level statistical agencies were quantitatively calculated by the Z-Score method. The results indicate that the first phase of vaccination should prioritize Pengasih and Sentolo districts in Kulon Progo Regency, which have a large number of health workers; the districts of Depok, Banguntapan, Piyungan, Sewon, Wonosari, Gamping, Mlati and Ngaglik should be done in the second phase based on the fact that these districts have many public service officials as well as elderly people; Umbulharjo and Depok districts will be approached in the third phase since they have more vulnerable groups and facilities that may promote COVID- 19 transmission during their daily activities; while the fourth phase should focus on the districts of Banguntapan, Sewon, Kasihan, Gamping, Mlati, Depok, and Ngaglik due to the intensity of COVID-19 clusters discovered there. Overall, vaccination would be given the priority in the districts with the largest number of people in need, i.e., public service officers, elderly people and those likely to be exposed to the coronavirus causing COVID-19.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Dabin Yeum ◽  
Diane Gilbert-Diamond ◽  
Brett Doherty ◽  
Modupe Coker ◽  
Delisha Stewart ◽  
...  

Abstract BackgroundThe metabolomics profiles of maternal plasma during pregnancy and cord plasma at birth might influence fetal growth and birth anthropometry. The objectives of this study are to examine how metabolites measured in maternal plasma samples collected during pregnancy and umbilical cord plasma samples collected at birth are associated with newborn anthropometric measures, a known predictor of future health outcomes.MethodsPregnant women between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation were recruited from prenatal clinics in New Hampshire as part of a prospective cohort study. Blood samples from 413 women at enrollment and 787 infant cord blood samples were analyzed using the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ® p180 kit . Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine association of cord and maternal metabolites with infant anthropometry at birth.ResultsIn cord blood samples, several acylcarnitines, a phosphatidylcholine, and a custom metabolite indicator were negatively associated with birth weight Z-score, and lysophosphatidylcholines as well as three custom metabolite indicators were positively associated with birth weight Z-score. Acylcarnitine C5 was negatively associated with birth length Z-score, and several lysophosphatidylcholines and a custom metabolite indicator were positively associated with birth length Z-score. Maternal blood metabolites did not show significant associations with birth weight and length Z scores, however, a custom metabolite indicator, the ratio of kynurenine over tryptophan, was negatively associated with weight-for-length Z-score.ConclusionsSeveral cord blood metabolites associated with newborn weight and length Z-scores; in particular, consistent findings were observed for several acylcarnitines that play a role in utilization of energy sources, and a lysophosphatidylcholine that is part of oxidative stress and inflammatory response pathways. Fewer associations were observed with maternal metabolomic profiles.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Danlei Chen ◽  
Jinghui Guo ◽  
Bo Liu ◽  
Chunhua Zheng ◽  
Guimin Huang ◽  
...  

Abstract Objective To establish age-specific and body surface area (BSA)-specific reference values of Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion (TAPSE) for children under 15 years old in China. Study design A retrospective study was conducted in Children's Hospital Attached to the Capital Institute of Pediatrics. A total of 702 cases were included in this research to establish reference values of TAPSE. SPSS 25.0 (IBM) was used for data analysis. Lambda-mu-sigma method was used to calculate and construct the age-specific and BSA-specific percentiles and Z-score curves of TAPSE. Results The mean value of TAPSE increased with age and BSA from 0 to 15 years in a nonlinear way and reached the adult level (17mm) until 1 year old. No difference could be observed in genders. Conclusions TAPSE values increased with age and BSA in Chinese children aged between 0-15 years and there was no difference between boys and girls. A multi-center study from different parts of China is supposed to be conducted in the future to reflect the whole spectrum of TAPSE in Chinese children.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qiong Yao ◽  
Chen Peng ◽  
Sheng-zhang Wang ◽  
Xi-hong Hu

Abstract Objectives Thrombosis is a major adverse outcome for coronary artery aneurysms (CAA) in Kawasaki disease (KD). We investigated the geometric and hemodynamic abnormalities in patients with CAA and identified the risk factors for thrombosis by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. Methods We retrospectively studied 27 KD patients with 77 CAAs, including 20 CAAs with thrombosis in 12 patients. Patient-specific anatomic models obtained from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) were constructed to perform a CFD simulation. From the simulation results, we produced local hemodynamic parameters comprising of time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI) and relative resident time (RRT). The CAA’s maximum diameter (Dmax) and Z-score were measured on CMRI. Results Giant CAAs tended to present with more severe hemodynamic abnormalities. Thrombosed CAAs exhibited lower TAWSS (1.551 ± 1.535 vs. 4.235 ± 4.640dynes/cm2, p = 0.002), higher Dmax (10.905 ± 4.125 vs. 5.791 ± 2.826mm, p = 0.008), Z-score (28.301 ± 13.558 vs. 13.045 ± 8.394, p = 0.002), OSI (0.129 ± 0.132 vs. 0.046 ± 0.080, p = 0.01), and RRT (16.780 ± 11.982s vs. 9.123 ± 11.770s, p = 0.399) than the non-thrombosed group. An ROC analysis for thrombotic risk proved that all of the five parameters had area under the ROC curves (AUC) above 0.7, with Dmax delineating the highest AUC (AUCDmax = 0.871) and a 90% sensitivity, followed by Z-score (AUCZ−score = 0.849). Conclusions It is reasonable to combine the geometric index with hemodynamic information to establish a severity classification for KD cases.


Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 323
Author(s):  
Yuri Battaglia ◽  
Antonio Bellasi ◽  
Alessandra Bortoluzzi ◽  
Francesco Tondolo ◽  
Pasquale Esposito ◽  
...  

Vitamin D insufficiency has been associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in kidney transplant patients (KTRs). However, the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation on BMD remains poorly defined, especially for long-term KTRs. We aimed to investigate the effect of native vitamin D supplementation on the BMD of KTRs during a 2-year follow-up. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected. BMD was evaluated with standard DEXA that was performed at baseline (before vitamin D supplementation) and at the end of study period. BMD was assessed at lumbar vertebral bodies (LV) and right femoral neck (FN) by a single operator. According to WHO criteria, results were expressed as the T-score (standard deviation (SD) relative to young healthy adults) and Z-score (SD relative to age-matched controls). Osteoporosis and osteopenia were defined as a T-score ≤ −2.5 SD and a T-score < −1 and a > −2.5 SD, respectively. Based on plasma levels, 25-OH-vitamin D (25-OH-D) was supplemented as recommended for the general population. Data from 100 KTRs were analyzed. The mean study period was 27.7 ± 3.4 months. At study inception, 25-OH-D insufficiency and deficiency were recorded in 65 and 35 patients. At the basal DEXA, the percentage of osteopenia and osteoporosis was 43.3% and 18.6% at LV and 54.1% and 12.2% at FN, respectively. At the end of the study, no differences in the Z-score and T-score gains were observed. During linear mixed model analysis, native vitamin D supplementation was found to have a negative nitration with Z-score changes at the right femoral neck in KTRs (p < 0.05). The mean dose of administered cholecalciferol was 13.396 ± 7.537 UI per week; increased 25-OH-D levels were found (p < 0.0001). Either low BMD or 25-OH-vitamin D concentration was observed in long-term KTRs. Prolonged supplementation with 25-OH-D did not modify BMD, Z-score, or T-score.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Author(s):  
Afsana Anwar ◽  
Probal Kumar Mondal ◽  
Uday Narayan Yadav ◽  
Abu Ahmed Shamim ◽  
Abu Ansar Md. Rizwan ◽  
...  

Abstract Objectives: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the authorities made a change in the classification of malnutrition and concomitant service delivery protocol among the Rohingya children, residing in world’s largest refugee camp, located in Bangladesh. In this paper, we discussed the potential implications of this updated protocol on the malnutrition status among children from the Rohingya camp. Design: This paper reviewed relevant literature and authors’ own experience to provide a perspective of the updated protocol for the classification of malnutrition among the children in the Rohingya camps and its implication from a broader perspective. Setting: Rohingya refugee camps, Bangladesh Participants: Children aged less than five years residing in the Rohingya camps. Results: Major adaptation during this COVID-19 was discontinuation of using weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) and use of only MUAC and presence of edema for admission, follow up and discharge of malnourished children in camps. However, evidence suggest that use of MUAC only can underestimate the prevalence of malnutrition among the children in Rohingya camps. These apparently non-malnourished children are devoid of the rations that they would otherwise receive if classified as malnourished, making them susceptible to more severe malnutrition. Conclusions: Our analysis suggests that policymakers should consider using the original protocol of using both MUAC and WHZ to classify malnutrition and retain the guided ration size. We also believe that it would not take an extra effort to adopt the original guideline as even with MUAC only guideline, certain health measures needed to adopt during this pandemic.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 851
Author(s):  
Roberto Alcalde ◽  
Carlos Alonso de Armiño ◽  
Santiago García

This paper fills the gap in the financial perspective of supply chain performance measurement, related to the lack of a bankruptcy probability indicator, and proposes a predictor which is the eighth-model of the Altman Z-Score Logistic Regression. Furthermore, a bankruptcy probability ranking is established for the companies’ supply chains, according to the industry to which they belong. Moreover, the values are set to establish three categories of companies according to predictor. The probability of bankruptcy is analysed and studied for the supply chain of different industries. The building industry is revealed to have the highest probability of bankruptcy.


Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 286
Author(s):  
Julia Lischka ◽  
Andrea Schanzer ◽  
Margot Baumgartner ◽  
Charlotte de Gier ◽  
Susanne Greber-Platzer ◽  
...  

The obesity epidemic has contributed to an escalating prevalence of metabolic diseases in children. Overnutrition leads to increased tryptophan uptake and availability. An association between the induction of the tryptophan catabolic pathway via indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity and obesity-related inflammation has been observed. This study aimed to investigate the impact of pediatric obesity on tryptophan metabolism and the potential relationship with metabolic disease. In this prospective cohort study, plasma kynurenine, tryptophan, and serotonin levels were measured by ELISA, and IDO activity was estimated by calculating the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio in a clinically characterized population with severe obesity (BMI ≥ 97th percentile) aged 9 to 19 (n = 125). IDO activity and its product kynurenine correlated with BMI z-score and body fat mass, whereas concentrations of serotonin, the alternative tryptophan metabolite, negatively correlated with these measures of adiposity. Kynurenine and tryptophan, but not serotonin levels, were associated with disturbed glucose metabolism. Tryptophan concentrations negatively correlated with adiponectin and were significantly higher in prediabetes and metabolically unhealthy obesity. In conclusion, BMI and body fat mass were associated with increased tryptophan catabolism via the kynurenine pathway and decreased serotonin production in children and adolescents with severe obesity. The resulting elevated kynurenine levels may contribute to metabolic disease in obesity.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jie Liu ◽  
Danyan Su ◽  
Bingbing Ye ◽  
Suyuan Qin ◽  
Cheng Chen ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: The severity of the cardiac complications resulting from Kawasaki disease (KD) appears to be directly correlated to the magnitude of the coronary artery aneurysm (CAA). However, there remains some unclear about the risk factors for medium-large CAA identified after acute KD.Methods: We analyzed 90 patients diagnosed with CAA in KD hospitalized from January 2013 through August 2021. Patients were stratified based on the coronary artery z-score adjusted for body surface area as the medium-large CAA group and small-sized CAA group. The association of baseline characteristics was investigated within the groups. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate potential risk factors associated with medium-large CAA development.Results: In total, 353 pediatric cases with KD were investigated during the study period, of whom 90 (25.5%) presented with CAA, including medium-large CAA in 20 patients (5.7%) after acute KD. The medium-large CAA group showed significantly higher Harada risk scores, the incidence of thrombosis, serum globulin concentration values, proportions of C-reactive protein > 40 mg/L, proportions of albumin < 35 g/L, and lower values of albumin-to-globulin ratio (A/G ratio) than those in the small-sized CAA group (P < 0.05). Medium-large CAA was significantly associated with the A/G ratio (odds ratio, 3.503; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.068–11.492). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.684 (95% CI: 0.558–0.810), and the cutoff point of 1.35 showed a sensitivity and specificity for predicting medium-large CAA of 80% and 59%, respectively.Conclusions: A lower A/G ratio independently predicts medium-large CAA in patients with KD. Medium-large CAA is associated with greater odds of developing thrombosis. Thus, close monitoring with routine echocardiography is recommended.


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