membrane system
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2022 ◽  
Vol 304 ◽  
pp. 114295
G.L. Chathurika L. Bandara ◽  
Isuru S.A. Abeysiriwardana-Arachchige ◽  
Xuesong Xu ◽  
Lu Lin ◽  
Wenbin Jiang ◽  

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 199
Shuhan Lei ◽  
Stephanie Rossi ◽  
Bingru Huang

Aspartate is the most critical amino acid in the aspartate metabolic pathway, which is associated with multiple metabolic pathways, such as protein synthesis, nucleotide metabolism, TCA cycle, glycolysis, and hormone biosynthesis. Aspartate also plays an important role in plant resistance to abiotic stress, such as cold stress, drought stress, salt stress or heavy metal stress. This study found that the chlorophyll content and antioxidant active enzyme content (SOD, CAT, POD and APX) of perennial ryegrass treated with 2 mM aspartate were significantly higher than those treated with water under heat stress. The electrolyte leakage rate, MDA content and peroxide levels (O2− and H2O2) of perennial ryegrass treated with aspartate were significantly lower than those of perennial ryegrass treated with water, indicating that exogenous aspartate increases the content of chlorophyll, maintain the integrity of cell membrane system, and enhances SOD-CAT antioxidant pathway to eliminate the oxidative damage caused by ROS in perennial ryegrass under heat stress. Furthermore, exogenous aspartate could enhance the TCA cycle, the metabolism of the amino acids related to the TCA cycle, and pyrimidine metabolism to enhance the heat tolerance of perennial ryegrass.

2022 ◽  
Liqiong Zhu ◽  
Huixin Chen ◽  
Lijun Zhao ◽  
Weixin Jiang

To understand the morphological and structural characteristics of root nodules in Podocarpus macrophyllus and their development, this study prepared P. macrophyllus root nodule samples at the young, mature, and senescent stages. Optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that new nodules can be formed on roots and senescent nodules; new nodules formed on the roots are nearly spherical and have an internal structure similar to finite nodules; new nodules on senescent nodules are formed by extension and differentiation of the vascular cylinder of the original nodules; and these new nodules are nested at the base of the original nodules, which create growth space for new nodules by dissociating the cortical tissue; clusters of nodules are formed after extensive accumulation, and the growth pattern is similar to that of infinite nodules; the symbiotic bacteria of P. macrophyllus root nodules mainly invade from the epidermal intercellular space of the roots and migrate along the intercellular space of the nodule cortex; infected nodule cortex cells have a well-developed inner membrane system and enlarged and loose nuclei; and unique Frankia vesicles, and rhizobia cysts, and bacteriophages can all develop. Compared with common leguminous and nonleguminous plant nodules, P. macrophyllus root nodules are more complex in morphology, structure and composition. From the perspective of plant system evolution, the rhizobium nodules in leguminous angiosperms and Frankia nodules in nonleguminous angiosperms are most likely two branches derived from the nodules in gymnosperms, such as P. macrophyllus. The conclusions of this study can provide a theoretical basis for the developmental biology of P. macrophyllus root nodules and the evolutionary pattern of plant symbionts.

2022 ◽  
Vol 65 (1) ◽  
Chenghu Wu ◽  
Ailin Yu ◽  
Yue Chen ◽  
Mingbo Fan

AbstractCell membrane vesicles, as delivery carriers of drugs or biological agents in vivo, are an important therapeutic mode in the study of disease treatment. Tumor membrane-derived vesicles have been widely used in tumor therapy because of their good tumor enrichment effect. The most common method is the surface of nanoparticles coated with tumor cell membrane, which can effectively prolong the circulation time of particles in the blood and the enrichment of tumors. In this study, we prepared vesicles of different tumor cell membrane derivate and studied their targeting to tumors detailly. The results showed that homologous vesicles have high targeting to homologous tumor cells. The fluorescence of vesicles in homologous tumor cells was significantly higher than that in other tumor cells. This study will provide a new strategy and guidance for the clinical treatment of cancer based on the tumor cell membrane system. Graphical Abstract

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 197
Muhammad Nidzhom Zainol Abidin ◽  
Mohamed Mahmoud Nasef ◽  
Takeshi Matsuura

The application of membrane processes in various fields has now undergone accelerated developments, despite the presence of some hurdles impacting the process efficiency. Fouling is arguably the main hindrance for a wider implementation of polymeric membranes, particularly in pressure-driven membrane processes, causing higher costs of energy, operation, and maintenance. Radiation induced graft copolymerization (RIGC) is a powerful versatile technique for covalently imparting selected chemical functionalities to membrane surfaces, providing a potential solution to fouling problems. This article aims to systematically review the progress in modifications of polymeric membranes by RIGC of polar monomers onto membranes using various low- and high-energy radiation sources (UV, plasma, γ-rays, and electron beam) for fouling prevention. The feasibility of the modification method with respect to physico-chemical and antifouling properties of the membrane is discussed. Furthermore, the major challenges to the modified membranes in terms of sustainability are outlined and the future research directions are also highlighted. It is expected that this review would attract the attention of membrane developers, users, researchers, and scientists to appreciate the merits of using RIGC for modifying polymeric membranes to mitigate the fouling issue, increase membrane lifespan, and enhance the membrane system efficiency.

Ling Zeng ◽  
Jinzhao Zhou ◽  
Yanwei Zhang ◽  
Xiaofei Wang ◽  
Mei Wang ◽  

Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal and ubiquitous environmental endocrine disruptor. Previous studies on Cd-induced damage to male fertility mainly focus on the structure and function of testis, including cytoskeleton, blood-testis barrier, and steroidogenesis. Nevertheless, to date, no studies have investigated the effects of Cd exposure on sperm epigenetic inheritance and intergenerational inheritance. In our study, we systematically revealed the changes in sperm tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNA) profiles and found that 14 tsRNAs (9 up-regulated and 5 down-regulated) were significantly altered after Cd exposure. Bioinformatics of tsRNA-mRNA-pathway interactions revealed that the altered biological functions mainly were related to ion transmembrane transport, lipid metabolism and cell membrane system. In addition, we focused on two stages of early embryo development and selected two organs to study the impact of these changes on cell membrane system, especially mitochondrion and lysosome, two typical membrane-enclosed organelles. Surprisingly, we found that the content of mitochondrion was significantly decreased in 2-cell stage, whereas remarkably increased in the morula stage. The contents of mitochondrion and lysosome were increased in the testes of 6-day-old offspring and livers of adult offspring, whereas remarkably decreased in the testes of adult offspring. This provides a possible basis to further explore the effects of paternal Cd exposure on offspring health.

2022 ◽  
pp. 193-231
Ahmad Fauzi Ismail ◽  
Takeshi Matsuura

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