fuel gas
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
pp. 684-690
Teerawat Thepmanee ◽  
Amphawan Julsereewong ◽  
Sawai Pongswatd

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 870
Mohammad Alsarayreh ◽  
Omar Mohamed ◽  
Mustafa Matar

Accurate simulations of gas turbines’ dynamic performance are essential for improvements in their practical performance and advancements in sustainable energy production. This paper presents models with extremely accurate simulations for a real dual-fuel gas turbine using two state-of-the-art techniques of neural networks: the dynamic neural network and deep neural network. The dynamic neural network has been realized via a nonlinear autoregressive network with exogenous inputs (NARX) artificial neural network (ANN), and the deep neural network has been based on a convolutional neural network (CNN). The outputs selected for simulations are: the output power, the exhausted temperature and the turbine speed or system frequency, whereas the inputs are the natural gas (NG) control valve, the pilot gas control valve and the compressor variables. The data-sets have been prepared in three essential formats for the training and validation of the networks: normalized data, standardized data and SI units’ data. Rigorous effort has been carried out for wide-range trials regarding tweaking the network structures and hyper-parameters, which leads to highly satisfactory results for both models (overall, the minimum recorded MSE in the training of the MISO NARX was 6.2626 × 10−9 and the maximum MSE that was recorded for the MISO CNN was 2.9210 × 10−4, for more than 15 h of GT operation). The results have shown a comparable satisfactory performance for both dynamic NARX ANN and the CNN with a slight superiority of NARX. It can be newly argued that the dynamic ANN is better than the deep learning ANN for the time-based performance simulation of gas turbines (GTs).

2022 ◽  
pp. 146808742110722
Jin Xia ◽  
Qiankun Zhang ◽  
Jianping Wang ◽  
Zhuoyao He ◽  
Qiyan Zhou ◽  

To enhance the fuel-gas mixing and phase transition process, the fuel is injected by twin injectors in a large-bore low-speed two-stroke marine engine, while the cylinder condition has reached the transcritical and supercritical conditions. The twin-injector configuration has a great potential for further optimization, but the exploration on the outcome of collision and phase transition was still limited. Therefore, this work aims to study the effect of various collision angles (60°, 90°, 120°, 150°) and critical conditions (sub/trans/supercritical) on the twin-spray collision process using optical techniques. A wide range of experimental cases are conducted to provide an analysis and database for future modeling validation. The post-collisional spray structures, spatial distribution, and periphery features are analyzed to characterize the droplet’s collision. The results show that with the collision angle increasing, the higher collision velocity enhances the mass transfer while the minor vertical component results in a smaller axial dispersion. Because of the trade-off relationship between the vertical velocity component and pre-collision penetration, a higher reduction in droplet momentum results in a slighter collision behavior. At the collision angle of 150°, the subcritical condition tends to result in an off-axis collision. Under the transcritical (P) condition, the probability of head-on collision increases and presents a wider spatial distribution. But under the supercritical condition, because of the existence of the liquid collision, the thermal conversion among phases is accelerated, while the ambient resistance is reduced. Moreover, an exponential correlation of collision liquid length is formulated to predict the axial dispersion based on various critical conditions.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 404
Yuping Li ◽  
Maolin Ye ◽  
Fenghua Tan ◽  
Chenguang Wang ◽  
Jinxing Long

Thermodynamic performance of three conceptual systems for biomass-derived olefin production with electricity cogeneration was studied and compared via exergy analysis at the levels of system, subsystem and operation unit. The base case was composed of the subsystems of gasification, raw fuel gas adjustment, methanol/light olefin synthesis and steam & power generation, etc. The power case and fuel case were designed as the combustion of a fraction of gasification gas to increase power generation and the recycle of a fraction of synthesis tail gas to increase olefin production, respectively. It was found that the subsystems of gasification and steam & power generation contribute ca. 80% of overall exergy destruction for each case, of which gasifier and combustor are the main exergy destruction sources, due to the corresponding chemical exergy degrading of biomass and fuel gas. The low efficiency of 33.1% for the power case could be attributed to the significant irreversibility of the combustor, economizer, and condenser in the combined-cycle subsystem. The effect of the tail gas recycle ratio, moisture content of feedstock, and biomass type was also investigated to enhance system exergy performance, which could be achieved by high recycle ratio, using dry biomass and the feedstock with high carbon content. High system efficiency of 38.9% was obtained when oil palm shell was used, which was 31.7% for rice husk due to its low carbon content.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 ◽  
pp. 10
Miguel Mendonça ◽  
Victor Mantilla ◽  
João Patela ◽  
Valter Silva ◽  
Fernanda Resende

This paper addresses the design, development and experimental tests of a prototype of fuel gas generation system based on biomass gasification for small-scale applications, around 5 kW. It comprises the small scale downdraft gasifier and the gas cleaning system aiming to clean-up the producer gas to be used in the upstream Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). The design of the downdraft gasifier prototype follows the methodologies that have been reported on the available literature. However, since these methodologies apply to gasifiers with larger rated powers, the adopted methodology is based on the extrapolation of the main parameters used for larger gasifiers design. For runing the ICE the producer gas requires to have a specific gas composition with an acceptable range of impurities. Therefore, a clean-up system was proposed following three stages: in first instance a hot gas clean-up using a cyclone designed to eliminate particles and compounds; then a heat exchanger was used for cooling the gas to condensate tars and water; finally a cold gas clean-up is performed by filtration using two filter steps: the first one using organic material (biomass) and the second one using a polypropylene cartridge filter. Experimental tests were performed using the developed imbert downdraft gasifier prototype, using pellets as feedstock. The preliminary results allow verifying several drawbacks that will difficult an effective integration of the developed prototype for small scale power generation applications based on ICE using low density feedstock.

2021 ◽  
Izleena Md. Iqbar ◽  
Fauzy Omar Basheer Othman ◽  
Hasmi Taib ◽  
M. Faizal Hamdan ◽  
Frank Adam ◽  

Abstract Amid 2020 challenging business environments due to COVID-19 pandemic and strong global push towards transition to cleaner energy, PETRONAS has declared its' aspiration to achieve net zero carbon emissions by 2050. PETRONAS sustainability journey has begun for more than two decades and with strong management support towards renewable and as part of PETRONAS's technology agenda, its' research arm, PETRONAS Research Sdn. Bhd. (PRSB) has been working on ways to use renewable energy sources for offshore oil and gas platforms in Malaysia. Oil and Gas industry has long relied on turbine generators for offshore power generation. These turbo-fired machineries are operating as microgrid with existing power management system (PMS) as microgrid controllers. They normally use either gas or diesel as fuel gas to ensure reliable power generation where high maintence cost is expected to operate these generators. Also, they have low energy efficiency and hence, usually oversized to ensure meeting the demand reliably. Typically, the power generation load is being taken by two units of turbine generators with another unit as spare. This has resulted in high operational expenditure (OPEX) and contributes to high levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for offshore power generation for such conventional system. LCOE is the yardstick for power generation technology, and it measures discounted lifecycle cost consisting of both capital expenditure (CAPEX) and OPEX, divided by discounted lifecycle of annual energy production [2], [4], [5]. Also, these turbine generators operating at platforms that have gas evacuation pipelines will use up precious fuel gas which can otherwise be sold. This will have impact on the total sales gas revenue. Not withstanding, the burning of the fuel gas will result in the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and hence is exposed to carbon tax. To mitigate this issue, PRSB has developed an offshore hybrid power generation concept to leverage and optimize wind turbine system for offshore power generation in weak wind area such as Malaysia. In this concept, one gas turbine generator is replaced by an offshore wind turbine adapted to low wind speed region. This will lower the maintenance cost and carbon exposure. Also, the fuel gas will be diverted to sales gas. This in turn will improve the economics of the renewable solution thereby making offshore renewable power generation feasible for oil and gas platforms. Forward thinking efforts include pushing the limits of harnessing wind energy in weak wind area such as Malaysia. In here, considerations of a total solution include not only the type of wind turbine generator that can be adapted to weak wind area and having the lowest maintenance requirements as possible, but also looking into cutting edge foundation technologies. The LCOE is expected to be lower than conventional power generation. To ensure optimized hybrid concept, careful selection and adaptations of wind turbine system and its' substructure are required to achieve a cost-effective solution [3], [2]. Conceptual engineering and front-end engineering design were conducted which resulted in the development of the hybrid offshore power generation system. In this paper, the hybrid concept will be shown, the considerations for selection of a suitable wind turbine will be shared and the decisions leading the to the selection and optimization of the foundation type, either fixed bottom or floating are elaborated.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (24) ◽  
pp. 8413
Soon-Kyu Hwang ◽  
Byung-Gun Jung

Liquefied natural gas has attracted attention through an explosive increase in demands and environmental requirements. During this period, the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI), which was adopted by the International Maritime Organization, expecting to significantly reduce CO2 from ships, has become an important key. It has triggered a change in use from steam turbine systems and dual fuel diesel electrics to high-efficiency main engines such as ME-GI engines to meet the EEDI requirements. However, since the ME-GI engines use 300 bar of fuel gas pressure, it is necessary to resolve problems of the pressure controllability and to prevent the reductions of the re-liquefaction amount caused by clogging of the lubricant mixed with the fuel gas during the compression. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel control strategy with a newly developed configuration for controlling the pressure so as not to trip the BOG compressors when the ME-GI engines are tripped, and for preventing a reduction on re-liquefaction amount. Unlike the typical configuration used in the current vessels, this proposal separately provides the fuel gas at 150 bar without lubricants to the re-liquefaction. In addition, three control strategies are proposed, depending upon the application of multi-controllers and the location of the pressure transmitters. A simulation was conducted to verify the efficacy of the proposed method, focusing on the controllability of the pressure and the re-liquefaction amount, in comparison with the typical configuration. As results of the simulation, the proposal showed excellent controllability without trips of the BOG compressors even in abnormal conditions and confirmed the great re-liquefaction performance.

2021 ◽  
Ahmed AlShmakhy ◽  
Ahmed Faoud Shokry ◽  
Najam A Beg ◽  
Syed M Peeran

Abstract Depleting reservoir pressures of mature fields or wells backing out due to high production line pressures can cause severe restriction in production from many oil wells, eventually leading to a complete cessation of production. These wells, however, still have considerable hydrocarbon reserves that can be recovered. Conventional methods to bring such marginal or inactive wells back into production involve power hungry multi-phase pumps or well intervention techniques such as N2 injection, workover, redrilling and artificial lift systems. Such methods are highly expensive and may require substantial infrastructure, especially on offshore satellite platforms which have limited facilities and space. Multi-Phase Surface Jet Pumps (MPSJPs), innovatively combined with novel compact separation, provide a surface mounted, compact, maintenance free and simpler method for boosting production from inactive multi-phase wells, without consuming any electrical power or fuel gas and avoiding any well intervention. Multi-Phase Surface Jet Pumps (MPSJPs) are passive devices which use the energy of existing high pressure single/multi-phase fluids to reduce the Flowing Wellhead Pressure (FWHP) of low pressure multi-phase wells and boost their pressure to the downstream production header pressure. This patented system involves the use of a compact in-line separator upstream of the MPSJP to separate the gas & liquid phases and use the predominant liquid phase as the high-pressure motive fluid. MPSJPs can be used on their own or in combination with other boosting systems (e.g. ESPs, gas lift etc.). The applications also include revival of watered out, idle oil and gas wells. Results from multiple worldwide applications have shown that MPSJPs can successfully boost production from low producers as well as revive dead wells that have not been flowing for a period of time. Wellhead pressures have been considerably reduced and production increases have ranged from 20% to 40% per well. The advantages that MPSJPs offer over conventional technologies such as Multi-phase pumps, ESPs and well intervention techniques are several. MPSJPs are surface mounted (so well intervention is not required), comparatively low cost, have no moving parts, consume zero fuel gas/electrical power, have low footprint and use already available fluid energy. They are tolerant to variations in flow conditions, gas volume fractions (GVF) and associated slugging. They reduce the CO2 footprint by not consuming power and provide a radical, innovative, economical and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional methods. This paper discusses the use of MPSJPs and cites various case studies. The design and operational criteria are also highlighted.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document