total body surface area
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
L. R. Zago ◽  
K. Prado ◽  
V. L. Benedito ◽  
M. M. Pereira

Abstract Alo vera is a centenary remedy use for minor wounds and burns, but its mechanism of wound healing has not been know since. This article will evaluate and gather evidence of the effectiveness and safety of the use of aloe vera in the treatment of burns. A systematic review was carried out on the databases: MEDLINE, LILACS, DECS, SCIELO, in the last 7 years, with the descriptors: “Aloe”, “Burns” and “treatment”. 16 articles were found. After using the exclusion criteria; research in non-humans and literature review; 5 articles were selected. The article Teplick et al. (2018) performed an in vitro clinical experiment in A. Vera solution, and demonstrated that there was proliferation and cell migration of human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes, in addition to being protective in the death of keratonocytes. That is, it accelerates the healing of wounds. Muangman et al. (2016), evaluated 50 patients with 20% of the total body surface area burned with second-degree burns, between 18-60 years old, with half of the group receiving gauze dressings with soft paraffin containing 0.5% chlorhexidine acetate and the other half receiving polyester dressings containing extracts of medicinal plants mainly Aloe Vera. It had positive results, a higher healing speed and shorter hospital stay compared to the control group. Hwang et al. (2015) investigated the antioxidant effects of different extracts from 2,4,6,8,12 months of Aloe Vera. And the 6-month concentrated extract of 0.25 mg / mL had a higher content of flavonoids (9.750 mg catechin equivalent / g extract) and polyphenols (23.375 mg gallic acid equivalent / g extract) and the greater ferric reducing antioxidant power (0.047 mM equivalent ferrous sulfate / mg extract), that is, greater potential for free radical scavenging and also a protective effect against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), suggesting evidence of a bioactive potential of A. vera . However, in the article Kolacz et al. (2014) suggested as an alternative treatment the use of Aloe Vera dressing in combination with honey, lanolin, olive oil, wheat germ oil, marshmallow root, wormwood, comfrey root, white oak bark, lobelia inflata, glycerin vegetable oil, beeswax and myrrh, without obtaining significant and conclusive results that would allow the conventional treatment of burns to be subsidized. Finally, in the article by Zurita and Gallegos (2017), it carried out a descriptive cross-sectional study with 321 people, both sexes between 17-76 years of age, of an inductive nature, exploring the experience of this population and their behavioral attitudes regarding the treatment of dermatoses. Aloe vera had 13.8% cited by individuals in the treatment of acne and 33.6% in the treatment of burns. Even with evidence that suggests the efficacy in the treatment of burns with the use of Aloe Vera extract, further clinical trials with larger sample space on the use of Aloe vera dressings in medium burns are suggested for further conclusions.

Mohammad Ali Hoghoughi ◽  
Mohammad Reza Marzban ◽  
Mohammad Amin Shahrbaf ◽  
Reza Shahriarirad ◽  
Hooman Kamran ◽  

Abstract Background Burn injury is a critical health issue, which is associated with several morbidities and mortalities. Substance abuse, which is an important public health problem in Iran, can affect burn injury outcomes and etiologies in victims. This study was aimed to evaluate different aspects of burn injuries in people who used drug (PWUD) in two referral centers in the south of Iran. Methods This Case-Control Study was conducted on burn victims referred to Amir-al Momenin Hospital and Ghotb-al-din Hospital from 2009 to 2017. Patients with a history of drug consumption were selected from the database and compared to randomly selected burn victims with no history of drug use. Demographics, burn etiology, underlying disease, total body surface area, hospitalization duration, and also the outcomes were collected and recorded in both groups. Data analysis was done by SPSS software. Results A total of 5,912 inpatients were included in this study, which 2,397 of them (40.54%) were female. The mean age of the patients was 26.12 ± 19.18. Drug history was positive in 659 patients (11.15%). Familial issues and mental disorders were significantly higher in the PWUD group compared to the control group (P<0.001). Explosion etiology was significantly higher in the PWUD group (P<0.001). Psychiatric disorders (P<0.001), total body surface area (P=0.023), and hospital stay (P<0.001) were significantly higher in PWUD; however, the mortality rate had no statistically significant differences between the groups (P=0.583). Conclusion Substance abuse is a risk factor in burn victims, which can affect burn etiology and burn-related morbidities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 78 (1) ◽  
Irene K. Angelou ◽  
Heleen Van Aswegen ◽  
Moira Wilson ◽  
Regina Grobler

Background: Patients with major burns suffer with pain, which impacts their physical function during hospitalisation.Objectives: To describe the demographics, burn characteristics, clinical course, physical function, complications developed after major burns and to establish predictors of non-independent physical function at hospital discharge.Method: Records of all consecutive adult burn admissions to a Level 1 Trauma Centre between 2015 and 2017 were screened retrospectively against our study criteria, using the Trauma Bank Data Registry. Anonymised data from included records were captured on specifically designed data extraction forms. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise findings. A regression analysis was undertaken to establish predictors of non-independent function at discharge.Results: Males represented 87.7% (n = 64) of included records (n = 73). Median age was 38 (interquartile range [IQR]: 22). Thermal burns were most reported (n = 47, 64.4%), followed by median total body surface area (TBSA) 31% and head and arms were most affected (60.3% and 71.2%). Injury severity was high with median intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) of 17 (IQR: 34) and hospital LOS 44 (IQR: 31) days. Wound debridement was mostly performed (n = 27, 36.9%) with limb oedema as a common complication (n = 15, 21.7%). Muscle strength and functional performance improved throughout LOS. None of the variables identified were predictors of non-independent function at hospital discharge.Conclusion: Adults with major burns were predominantly male, in mid-life and sustained thermal injury with a high injury severity. Decreased range of motion (ROM) of affected areas, ‘fair’ muscle strength and independent function were recorded for most patients at hospital discharge.Clinical implications: These findings contribute to the limited body of evidence on the profile, clinical course and outcomes of South African adult burn patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 18-26
Alexandra Miller ◽  
Elizabeth Vujcich ◽  
Jason Brown

Central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and catheter-related bloodstream infection (CLABSI with a positive catheter tip culture, CRBSI) are preventable causes of morbidity and mortality for severe adult burns patients. Routine central line changes as a CLABSI prevention strategy in burns patients is controversial due to the paucity of evidence to guide the appropriate timing of line changes. This study aimed to address this evidence gap by investigating risk factors associated with central line sepsis, including the duration of central line insertion, in a population of severe adult burns patients (burns involving ≥20% total body surface area (TBSA)) admitted to the Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital Intensive Care Unit over five years (2015–2019 inclusive). On multivariate analysis, central line duration and burn TBSA were identified as independent risk factors for CLABSI, with central line duration the most significant predictor (p = 0.0008; OR 1.177, 95% CI 1.072–1.299). No risk factor independently predicted CRBSI. CLABSI detection occurred a median of 8.5 days (IQR 6.0–11.0) post central line insertion. These findings suggest further research to assess the efficacy of routine line changes prior to the at-risk period of 6–11 days post central line insertion in reducing CLABSI in severe adult burns patients may be beneficial.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Meng-Shu Cao ◽  
Ting-Yan Zhao ◽  
Zhi-Long Song ◽  
Hong-Ting Lu ◽  
Yun Zheng ◽  

AbstractStress cardiomyopathy is a major clinical complication after severe burn. Multiple upstream initiators have been identified; however, the downstream targets are not fully understood. This study assessed the role of the plasma membrane in this process and its relationship with the protease μ-calpain and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Here, third-degree burn injury of approximately 40% of the total body surface area was established in rats. Plasma levels of LDH and cTnI and cardiac cell apoptosis increased at 0.5 h post burn, reached a peak at 6 h, and gradually declined at 24 h. This effect correlated well with not only the disruption of cytoskeletal proteins, including dystrophin and ankyrin-B, but also with the activation of μ-calpain, as indicated by the cleaved fragments of α-spectrin and membrane recruitment of the catalytic subunit CAPN1. More importantly, these alterations were diminished by blocking calpain activity with MDL28170. Burn injury markedly increased the cellular uptake of Evans blue, indicating membrane integrity disruption, and this effect was also reversed by MDL28170. Compared with those in the control group, cardiac cells in the burn plasma-treated group were more prone to damage, as indicated by a marked decrease in cell viability and increases in LDH release and apoptosis. Of note, these alterations were mitigated by CAPN1 siRNA. Moreover, after neutralizing TNF-α with rhTNFR:Fc, calpain activity was blocked, and heart function was improved. In conclusion, we identified μ-calpain as a trigger for severe burn-induced membrane disruption in the heart and provided evidence for the application of rhTNFR:Fc to inhibit calpain for cardioprotection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 47
Yi-Ling Lin ◽  
I-Chen Chen ◽  
Jung-Hsing Yen ◽  
Chih-Sheng Lai ◽  
Yueh-Chi Tsai ◽  

Background: Invasive candidiasis (IC) is a major cause of morbidities and mortality in patients hospitalized with major burns. This study investigated the incidence of IC in this specific population and analyzed the possible risk factors. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. We identified 3582 patients hospitalized with major burns on over 20% of their total body surface area (TBSA) during 2000–2013; we further analyzed possible risk factors. Result: IC was diagnosed in 452 hospitalized patients (12.6%) with major burns. In the multivariate analysis, patients older than 50 years (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36–2.82), those of female sex (adjusted OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.03–1.72), those with burns on the head (adjusted OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.02–1.73), and those with burns over a greater TBSA had higher risks of IC. Conclusion: Treating IC is crucial in healthcare for major burns. Our study suggests that several risk factors are associated with IC in patients hospitalized with major burns, providing reliable reference value for clinical decisions.

Audrey Marie O'Neil ◽  
Cassandra Rush ◽  
Laura Griffard ◽  
David Roggy ◽  
Allison Boyd ◽  

Abstract Early mobilization with mechanically ventilated patients has received significant attention within recent literature, however limited research has focused specifically on the burn population. The purpose of this single center, retrospective analysis was to review the use of a burn critical care mobility algorithm, to determine safety and feasibility of a burn vented mobility program, share limitations preventing mobility progression at our facility, and discuss unique challenges to vented mobility with intubated burn patients. A retrospective review was completed for all intubated burn center admissions between January 2015 to December 2019. Burn Therapy notes were then reviewed for data collection, during the intubation period, using stages of the mobility algorithm. In 5 years following initial implementation, the vented mobility algorithm was utilized on 127 patients with an average total body surface area of 22.8%. No adverse events occurred. Stage 1 (Range of motion) was completed with 100% of patients (n=127). Chair mode of bed, stage 2a, was utilized in 39.4%(n=50) of patients, while 15.8% (n=20) of patients were dependently transferred to the cardiac chair in stage 2b. Stage 3 (sitting on the edge-of-bed) was completed with 25% (n=32) of patients, with 11% (n=14) progressing to stage 5 (standing), and 3.9% (n=5) actively transferring to a chair. In 5 years, only 4.7% (n=6) reached stage 6 (ambulation). The most common treatment limitations were medical complications (33%) and line placement (21%). Early mobilization during mechanical ventilation is safe and feasible within the burn population, despite challenges including airway stability, sedation, and line limitations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 74 (1) ◽  
pp. 34-39
Weerawat Seubmora ◽  
Harikrishna K.R. Nair ◽  
Kusuma Chinaroonchai

Objectives: Adequate nutritional support is one of the challenging treatments of major pediatric burns. Parenteral nutrition (PN) is one of the options to achieve daily caloric goal. Latest nutritional guidelines recommend late PN initiation due to unclear benefit over risk based on the limited data. Our study provides the data of parenteral nutrition within 7 days post admission (early PN) and factors affecting clinical outcomes in major pediatric burn patients. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted regarding pediatric burn patients who had over 15% of their total body surface area (TBSA) with second- or third-degree burns. All the patients were classified as requiring early PN support or non-early PN support. Results: 124 major pediatric burns were reviewed. Eighty-six patients (65.2%) were male, and the median age was three years (0.3-15 years). Early PN showed no association with length of hospital stay (LOS) (p=0.480) or a 30-day mortality (p=0.529). The children’s age, wound infections, and abdominal distension were the independent associated factors of LOS (p=0.025, 0.001, and 0.003 respectively). Pneumonia and urinary tract infection were independent factors associated with 30-day mortality (p=0.025). Conclusions: Early PN in acute pediatric burns was not associated with LOS or 30-day mortality. It can be considered as options of nutritional support in acute, major pediatric burns. Effective management of wound infections and abdominal distension may reduce LOS.  

Katherine A. Dawson ◽  
Megan A. Mickelson ◽  
April E. Blong ◽  
Rebecca A. L. Walton

Abstract CASE DESCRIPTION A 3-year-old 27-kg female spayed American Bulldog with severe burn injuries caused by a gasoline can explosion was evaluated. CLINICAL FINDINGS The dog had extensive partial- and full-thickness burns with 50% of total body surface area affected. The burns involved the dorsum extending from the tail to approximately the 10th thoracic vertebra, left pelvic limb (involving 360° burns from the hip region to the tarsus), inguinal area bilaterally, right medial aspect of the thigh, and entire perineal region. Additional burns affected the margins of the pinnae and periocular regions, with severe corneal involvement bilaterally. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME The dog was hospitalized in the hospital’s intensive care unit for 78 days. Case management involved provision of aggressive multimodal analgesia, systemic support, and a combination of novel debridement and reconstructive techniques. Debridement was facilitated by traditional surgical techniques in combination with maggot treatment. Reconstructive surgeries involved 6 staged procedures along with the use of novel treatments including applications of widespread acellular fish (cod) skin graft and autologous skin cell suspension. CLINICAL RELEVANCE The outcome for the dog of the present report highlighted the successful use of maggot treatment and applications of acellular cod skin and autologous skin cell suspension along with aggressive systemic management and long-term multimodal analgesia with debridement and wound reconstruction for management of severe burn injuries encompassing 50% of an animal’s total body surface area.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
pp. 205951312110523
Matthias Waldner ◽  
Tarek Ismail ◽  
Alexander Lunger ◽  
Holger J Klein ◽  
Riccardo Schweizer ◽  

Background Deep partial-thickness burns are traditionally treated by tangential excision and split thickness skin graft (STSG) coverage. STSGs create donor site morbidity and increase the wound surface in burn patients. Herein, we present a novel concept consisting of enzymatic debridement of deep partial-thickness burns followed by co-delivery of autologous keratinocyte suspension and plated-rich fibrin (PRF) or fibrin glue. Material and methods In a retrospective case study, patients with deep partial-thickness burns treated with enzymatic debridement and autologous cell therapy combined with PRF or fibrin glue (BroKerF) between 2017 and 2018 were analysed. BroKerF was applied to up to 15% total body surface area (TBSA); larger injuries were combined with surgical excision and skin grafting. Exclusion criteria were age <18 or >70 years, I°, IIa°-only, III° burns and loss of follow-up. Results A total of 20 patients with burn injuries of 16.8% ± 10.3% TBSA and mean Abbreviated Burn Severity Score 5.45 ± 1.8 were identified. Of the patients, 65% (n = 13) were treated with PRF, while 35% (n = 7) were treated with fibrin glue. The mean area treated with BroKerF was 7.5% ± 0.05% TBSA, mean time to full epithelialization was 21.06 ± 9.2 days and mean hospitalization time was 24.7 ± 14.4 days. Of the patients, 35% (n = 7) needed additional STSG, 43% (n = 3) of whom had biopsy-proven wound infections. Conclusion BroKerF is an innovative treatment strategy, which, in our opinion, will show its efficacy when higher standardization is achieved. The combination of selective debridement and autologous skin cells in a fibrin matrix combines regenerative measures for burn treatment. Lay Summary Patients suffering from large burn wounds often require the use of large skin grafts to bring burned areas to heal. Before the application of skin grafts, the burned skin must be removed either by surgery or using enzymatic agents. In this article, we describe a method where small areas of skin are taken and skin cells are extracted and sprayed on wound areas that were treated with an enzymatic agent. The cells are held in place by a substance extracted from patients’ blood (PRF) that is sprayed on the wound together with the skin cells. We believe this technique can be helpful to reduce the need of skin grafts in burned patients and improve the healing process.

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