microstrip antennas
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Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 602
Jiaying Zhang ◽  
Jin Huang ◽  
Peng Sun ◽  
Fanbo Meng ◽  
Jie Zhang ◽  

With the advent of wearable communication devices, microstrip antennas have developed multiple applications due to their ultra-low-profile properties. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the problem of frequency shift and impedance mismatch when the antenna is bent. For the case of a rectangular patch antenna E-plane bent on the cylindrical surface, (1) this paper introduces the effective dielectric constant into the cavity model, which can accurately predict the resonance frequency of the antenna, and (2) according to the equivalent circuit model of the antenna resonance mode, the lumped element parameters are calculated based on the above effective dielectric constant, so that impedance characteristics and the S-parameter matching the port can be quickly constructed. From the perspective of circuit frequency characteristics, it explains the change in the transmission performance of the curved antenna. The experimental results show that the maximum difference between the experimental and theoretical calculation frequencies is less than 1%. These results verify the validity and applicability of the theory in the analysis of ultra-low-profile patch antennas and wearable electronic communication devices. It provides a theoretical basis for the fast impedance matching of patch antennas under different working conditions.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 403
Marzieh Mahrokh ◽  
Slawomir Koziel

The growing demand for the integration of surface mount design (SMD) antennas into miniaturized electronic devices has imposed increasing limitations on the structure dimensions. Examples include embedded antennas in applications such as on-board devices, picosatellites, 5G communications, or implantable and wearable devices. The demands for size reduction while ensuring a satisfactory level of electrical and field performance can be managed through constrained numerical optimization. The reliability of optimization-based size reduction requires utilization of full-wave electromagnetic (EM) analysis, which entails significant computational costs. This can be alleviated by incorporating surrogate modeling techniques, adjoint sensitivities, or the employment of sparse sensitivity updates. An alternative is the incorporation of multi-fidelity simulation models, normally limited to two levels, low and high resolution. This paper proposes a novel algorithm for accelerated antenna miniaturization, featuring a continuous adjustment of the simulation model fidelity in the course of the optimization process. The model resolution is determined by factors related to violation of the design constraints as well as the convergence status of the algorithm. The algorithm utilizes the lowest-fidelity model for the early stages of the optimization process; it is gradually refined towards the highest-fidelity model upon approaching convergence, and the constraint violations improve towards the preset tolerance threshold. At the same time, a penalty function approach with adaptively adjusted coefficients is applied to enable the precise control of constraints, and to increase the achievable miniaturization rates. The presented procedure has been validated using five microstrip antennas, including three broadband, and two circularly polarized structures. The obtained results corroborate the relevance of the implemented mechanisms from the point of view of improving the average computational efficiency of the optimization process by 43% as compared to the single-fidelity adaptive penalty function approach. Furthermore, the presented methodology demonstrates a performance that is equivalent or even superior to its single-fidelity counterpart in terms of an average constraint violation of 0.01 dB (compared to 0.03 dB for the reference), and an average size reduction of 25% as compared to 25.6%.

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