equivalent circuit model
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Author(s):  
Chi Nguyen Van ◽  
Thuy Nguyen Vinh

This paper proposes a method to estimate state of charge (SoC) for Lithium-ion battery pack (LIB) with 𝑁 series-connected cells. The cell’s model is represented by a second-order equivalent circuit model taking into account the measurement disturbances and the current sensor bias. By using two sigma point Kalman filters (SPKF), the SoC of cells in the pack is calculated by the sum of the pack’s average SoC estimated by the first SPKF and SoC differences estimated by the second SPKF. The advantage of this method is the SoC estimation algorithm performed only two times instead of 𝑁 times in each sampling time interval, so the computational burden is reduced. The test of the proposed SoC estimation algorithm for 7 samsung ICR18650 Lithium-ion battery cells connected in series is implemented in the continuous charge and discharge scenario in one hour time. The estimated SoCs of the cells in the pack are quite accurate, the 3-sigma criterion of estimated SoC error distributions is 0.5%.


Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 667
Author(s):  
Ahmed Saad Elkorany ◽  
Alyaa Nehru Mousa ◽  
Sarosh Ahmad ◽  
Demyana Adel Saleeb ◽  
Adnan Ghaffar ◽  
...  

Antennas in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are characterized by the enhanced capacity of the network, longer range of transmission, better spatial reuse, and lower interference. In this paper, we propose a planar patch antenna for mobile communication applications operating at 1.8, 3.5, and 5.4 GHz. A planar microstrip patch antenna (MPA) consists of two F-shaped resonators that enable operations at 1.8 and 3.5 GHz while operation at 5.4 GHz is achieved when the patch is truncated from the middle. The proposed planar patch is printed on a low-cost FR-4 substrate that is 1.6 mm in thickness. The equivalent circuit model is also designed to validate the reflection coefficient of the proposed antenna with the S11 obtained from the circuit model. It contains three RLC (resistor–inductor–capacitor) circuits for generating three frequency bands for the proposed antenna. Thereby, we obtained a good agreement between simulation and measurement results. The proposed antenna has an elliptically shaped radiation pattern at 1.8 and 3.5 GHz, while the broadside directional pattern is obtained at the 5.4 GHz frequency band. At 1.8, 3.5, and 5.4 GHz, the simulated peak realized gains of 2.34, 5.2, and 1.42 dB are obtained and compared to the experimental peak realized gains of 2.22, 5.18, and 1.38 dB at same frequencies. The results indicate that the proposed planar patch antenna can be utilized for mobile applications such as digital communication systems (DCS), worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX), and wireless local area networks (WLAN).


2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (4) ◽  
pp. 25-45
Author(s):  
Vladimir F. Dmitrikov ◽  
Dmitry V. Shushpanov

Based on the measured impedance of the inductors wound on various ferrite cores and with a different number of turns, an equivalent high frequency (0 Hz 500 MHz) circuit model was built. The equivalent circuit model was built taking into account the physical processes occurring in the inductor: effect of wire resistance, effect of core material, mutual effect of wire and core material. The attempt explaining why the frequency characteristics (modulus and phase) of the inductor complex impedance have such a character in a wide frequency band (up to 500 MHz) was made. It was shown that for constructing an equivalent circuit model (structure and parameters), measuring only the inductors resistance modulus is not enough. It is also necessary to measure the phase of the inductor complex resistance, which is ignored in many works on the synthesis of an e inductor equivalent circuit.


Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 271
Author(s):  
Rehab Ramadan ◽  
Raúl J. Martín-Palma

Hybrid nanostructures have a great potential to improve the overall properties of photonic devices. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were infiltrated into nanostructured porous silicon (PSi) layers, aiming at enhancing the optoelectronic performance of Si-based devices. More specifically, Schottky diodes with three different configurations were fabricated, using Al/Si/Au as the basic structure. This structure was modified by adding PSi and PSi + AgNPs layers. Their characteristic electrical parameters were accurately determined by fitting the current–voltage curves to the non-ideal diode equation. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to determine the electrical parameters of the diodes in a wide frequency range by fitting the Nyquist plots to the appropriate equivalent circuit model. The experimental results show a remarkable enhancement in electrical conduction after the incorporation of metallic nanoparticles. Moreover, the spectral photoresponse was examined for various devices. An approximately 10-fold increment in photoresponse was observed after the addition of Ag nanoparticles to the porous structures.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yanming Feng ◽  
Zhiguo Li ◽  
Qiang Zhao ◽  
P P Chen ◽  
Jiqing Wang

Abstract Fano resonance and plasma induced transparency (PIT) have been widely observed in various plasmonic nanostructures. Fano resonance takes place in weak coupling regime where coupling constant between two electromagnetic modes is lower than damping constant of system. Hence, extracting coupling and damping coefficients from resonance spectrum is the key to distinguish between Fano resonance and other resonances. In this paper, we propose a simple and realizable coupled LC circuit to analyze Fano resonance and PIT. Weak and strong coupling regime are distinguished by comparing coupling constant with damping constant. Meanwhile, we gain deep insight into Fano resonance and PIT in circuit by analyzing circuit phase and understand their connection with resonance in photonic structure. Furthermore, we extend the equivalent circuit model to the field involved short-range plasmon polarization or multi-orders dark modes. Since there are no specific parameters associated with photonic nanostructure, the proposed equivalent circuit can be used in most plasmonic resonance system as an universal model.


Author(s):  
Shih-Sen Huang ◽  
Hsing-Che Tsai ◽  
Jerry Chang ◽  
Po-Chun Huang ◽  
Yun-Chien Cheng ◽  
...  

Abstract To simulate the I-V diagram of plasma homogeneous and filamentary discharge with equivalent circuit model more accurately, this study employed a breaker and passive circuit components and calculated the discharge parameters, such as equivalent discharge resistances and potential distribution etc., in atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ). In addition, this study calculated the gas-gap and dielectric capacitances of the APPJ and added a power supply equivalent circuit. Compared with other circuit models that adopted switches or a time-controlled current source to simulate the discharges, our present circuit model used a breakdown-voltage-controlled breaker for the homogeneous discharge and resistors with high-frequency switches for the filamentary discharge. We employed potential simulation to obtain the equivalent dielectric capacitance in the APPJ and then derived the gas-gap capacitance. We also replaced the ideal sine wave power supply with the equivalent circuit of the common double-peak-waveform power supply. The MATLAB Simulink was used to construct an equivalent circuit model and the discharge area ratio, breakdown voltage and filamentary equivalent resistance were obtained via I-V waveform fitting. We measured the plasma I-V waveform with a 20-kHz frequency, various voltages (6, 12, and 15 kV), a gas flow rate of 30 SLM, and two types of gas (Ar and He). The simulated and experimental I-V waveforms were very close under different conditions. In summary, the proposed equivalent circuit model more meaningfully describes the plasma physics to simulate homogenous and filamentary discharge, achieving results that were compatible with our experimental observations. The findings can help with investigating plasma discharge mechanisms and full-model simulations of plasma.


Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 602
Author(s):  
Jiaying Zhang ◽  
Jin Huang ◽  
Peng Sun ◽  
Fanbo Meng ◽  
Jie Zhang ◽  
...  

With the advent of wearable communication devices, microstrip antennas have developed multiple applications due to their ultra-low-profile properties. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the problem of frequency shift and impedance mismatch when the antenna is bent. For the case of a rectangular patch antenna E-plane bent on the cylindrical surface, (1) this paper introduces the effective dielectric constant into the cavity model, which can accurately predict the resonance frequency of the antenna, and (2) according to the equivalent circuit model of the antenna resonance mode, the lumped element parameters are calculated based on the above effective dielectric constant, so that impedance characteristics and the S-parameter matching the port can be quickly constructed. From the perspective of circuit frequency characteristics, it explains the change in the transmission performance of the curved antenna. The experimental results show that the maximum difference between the experimental and theoretical calculation frequencies is less than 1%. These results verify the validity and applicability of the theory in the analysis of ultra-low-profile patch antennas and wearable electronic communication devices. It provides a theoretical basis for the fast impedance matching of patch antennas under different working conditions.


Author(s):  
Guobiao Hu ◽  
Chunbo Lan ◽  
Junrui Liang ◽  
Lihua Tang ◽  
Liya Zhao

This paper presents a study of a two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH) under concurrent aeroelastic and base excitation. The governing equations of the theoretical model under the combined excitation are developed and solved analytically using the harmonic balance method. Based on the electro-mechanical analogies, an equivalent circuit model is established. The energy harvesting performance of the 2DOF PEH under different wind speeds but the same base excitation is investigated. Voltage amplitudes of various response components with different frequencies are predicted by the analytical method and verified by the circuit simulation. The root-mean-square (RMS) voltage is used to measure the actual performance of the 2DOF PEH. Around the resonance state, the 2DOF PEH has been found to produce a larger voltage output than the conventional SDOF PEH. Moreover, several interesting phenomena, such as the quasi-periodic oscillation and the peak-to-valley transition, have been observed in the circuit simulation and explained by the analytical solution. The developed methodology in this paper can be easily adapted to analyze other similar types of multiple-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) PEHs under concurrent aeroelastic and base excitation.


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