communication devices
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Silvia Gallucci ◽  
Serena Fiocchi ◽  
Marta Bonato ◽  
Emma Chiaramello ◽  
Gabriella Tognola ◽  

(1) Background: Radiofrequency radiations are used in most devices in current use and, consequently, the assessment of the human exposure to the radiofrequency radiations has become an issue of strong interest. Even if in the military field there is wide use of radiofrequency devices, a clear picture on the exposure assessment to the electromagnetic field of the human beings in the military scenario is still missing. (2) Methods: a review of the scientific literature regarding the assessment of the exposure of the military personnel to the RF specific to the military environment, was performed. (3) Results: the review has been performed grouping the scientific literature by the typology of military devices to which the military personnel can be exposed to. The military devices have been classified in four main classes, according to their intended use: communication devices, localization/surveillance devices, jammers and EM directed-energy weapons. (4) Discussion and Conclusions: The review showed that in the exposure conditions here evaluated, there were only occasional situations of overexposure, whereas in the majority of the conditions the exposure was below the worker exposure limits. Nevertheless, the limited number of studies and the lack of exposure assessment studies for some devices prevent us to draw definitive conclusions and encourage further studies on military exposure assessment.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 602
Jiaying Zhang ◽  
Jin Huang ◽  
Peng Sun ◽  
Fanbo Meng ◽  
Jie Zhang ◽  

With the advent of wearable communication devices, microstrip antennas have developed multiple applications due to their ultra-low-profile properties. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the problem of frequency shift and impedance mismatch when the antenna is bent. For the case of a rectangular patch antenna E-plane bent on the cylindrical surface, (1) this paper introduces the effective dielectric constant into the cavity model, which can accurately predict the resonance frequency of the antenna, and (2) according to the equivalent circuit model of the antenna resonance mode, the lumped element parameters are calculated based on the above effective dielectric constant, so that impedance characteristics and the S-parameter matching the port can be quickly constructed. From the perspective of circuit frequency characteristics, it explains the change in the transmission performance of the curved antenna. The experimental results show that the maximum difference between the experimental and theoretical calculation frequencies is less than 1%. These results verify the validity and applicability of the theory in the analysis of ultra-low-profile patch antennas and wearable electronic communication devices. It provides a theoretical basis for the fast impedance matching of patch antennas under different working conditions.

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 229
Suleiman Aliyu Babale ◽  
Kashif Nisar Paracha ◽  
Sarosh Ahmad ◽  
Sharul Kamal Abdul Rahim ◽  
Zainab Yunusa ◽  

This paper aims to review some of the available tunable devices with emphasis on the techniques employed, fabrications, merits, and demerits of each technique. In the era of fluidic microstrip communication devices, versatility and stability have become key features of microfluidic devices. These fluidic devices allow advanced fabrication techniques such as 3D printing, spraying, or injecting the conductive fluid on the flexible/rigid substrate. Fluidic techniques are used either in the form of loading components, switching, or as the radiating/conducting path of a microwave component such as liquid metals. The major benefits and drawbacks of each technology are also emphasized. In this review, there is a brief discussion of the most widely used microfluidic materials, their novel fabrication/patterning methods.

2022 ◽  
Benjamin Bube ◽  
Bruno Baruque Zanón ◽  
Ana María Lara Palma ◽  
Heinrich Georg Klocke

BACKGROUND Wearable devices have grown enormously in importance in recent years. While wearables have generally been well studied, they have not yet been discussed in the underwater environment. OBJECTIVE The reason for this systematic review was to systematically search for the wearables for underwater operation used in the scientific literature, to make a comprehensive map of their capabilities and features, and to discuss the general direction of development. METHODS In September 2021, we conducted an extensively search of existing literature in the largest databases using keywords. For this purpose, only articles were used that contained a wearable or device that can be used in diving. Only articles in English were considered, as well as peer-reviewed articles. RESULTS In the 36 relevant studies that were found, four device categories could be identified: safety devices, underwater communication devices, head-up displays and underwater human-computer interaction devices. CONCLUSIONS The possibilities and challenges of the respective technologies were considered and evaluated separately. Underwater communication has the most significant influence on future developments. Another topic that has not received enough attention is human-computer interaction.

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 169
Muhammad Ikram ◽  
Kamel Sultan ◽  
Muhammad Faisal Lateef ◽  
Abdulrahman S. M. Alqadami

Next-generation communication systems and wearable technologies aim to achieve high data rates, low energy consumption, and massive connections because of the extensive increase in the number of Internet-of-Things (IoT) and wearable devices. These devices will be employed for many services such as cellular, environment monitoring, telemedicine, biomedical, and smart traffic, etc. Therefore, it is challenging for the current communication devices to accommodate such a high number of services. This article summarizes the motivation and potential of the 6G communication system and discusses its key features. Afterward, the current state-of-the-art of 5G antenna technology, which includes existing 5G antennas and arrays and 5G wearable antennas, are summarized. The article also described the useful methods and techniques of exiting antenna design works that could mitigate the challenges and concerns of the emerging 5G and 6G applications. The key features and requirements of the wearable antennas for next-generation technology are also presented at the end of the paper.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 54-56
Muna Ali Shakir ◽  
Younis Turki Mahmood ◽  
Dhia Hadi Hussain

There is no doubt that the semiconductor contributed very significantly to changing our world in the long run, which made it very necessary to write this article and shed light on the semiconductor between past and  present. Whereas, this article is not intended to teach you semiconductor chemistry and its applications, but it also aims to refresh your memory with everything related to semiconductors from the moment of sunrise to the present day.As known, people need to communicate with each other in order to meet their daily and professional needs. In the past, the communication process was very difficult and sometimes costly until the emergence of what is known as semiconductors, which in turn opened new purview in the world of communications through its entry into the communication devices industry and computers industry and its ability to processing The data, in turn, facilitated and summarized a very long journey on humans in the field of industry. Today, we are on the beginning of a new sun rise of semiconductor, especially after the emergence of the so-called nanotechnology, where semiconductors have been observed a very large role in the development of this technology, not only but have become Part of the integral ones.

2022 ◽  
pp. 98-113
Laura Roche ◽  
Jeff Sigafoos

Educating people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD)creates a number of challenges. One general challenge relates to identifying and successfully implementing instructional programs for developing and enhancing the person's adaptive behavior, such as teaching communication and social skills and increasing their overall level of engagement. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of three main instructional approaches that have been applied to enhance engagement and adaptive behavior functioning among people with PIMD. These approaches are (1) intensive interaction, (2) systematic instruction, and (3) assistive technology. Two case studies are included to illustrate the use of assistive technology—specifically augmentative and alternative communication devices and micro-switches—with two adolescents with PIMD. This overview and the case studies suggest that the use of systematic instructional tactics to establish functional use of assistive technology can be an effective instructional approach for people with PIMD.

2022 ◽  
pp. 150-159
Depuru Bharathi ◽  
Anchapakula Suvarna Latha ◽  
Kolaru Subramanyam Shanthi Sree ◽  
Pydipati Lakshmi Padmavathi ◽  
Bireddy Hema Vathi

Environmental communication emerged in the United States in the 1980s and reached multiple milestones in the area of environmental protection and management. Information and communication technological advancement took a quantum leap in supporting environment-related problems through internet. Involvement of ICT in protecting the environment led to the development of ‘green websites', which are associated with policies to improve, conserve, recycle, and check the carbon emissions and for the development of eco-friendly products. Environmental nature communication is the exchange of information observed during interaction of plants with ecosystems. It was discovered that organs of the plants communicate when in danger to protect themselves from predators. Application of communication devices likes drones, collars, Wifi, usage of software servers for data collection, monitoring will be a way forward to conserve bioresources. Therefore, environmental communication will analyse data for scientific studies in protecting our earth. The chapter provides an overview of environmental communication.

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