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2022 ◽  
Jaehun Yang ◽  
Jong Man Kim ◽  
Jinsoo Rhu ◽  
Gyu-Seong Choi ◽  
Choon Hyuck David Kwon ◽  

Backgrounds: Sorafenib is the standard care for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT), though it offers limited survival. This study was designed to compare clinical outcomes between liver resection (surgery) and trans-arterial chemoembolization plus radiotherapy (TACE-RT) as the initial treatment modality for resectable treatment-naïve solitary HCC combined with subsegmental (Vp1), segmental (Vp2), and lobar (Vp3) PVTT. Methods: From the institutional HCC registry, we identified 116 patients diagnosed with resectable treatment-naïve HCC with Vp1-Vp3 PVTT based on radiologic images who received surgery (n=44) or TACE-RT (n=72) as a primary treatment between 2010 and 2015. A propensity score matching (PSM) model was created. Results: The TACE-RT group had a higher tumor burden (tumor size, extent, and markers) than the surgery group. Cumulative patient survival curve in the surgery group was significantly higher than in the TACE-RT group before and after PSM. Liver function was relatively well-preserved in the surgery group compared with the TACE-RT group. TACE-RT group, male, increased alkaline phosphatase, and increased platelet count were predisposing factors for patient death in resectable treatment-naïve solitary HCC with PVTT. Conclusions: The present study suggests that surgery should be considered as an initial treatment in resectable treatment-naïve solitary HCC with Vp1-Vp3 PVTT.

2022 ◽  
Aki Nakamoto ◽  
Yusuke Mihara ◽  
Tomokazu Motomura ◽  
Hisashi Matsumoto ◽  
Masaru Nakano

Abstract Background: The present study aims to elucidate the applicability of electric vertical takeoff and landing (eVTOL) aircraft that dispatch only a doctor to provide a solution to the operational challenges of utilizing a helicopter to transport a doctor to the patient/s, with such physician-staffed emergency medical helicopters being known as doctor heli (DH), in Japan.Methods: This study conducted interviews with 17 parties related to DHs in five prefectures in Japan to depict challenges of DHs and eVTOL requirements. Subsequently, this study analyzed the Hokusoh DH flight data, as an example, in terms of cases for which flight doctors consider condition assessment and initial treatment provision by a doctor would be particularly effective, to assess the hypothesis that a two-seater is applicable for emergency medical care (EMS) and that eVTOLs help reduce duplicate dispatch requests for DHs as well as the percentage and delayed dispatch time of duplicate requests.Results: Challenges of DHs and eVTOL requirements were identified and classified into six major categories. Data analysis results indicated that two-seater eVTOLs would be particularly effective for trauma, cardiac disease, brain disease cases, and pediatric patient cases and help solve duplicate requests.Conclusions: Two-seater eVTOLs are likely applicable in EMS in Japan.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Meng Wu ◽  
Yun Li ◽  
Huiqiang Huang ◽  
Wei Xu ◽  
Yanyan Wang ◽  

PurposeThe aim of the study was to delineate the disease characteristics, the initial treatment patterns, and survival in patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) managed in the real world.MethodsData of 518 MCL patients from 5 major Chinese Hematology Centers in the period from 2007 to 2017 were retrospectively analyzed.ResultsThe median age was 58 years. Of the patients, 88.6% had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) 0–1 and 80.7% had advanced-stage disease. Ki67 expression was <30% in 39.6% of the patients, and 43.2% of patients were categorized into a low-risk group based on the Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (MIPI) scoring system. Overall, 73.4% of the patients received rituximab as their first-line therapy. The most commonly used chemotherapy was the CHOP-like (cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunomycin, oncovin, and prednisone) regimen (45.2%), followed by high-dose cytarabine-containing chemotherapy (31.3%) and bendamustine (3.3%). Of the patients, 13.7% (n = 71) underwent consolidative autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), and 19.3% (n = 100) received novel agents containing first-line regimens. With a median follow-up time of 52 months, the 3- and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 73.7% and 61.4%, respectively. Age ≤60 years, ECOG PS 0–1, stages I–II, normal lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), absence of bone marrow involvement, Ki67 <30%, and lower-risk IPI/MIPI scores were significantly associated with improved OS (p < 0.05). The inclusion of rituximab improved the 5-year OS, with borderline significance (62.5% vs. 55.2%, p = 0.076). High-dose cytarabine-containing chemotherapy showed significant clinical benefit in 5-year OS (72.1% vs. 55.9%, p = 0.010). Patients with ASCT had better 5-year OS in the younger (≤60 years) age group (87.2% vs. 64.8%, p = 0.002).ConclusionThis large retrospective dataset unequivocally confirmed the survival advantage afforded by cytarabine-containing regimen and ASCT in a first-line setting under real-world management in the rituximab era.

RSC Advances ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 1813-1833
Tariq Almubarak ◽  
Jun Hong Ng ◽  
Raja Ramanathan ◽  
Hisham A. Nasr-El-Din

In this review, we discuss how chelating agents and their products can cause corrosion and how it goes through the oilfield cycle including thermal, photo, and biodegradation.

OBJECTIVE Quadrigeminal cistern arachnoid cysts (QACs) are congenital lesions that can cause pineal region compression and obstructive hydrocephalus when sufficiently large. Management of these cysts is controversial and rates of reintervention are high. Given the limited data on the management of QACs, the authors retrospectively reviewed 20 years of cases managed at their institution and performed a literature review on this topic. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective analysis of patients treated for QAC at their institution between 2001 and 2021. They also performed a literature review of studies published between 1980 and 2021 that reported at least 5 patients treated for QACs. Patient characteristics, radiographic findings, management course, and postoperative follow-up data were collected and analyzed. RESULTS A total of 12 patients treated for a QAC at the authors’ institution met the inclusion criteria for analysis. Median age was 9 months, mean cyst size was 5.1 cm, and 83% of patients had hydrocephalus. Initial treatment was endoscopic fenestration in 92% of these patients, 27% of whom had an endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) performed concurrently. Reintervention was required in 42% of patients. Cases that required reintervention had a statistically significant lower median age at the initial intervention (5 months) than the cases that did not require reintervention (24.33 months; p = 0.018). There were no major complications. At a mean follow-up of 5.42 years, 83% of patients had improvement or resolution of their symptoms. A literature review revealed 7 studies that met the inclusion criteria, totaling 108 patients with a mean age of 8.8 years. Eighty-seven percent of patients had hydrocephalus at presentation. Ninety-two percent of patients were initially treated with endoscopic fenestration, 44% of whom underwent concurrent ETV. Complications occurred in 17.6% of cases, and reintervention was required in 30.6% of cases. The most frequent reason for reintervention was untreated or unresolved hydrocephalus after the initial procedure. CONCLUSIONS Endoscopic fenestration is the most common treatment for QACs. While generally safe and effective, there is a high rate of reintervention after initial treatment of QACs, which may be associated with a younger age at the first intervention. Additionally, identifying patients who require initial treatment of hydrocephalus is critically important, as the literature suggests that untreated hydrocephalus is a common cause of reintervention.

2021 ◽  
Edward Kim

This is a summary of a review article that looked at how people from different ethnic populations respond differently to treatments for a type of lung cancer called non-small cell lung cancer (also known as NSCLC). EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (often shortened to EGFR TKI treatments) are a form of treatment for NSCLC called EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC. There are currently five EGFR TKI treatments available, which are categorized based on when they were developed. First-generation EGFR TKI treatments were developed first, followed by second-generation and then third-generation. As different people respond differently to treatments, this review looked at data from clinical studies to investigate how first-, second- and third-generation EGFR TKIs are used to treat people with NSCLC from different ethnicities. The results showed that second- and third-generation EGFR TKIs work better in treating people with NSCLC than first-generation TKIs in both Asian and non-Asian populations. However, it is still not clear whether second- or third-generation EGFR TKIs should be used as the initial treatment of choice for NSCLC, particularly in Asian patients. In one of the studies (called the FLAURA study), the third-generation EGFR TKI osimertinib improved overall survival (the length of time that patients survived, from first dose of treatment to death) when compared to first-generation EGFR TKIs. However, this was only seen in non-Asian people with NSCLC and not in Asian people with NSCLC. Saving osimertinib for second-line use (i.e., after the initial treatment has stopped working or becomes ineffective) may increase the duration of chemotherapy-free treatment, particularly in Asian patients.

2021 ◽  
Takashi Shigeno ◽  
Akihiro Hoshino ◽  
Shiho Matsunaga ◽  
Rumi Shimano ◽  
Naoya Ishibashi ◽  

Abstract BackgroundTreatment for regional lymph node recurrence after initial treatment for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) differs among institutions. Though some retrospective cohort studies have shown that lymphadenectomy for cervical lymph node recurrence is safe and leads to long-term survival, the efficacy remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the long-term outcomes of patients who underwent lymphadenectomy for regional recurrence after treatment for ESCC.Patients and methodsWe retrieved 20 cases in which lymphadenectomy was performed for lymph node recurrence after initial treatment for ESCC in our hospital from January 2003 to December 2016. Initial treatments included esophagectomy, endoscopic resection (ER) and chemoradiotherapy/chemotherapy (CRT/CT). Overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) after lymphadenectomy were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. We also used a univariate analysis with a Cox proportional hazards model to determine factors influencing the long-term outcomes.ResultsThe 5-year OS and RFS of patients who underwent secondary lymphadenectomy for recurrence after initial treatment were 55.0% and 35.3%, respectively. The 5-year overall survival rates of patients who received esophagectomy, ER and CRT/CT as initial treatments, were 45.5%, 80.0% and 50.0%, respectively. The 5-year OS rates of patients with pStage I and pStage II-IVB lymph node recurrence were 75.0% and 41.7%, respectively.ConclusionsLymphadenectomy for regional recurrence after initial treatment for ESCC is effective to some degree. Patients with regional recurrence after initial treatment for Stage I ESCC have a good prognosis; thus, lymphadenectomy should be considered for these cases.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (4) ◽  
pp. 1739-45
Solomon Kibudde ◽  
Bruce James Kirenga ◽  
Martin Nabwana ◽  
Fred Okuku ◽  
Victoria Walusansa ◽  

Introduction: Lung cancer is a major global public health burden constituting 11.6% of all new cancer diagnoses and 18.4% of all cancer-related mortality. Purpose: To describe the clinical profile and initial treatment of non-small cell lung cancer in Uganda. Methods: We reviewed charts of a cohort of patients with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer, treated between January 2013 and November 2015 at the Uganda Cancer Institute. Results: A total of 74 patients met the inclusion criteria. The median age was 56 years (IQR 47-70), with 16.2% below the age 45 years, and 51% were female. Only 10 percent were active smokers and the most frequent histological subtype was adenocarcinoma (71%). The majority (91.9%) had stage IV disease at diagnosis and frequent metastases to contralateral lung, liver, and bones. Twenty-seven (27) patients received platinum-based chemotherapy, while 27 patients received erlotinib, and only 4 patients received palliative thoracic radiotherapy. The median survival time was 12.4 months, and the overall response rate was 32.7%. There was no survival difference by type of systemic treatment, and on multivariate analysis, poor performance status was predictive of adverse outcomes (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Patients with non-small cell lung cancer in Uganda frequently presented with late-stage disease at diagnosis. The majority of patients were female, never-smokers, and had predominantly adenocarcinoma subtype. Keywords: Non-small cell lung cancer; Uganda; erlotinib; lung cancer; Uganda Cancer Institute.

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