platinum based chemotherapy
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Akito Fukuda ◽  
Yusuke Okuma ◽  
Taiki Hakosaki ◽  
Kie Mirokuji ◽  
Makiko Yomota ◽  

Platinum-based chemotherapy is the de facto standard treatment for metastatic or unresectable thymic carcinoma. The optimal chemotherapy regimen has not yet been determined, including whether this should be combined with a second- or third-generation anti-cancer agent. We retrospectively evaluated the data of patients with metastatic or unresectable thymic carcinoma who were treated with a combination of cisplatin and irinotecan as first-line chemotherapy between 2002 and 2021 (trial registration UMIN000012175). The primary endpoint was response rate according to the RECIST criteria version 1.1. Secondary endpoints were disease control rate, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity (adverse events). Some patients analyzed in this study were also included in the previous trial, which was terminated early. For this analysis, we included 18 patients with a median age of 56 years and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1. All patients had clinical stage IVa or IVb thymic carcinoma according to the Masaoka-Koga staging system. The response rate was 44% and the disease control rate was 89%. The median PFS was 8.4 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.7–11.6 months) and the median OS was 45.6 months (95% CI: 15.7–69.1 months). Grade 3 or worse hematological toxicity was observed in 5 patients and grade 3 or worse non-hematological toxicity was observed in 3 patients. None of the patients developed febrile neutropenia, and no treatment-related deaths occurred. Thus, the combination of cisplatin and irinotecan as first-line chemotherapy for metastatic thymic carcinoma showed efficacy and acceptable toxicity.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 378
Alejandra Bernardini ◽  
Marta Dueñas ◽  
María Cruz Martín-Soberon ◽  
Carolina Rubio ◽  
Cristian Suarez-Cabrera ◽  

Background and Aims: Metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) remains an incurable disease with limited treatment options after platinum-based chemotherapy and immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). Vinflunine has shown a modest increase in overall survival and remains a therapeutic option for chemo- and immunotherapy refractory tumours. However, biomarkers that could identify responding patients to vinflunine and possible alternative therapies after failure to treatment are still missing. In this study, we aimed to identify potential genomic biomarkers of vinflunine response in mUC patient samples and potential management alternatives. Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of mUC patients (n = 23) from three university hospitals in Spain were used for genomic targeted-sequencing and transcriptome (using the Immune Profile panel by NanoString) analyses. Patients who received vinflunine after platinum-based chemotherapy failure were classified in non-responders (NR: progressive disease ≤ 3 months; n= 11) or responders (R: response ≥ 6 months; n = 12). Results: Genomic characterization revealed that the most common alteration, TP53 mutations, had comparable frequency in R (6/12; 50%) and NR (4/11; 36%). Non-synonymous mutations in KTM2C (4/12; 33.3%), PIK3CA (3/12; 25%) and ARID2 (3/12; 25%) were predominantly associated with response. No significant difference was observed in tumour mutational burden (TMB) between R and NR patients. The NR tumours showed increased expression of diverse immune-related genes and pathways, including various interferon gamma-related genes. We also identified increased MAGEA4 expression as a potential biomarker of non-responding tumours to vinflunine treatment. Conclusions: Our data may help to identify potential genomic biomarkers of response to vinflunine. Moreover, tumours refractory to vinflunine showed immune signatures potentially associated with response to ICB. Extensive validation studies, including longitudinal series, are needed to corroborate these findings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 321-336
Antonia Pagkali ◽  
Ioannis Mamais ◽  
Adamantios Michalinos ◽  
Aris P. Agouridis

Background: Patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), treated with niraparib maintenance, present with haematological and gastrointestinal toxicities. Limited data exist on niraparib safety assessment. Objective: To evaluate niraparib safety profile, as maintenance therapy, in women with platinum-sensitive EOC. Methods: PubMed and Cochrane searches were carried out up to April 2021 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating niraparib versus placebo in EOC patients with a response to platinum-based chemotherapy. Regarding the meta-analysis, for dichotomous data, the pooled risk ratio (RR) was calculated. Results: A total of 1539 patients from three RCTs revealed that niraparib-treated patients are associated with a significantly higher risk of any grade of nausea (RR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.86 to 2.48), fatigue (RR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.52, p < 0.00001), anemia (RR, 6.86; 95% CI, 2.54 to 18.52, p = 0.0001), thrombocytopenia (RR, 7.02; 95% CI, 1.68 to 29.38, p < 0.00001), vomiting (RR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.50 to 4.19, p = 0.0005), neutropenia (RR, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.13 to 7.73, p < 0.00001), headache (RR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.57 to 2.74, p < 0.00001), constipation (RR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.72 to 2.57, p < 0.00001) and insomnia (RR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.52 to 2.89, p = 0.0003) when compared with placebo. For grade 3 or 4 adverse effects, significantly higher risk was only noted for fatigue (RR,6.25; 95% CI, 1.70 to 23.05, p = 0.006), anemia (RR, 16.23; 95% CI, 4.86 to 54.17, p < 0.00001), thrombocytopenia (RR, 35.12; 95% CI, 12.23 to 100.82, p < 0.00001) and neutropenia episodes (RR, 6.35; 95% CI, 2.08 to 19.39, p = 0.001) for those taking niraparib. Notably, incidents of adverse effects and discontinuation rates were substantially lower among patients treated with an individualised niraparib dose than those treated with the standard one. Efficacy was not reduced, and no treatment-related deaths occurred during the included trials. Conclusion: Niraparib is considered an effective and well-tolerated choice, with an improved safety profile, for the maintenance treatment of EOC patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (6) ◽  
pp. 69-77
E. M. Frantsiyants ◽  
T. I. Moiseenko ◽  
D. Yu. Yakubova ◽  
N. D. Cheryarina ◽  
A. P. Menshenina ◽  

Introduction. Recently, the he-4 protein has received great attention due to its diagnostic and prognostic abilities in epithelial ovarian cancer. In addition to its diagnostic value, this protein is involved in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. Another significant pathogenetic factor is the vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) which plays a key role in neoangiogenesis. The purpose of the study focused on the analysis of he-4 and vegf-a levels in tissues of ovarian cancer, in healthy contralateral ovaries and in common metastatic tumors in the omentum and peritoneum to determine the place and role of these tumor markers at the stages of carcinogenesis. Material and methods. The study was performed using the abovementioned tissues of 93 patients with t2-3nхm0-1 ovarian cancer. 51 patients underwent surgery followed by chemotherapy. 42 patients received initial neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery and adjuvant cytostatic therapy. Tissue samples from 17 patients with benign diseases were used as the control for determining the reference values for he-4 and vegf-a. A comparison was made between groups of patients with and without neoadjuvant therapy, as well as in groups of patients depending on the effectiveness of cytostatic treatment. Results. The levels of he-4 in primary and metastatic tissues affected and not affected by cancer were initially elevated in patients with ovarian cancer. The chemotherapy effectiveness directly correlated with the level of he-4 reduction, which did not change or increased in tumors resistant to medical treatment. The level of vegf-a significantly differed in cancer and non-cancer tissues, which indicated its significant pathogenetic effect not “before”, but at the stages of morphological malignization. The dynamics of vegf-a decrease in this study did not depend on the chemotherapy effect. Conclusion. The he-4 marker is a pathognomonic factor in the development of ovarian cancer, preceding morphological signs of malignancy and reflecting the effectiveness of chemotherapy, while vegf-a is most likely a consequence of the cancer development.

2022 ◽  
Pratibha S. Binder ◽  
Yassar M. Hashim ◽  
James Cripe ◽  
Tommy Buchanan ◽  
Abigail Zamorano ◽  

Abstract Background: Ovarian cancer is initially responsive to frontline chemotherapy. Unfortunately, it often recurs and becomes resistant to available therapies and the survival rate for advanced and recurrent ovarian cancer is unacceptably low. We thus hypothesized that it would be possible to achieve more durable treatment responses by combining cisplatin chemotherapy with SW IV-134, a cancer-targeted peptide mimetic and inducer of cell death. SW IV-134 is a recently developed small molecule conjugate linking a sigma-2 ligand with a peptide analog (mimetic) of the intrinsic death pathway activator SMAC (second-mitochondria activator of caspases). The sigma-2 receptor is overexpressed in ovarian cancer and the sigma-2 ligand portion of the conjugate facilitates cancer selectivity. The effector portion of the conjugate is expected to synergize with cisplatin chemotherapy and the cancer selectivity is expected to reduce putative off-target toxicities. Methods: Ovarian cancer cell lines were treated with cisplatin alone, SW IV-134 alone and a combination of the two drugs. Treatment efficacy was determined using luminescent cell viability assays. Caspase-3/7,-8 and-9 activities were measured as complementary indicators of death pathway activation. Syngeneic mouse models and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models of human ovarian cancer were studied for response to SW IV-134 and cisplatin monotherapy as well as combination therapy. Efficacy of the therapy was measured by tumor growth rate and survival as the primary readouts. Potential drug related toxicities were assessed at necropsy. Results: The combination treatment was consistently superior in multiple cell lines when compared to the single agents in vitro. The expected mechanism of tumor cell death, such as caspase activation, was confirmed using luminescent and flow cytometry-based assay systems. Combination therapy proved to be superior in both syngeneic and PDX-based murine models of ovarian cancer. Most notably, combination therapy resulted in a complete resolution of established tumors in all study animals in a patient-derived xenograft model of ovarian cancer. Conclusions: The addition of SW IV-134 in combination with cisplatin chemotherapy represents a promising treatment option that warrants further pre-clinical development and evaluation as a therapy for women with advanced ovarian cancer.

Yonglin Yi ◽  
Zhengang Qiu ◽  
Zifu Yao ◽  
Anqi Lin ◽  
Yimin Qin ◽  

Platinum-based chemotherapy is the first-line treatment for small cell lung cancer (SCLC). However, due to patients developing a resistance to the drug, most experience relapse and their cancer can become untreatable. A large number of recent studies have found that platinum drug sensitivity of various cancers is affected by specific gene mutations, and so with this study, we attempted to find an effective genetic biomarker in SCLC patients that indicates their sensitivity to platinum-based drugs. To do this, we first analyzed whole exome sequencing (WES) and clinical data from two cohorts to find gene mutations related to the prognosis and to the platinum drug sensitivity of SCLC patients. The cohorts used were the Zhujiang cohort (N = 138) and the cohort reported by George et al. (N = 101). We then carried out gene set variation analysis (GSVA) and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to investigate possible molecular mechanisms through which these gene mutations affect patient prognosis and platinum drug sensitivity. We found that for SCLC patients, CAMSAP1 mutation can activate anti-tumor immunity, mediate tumor cell apoptosis, inhibit epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), improve prognosis, and improve platinum drug sensitivity, suggesting that CAMSAP1 mutation may be a potential biomarker indicating platinum drug sensitivity and patient prognosis in SCLC.

2022 ◽  
Sirinoot Palapinyo ◽  
Jettanong Klaewsongkram ◽  
Virote Sriuranp ◽  
Nutthada Areepium

Abstract PurposeWe explored the clinical data of colorectal cancer patients treated with oxaliplatin-based regimen to determine the incidence, severity, and risk factors of oxaliplatin-related hypersensitivity reaction (HSR). MethodThis retrospective study investigated 245 colorectal cancer patients (1,690 treatment cycles) receiving care at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thai Red Cross society between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2019. The patients’ demographic data, laboratory data, and clinical features suggesting hypersensitivity reactions to oxaliplatin were reviewed. The Fisher’s Exact test and unpaired t-test were used to determine the differences among patients with and without oxaliplatin HSR. The potential risk factors for oxaliplatin HSR were analyzed for statistical significance by logistic regression.Results A total of 245 colorectal cancer patients (1,690 treatment cycles) were included in this study. The incidence of oxaliplatin HSR was 37.96%, according to the NCI-CTCAE v.5, (grade 1, grade 2, and higher grades were 27.35% (67 patients), 6.53% (16 patients), and 4.08% (10 patients), respectively). The proportion of male patients and patients with history of prior exposure to platinum-based chemotherapy were statistically higher in the HSR group. The eosinophil count and serum creatinine level were also significantly greater in the HSR group. On the contrary, the total lymphocyte count and serum albumin level were significantly lower in the HSR group. The multivariate logistic regression found 5 risk factors with significant difference. Male gender, prior exposure to platinum-based chemotherapy, and elevated eosinophil count were associated with increased risk of oxaliplatin HSR, whereas elevated monocyte count and elevated serum albumin were protective factors for the development of oxaliplatin HSR. ConclusionColorectal cancer patients treated with oxaliplatin-based regimen with male gender, prior exposure to platinum-based chemotherapy, and elevated eosinophil count have a greater risk of oxaliplatin related hypersensitivity reactions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sandra van Wilpe ◽  
Mark A. J. Gorris ◽  
Lieke L. van der Woude ◽  
Shabaz Sultan ◽  
Rutger H. T. Koornstra ◽  

Checkpoint inhibitors targeting PD-(L)1 induce objective responses in 20% of patients with metastatic urothelial cancer (UC). CD8+ T cell infiltration has been proposed as a putative biomarker for response to checkpoint inhibitors. Nevertheless, data on spatial and temporal heterogeneity of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in advanced UC are lacking. The major aims of this study were to explore spatial heterogeneity for lymphocyte infiltration and to investigate how the immune landscape changes during the disease course. We performed multiplex immunohistochemistry to assess the density of intratumoral and stromal CD3+, CD8+, FoxP3+ and CD20+ immune cells in longitudinally collected samples of 49 UC patients. Within these samples, spatial heterogeneity for lymphocyte infiltration was observed. Regions the size of a 0.6 tissue microarray core (0.28 mm2) provided a representative sample in 60.6 to 71.6% of cases, depending on the cell type of interest. Regions of 3.30 mm2, the median tumor surface area in our biopsies, were representative in 58.8 to 73.8% of cases. Immune cell densities did not significantly differ between untreated primary tumors and metachronous distant metastases. Interestingly, CD3+, CD8+ and FoxP3+ T cell densities decreased during chemotherapy in two small cohorts of patients treated with neoadjuvant or palliative platinum-based chemotherapy. In conclusion, spatial heterogeneity in advanced UC challenges the use of immune cell infiltration in biopsies as biomarker for response prediction. Our data also suggests a decrease in tumor-infiltrating T cells during platinum-based chemotherapy.

BMC Cancer ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Soo Jin Park ◽  
Suk-Joon Chang ◽  
Dong Hoon Suh ◽  
Tae Wook Kong ◽  
Heekyoung Song ◽  

Abstract Background PHI-101 is an orally available, selective checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) inhibitor. PHI-101 has shown anti-tumour activity in ovarian cancer cell lines and impaired DNA repair pathways in preclinical experiments. Furthermore, the in vivo study suggests the synergistic effect of PHI-101 through combination with PARP inhibitors for ovarian cancer treatment. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the safety and tolerability of PHI-101 in platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer. Methods Chk2 inhibitor for Recurrent EpitheliAl periToneal, fallopIan, or oVarian cancEr (CREATIVE) trial is a prospective, multi-centre, phase IA dose-escalation study. Six cohorts of dose levels are planned, and six to 36 patients are expected to be enrolled in this trial. Major inclusion criteria include ≥ 19 years with histologically confirmed epithelial ovarian cancer, fallopian tube carcinoma, or primary peritoneal cancer. Also, patients who showed disease progression during platinum-based chemotherapy or disease progression within 24 weeks from completion of platinum-based chemotherapy will be included, and prior chemotherapy lines of more than five will be excluded. The primary endpoint of this study is to determine the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of PHI-101. Discussion PHI-101 is the first orally available Chk2 inhibitor, expected to show effectiveness in treating recurrent ovarian cancer. Through this CREATIVE trial, DLT and MTD of this new targeted therapy can be confirmed to find the recommended dose for the phase II clinical trial. This study may contribute to developing a new combination regimen for the treatment of ovarian cancer. Trial registration Identifier: NCT04678102.

2022 ◽  
pp. 20-24
E. V. Evdokimova ◽  
E. V. Artamonova ◽  
V. V. Delectorskaya ◽  
G. Yu. Chemeris ◽  
G. S. Emelyanova ◽  

Considering the fact that the group of neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) grade 3 is heterogenous, in the year of 2017 a new subgroup of welldifferentiated neuroendocrine tumors grade 3 (NETs G3) was described. NETs G3 are tumors with more favorable prognosis and less sensitive to platinum-based chemotherapy regimens than NECs, they also have peculiar morphogenetical qualities: lower ki‑67 index (mean 35.0 %), higher somatostatin receptors expression, absence of DAXX/ATRX/MEN 1 genes mutation, p53 expression in the absence of TP53 mutation. Nowadays treatment standard for NETs G3 subgroup is still remain unclear due to lack of prospective clinical trials. At the same time taking in note historical retrospective data, NETs G3 should be treated in line with NETs G1/G2 and only patients with higher ki‑67 index can be treated as NECs with platinum-based chemotherapy. In our non-randomised phase II prospective trial, we accessed the efficacy of different chemotherapy regimens in combination with somatostatin analogues in new NETs G3 subgroup. 153 patients with IHC-confirmed neuroendocrine neoplasm diagnose were included: NETs G3 n = 53 mean ki‑67 36.4 % [21.0–60.0 %], NETs G2 n = 50 mean ki‑67 15.7 % [2.1–20.0 %], NECs n = 50 mean ki‑67 69.0 % [38.0–96.0 %]). Patients from NETs G3 subgroup received 4 chemotherapy regimens: Aranose (n = 19), Aranose (arabinopiranosilmethyl nitrosocarbamide, ALK, – cytostatic drug with a chemical structure similar to Streptozotocin and Nitrosomethylurea, approved in Russian Federation for melanoma and welldifferentiated neuroendocrine tumors treatment), XELOX (n = 8), TemCAP (n = 11), EP/EC (n = 10). mPFS in Aranose-subgroup was 19.3 ± 5.9 months (95 % CI: 7.7–30.8), in XELOX – 10.8 ± 3.6 months (3.7–17.8), in TemCAP – 14.8 ± 4.2 months (6.6–23.1) and in platinum-based regimens – 4.4 ± 1.9 months (0.6–8.2) (p = 0.01). DCR in Aranose subgroup was 73.6 % and ORR – 36.8 %, PDR – 21.1 %, in XELOX subgroup ORR was 62.5 %, SDR was 50.0 % and PDR – 25.0 %, in TemCAP subgroup DCR was 63.6 %, ORR – 9.1 %, PDR – 18.2 % and in platinum-based regimens SDR was 40.0 %, PDR – 50.0 % (p = 0.05).

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document