post traumatic stress
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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Debojyoti Dhar

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major pandemic facing the world today caused by SARS-CoV-2 which has implications on our mental health as well. The uncertain future, fear of job loss, lockdown and negative news all around have taken a heavy toll on the mental health of individuals from across the world. Stress and anxiety can affect the COVID-19 patients even more. Recent study suggests COVID-19 infection may lead to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Certain prebiotics and probiotics have been shown to have anxiolytic effect through gut microbiota modulation. Incidentally, preliminary report also suggests a differential microbial profile in COVID-19 patients as compared to healthy individuals. Gut microbiota’s role in anxiety and depression is well studied. The importance of the “gut-brain” axis has been implicated in overall mental health. It is known that diet, environmental factors and genetics play an important role in shaping gut microbiota. Trials may be initiated to study if personalized diet and supplementation based on individual’s gut microbiome profile may improve the general mental well-being of people prone to anxiety during this pandemic. Also, COVID-19 patients may be provided personalized nutritional therapy based on their gut microbiota profile to see if PTSD and anxiety symptoms can be alleviated.

Biswajit Sharma ◽  
K. Mukhopadhyay

The COVID-19 pandemic has had an influence on people's physical, emotional, and social health all across the world. Due to mental health issues that resulted in anxiety, sadness, and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms among a variety of demographic groups, including healthcare staff, the general public, patients, and those who were confined. Yoganidra Meditation is an excellent meditative relaxation method for relieving stress and tension and achieving profound psychological and physiological benefits. According to studies, Yognidra can also be utilized as a therapeutic approach to treat psychological problems such as anxiety, anger, and sleeplessness, as well as psychosomatic illnesses such as asthma, coronary heart disease, cancer, and hypertension. The purpose of the study is to critically analyze the findings of other researchers on the application of Yognidra to reliving the stress of an individual. The study is a conceptual and qualitative Meta-analysis, and it deals with global stress management.

Tali M. Ball ◽  
Lisa A. Gunaydin

AbstractAvoiding stimuli that predict danger is required for survival. However, avoidance can become maladaptive in individuals who overestimate threat and thus avoid safe situations as well as dangerous ones. Excessive avoidance is a core feature of anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This avoidance prevents patients from confronting maladaptive threat beliefs, thereby maintaining disordered anxiety. Avoidance is associated with high levels of psychosocial impairment yet is poorly understood at a mechanistic level. Many objective laboratory assessments of avoidance measure adaptive avoidance, in which an individual learns to successfully avoid a truly noxious stimulus. However, anxiety disorders are characterized by maladaptive avoidance, for which there are fewer objective laboratory measures. We posit that maladaptive avoidance behavior depends on a combination of three altered neurobehavioral processes: (1) threat appraisal, (2) habitual avoidance, and (3) trait avoidance tendency. This heterogeneity in underlying processes presents challenges to the objective measurement of maladaptive avoidance behavior. Here we first review existing paradigms for measuring avoidance behavior and its underlying neural mechanisms in both human and animal models, and identify how existing paradigms relate to these neurobehavioral processes. We then propose a new framework to improve the translational understanding of maladaptive avoidance behavior by adapting paradigms to better differentiate underlying processes and mechanisms and applying these paradigms in clinical populations across diagnoses with the goal of developing novel interventions to engage specific identified neurobehavioral targets.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 415
Catherine A. McCall ◽  
Nathaniel F. Watson

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often co-morbid with implications for disease severity and treatment outcomes. OSA prevalence is higher in PTSD sufferers than in the general population, with a likely bidirectional effect of the two illnesses. There is substantial evidence to support the role that disturbed sleep may play in the pathophysiology of PTSD. Sleep disturbance associated with OSA may interfere with normal rapid eye movement (REM) functioning and thus worsen nightmares and sleep-related movements. Conversely, hyperarousal and hypervigilance symptoms of PTSD may lower the arousal threshold and thus increase the frequency of sleep fragmentation related to obstructive events. Treating OSA not only improves OSA symptoms, but also nightmares and daytime symptoms of PTSD. Evidence suggests that positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy reduces PTSD symptoms in a dose-dependent fashion, but also presents challenges to tolerance in the PTSD population. Alternative OSA treatments may be better tolerated and effective for improving both OSA and PTSD. Further research avenues will be introduced as we seek a better understanding of this complex relationship.

2022 ◽  
Mustafa Ali ◽  
Teresia Mutavi ◽  
Muthoni Mathai ◽  
John Mburu

Abstract Background Nearly three decades of conflict and frequent droughts and environmental hardships, have left 2.6 million of Somalis in displacement camps. Even though psychological impact of war and natural disasters are well documented, little is known about the unseen scars of psychological trauma in Internally displaced persons in Somalia. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression amongst internally displaced persons (IDPs), and examine association between displacement and these psychiatric conditions. Methodology A cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted among 406 IDPs in Mogadishu. Harvard Trauma Questionnaire was used to determine levels of trauma exposure and PTSD, and Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 was used to estimate prevalence of depression. Multivariate and bivariate analysis was conducted to analyze the association of demographic and displacement variables on the outcomes of PTSD and depression. Results More than half (59%) of participants met the symptom criteria of depression, and nearly one third (32%) of respondents met the symptom criteria for PTSD. The most prevalent traumatic event was lack of food or water (80.2%). Important predictive factors in development of psychiatric morbidity were unemployment, cumulative traumatic exposure, frequency and duration of displacement. Conclusion The study revealed high levels of Depressive disorder and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among internally displaced persons in Mogadishu. Furthermore, this study provided evidence to IDPs’ susceptibility to trauma exposure and lack of essential services and goods. Study also highlighted the importance of provision of Mental Health and Psychosocial Support (MHPSS) service in IDP camps.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-22
Claudia Carmassi ◽  
Annalisa Cordone ◽  
Carlo Antonio Bertelloni ◽  
Andrea Cappelli ◽  
Virginia Pedrinelli ◽  

2022 ◽  
Seçil Bülbül ◽  
Serin Işiaçik ◽  

Ontological well-being adopts a holistic perspective on well-being similar to the narrative psychology when analyzing life histories by referring to past, present, and future aspects of one's life. Relatedly, the self-memory view proposes that life events are self-evaluated. Based on the narrative psychology and self-memory approach, affective life events and emotions are processed in the memory and play a role in structuring self-perceptions and psychological well-being. Therefore, turbulent external conditions such as the pandemic, uncertain environments and socio-economic challenges may lead to traumatic experiences for individuals. Being exposed to traumatic events and experiencing post-traumatic stress harms mental health, well-being, and work performance. This study aims to examine the relationship between traumatic life experiences and ontological well-being within the period of COVID 19 pandemic. It is intended to reveal the impact of traumatic experiences on ontological well-being of individuals in work life. A cross-sectional study was utilized throughout an online survey with the participation of 270 employees working in various private organizations. Following the statistical analyses, the findings were evaluated and both conceptual and practical discussions were provided.

2022 ◽  
Charlotte Elizabeth Hall ◽  
Joanna Milward ◽  
Cristina Spoiala ◽  
Jaskiran Kaur Bhogal ◽  
Dale Weston ◽  

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic generated a surge of critically ill patients greater than the NHS capacity. Additionally there have been multiple well-documented impacts associated with the national COVID-19 pandemic surge on ICU workers including an increased prevalence of mental health disorders on a scale potentially sufficient to impair high-quality care delivery. Aim: To identify prevalence of probable mental health disorders, functional impairment and establish demographic and professional predictors of probable mental health disorders, and functional impairment, in ICU staff between November 2020 to April 2021. Methods: English ICU staff were surveyed before, during and after the winter 2020/2021 surge using a survey which comprised of validated measures of mental health. Results: 6080 surveys were completed, by nurses (57.5%), doctors (27.9%), and other healthcare staff (14.5%). Reporting probable mental health disorders increased from 51% (prior to), to 64% (during) and then dropped to 46% (after) the peak. Younger, less experienced and nursing staff were most likely to report probable mental health disorders. Additionally, during and after the winter, over 50% of participants met threshold criteria for functional impairment. Staff who reported probable post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety or depression were more likely to meet threshold criteria for functional impairment. Conclusions: The winter of 2020/2021 was associated with an increase in poor mental health outcomes and functional impairment during a period of peak caseload. These effects are likely to impact on patient care outcomes and the longer-term resilience of the healthcare workforce.

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